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Full text of "The psychology of advertising in theory and practice; a simple exposition of the principles of psychology in their relation to successful advertising"

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THE AU^Oi^l^.^ 
PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 
IN THEORY AND 
PRACTICE 

A SIMPLE EXPOSITION OF 

THE PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOLOGY 

IN THEIR RELATION TO 

SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING 

By 

WALTER DILL SCOTT, Ph.D. 

Professor of Applied Psychology and Director of the Psychological Laboratory, 
Northwestern University; President of the Scott Company, Associate 
Director of the Bureau of Salesmanship Research, Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Technology, Former President of the National 
Association of Advertising Teachers, Colonel, U.S.R.; 

Author of 

" The Psychology of Public Speaking," 

*' Increasing Human EflSciency in Business," 

" Influencing Men in Business." 




BOSTON 

SMALL, MAYNARD & COMPANY 

PUBLISHERS 



Copyright, 1902-1903 

By WALTER DILL SCOTT 

Copyright, 1908, 1910, 1921 

By small, MAYNARD & COMPANY 

(incorporated) O^ 



«^A X 



y^<jj 



\ 



THE AUTHOR RESPECTFULLY DEDICATES THIS VOLUME TO THAT 
INCREASING NUMBER OF AMERICAN BUSINESS MEN WHO 
SUCCESSFULLY APPLY SCIENCE WHERE THEIR PREDECESSORS 
WERE CONFINED TO CuSTOM. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

I. Introduction 1 

II. Perception 6 

III. Apperception 19 

IV. Illusions of Perception . 31 

V. Illusions of Apperception 41 

VI. Personal Differences in Mental Imagery 56 

VII. Practical Application of Mental Imagery 67 

VIII. Association of Ideas 86 

IX. Fusion 96 

X. Memory Ill 

XI. The Feelings and the Emotions 12^ 

XII. Appeals to the Customer's Sympathy 137 

XIII. Human Instincts . 149 

XIV. Suggestion 173 

XV. The Will : an Analysis 186 

XVI. The Will : Variety in Action 197 

XVII. Habit .215 

XVIII. The Habit of Reading Advertisements 222 

XIX. The Direct Command .233 

XX. The Psychological Value of the Return Coupon . . . 247 

XXI. Attention 260 

XXII. Attention Value of Small and of Large Spaces ... 283 

XXIII. The Mortality Rate of Advertisers 302' 

XXIV. The Value of Advertising Space Next to Reading 

Matter 311 

XXV. Psychological Experiment 324 

XXVI. The Psychology of Food Advertising 335 

XXVII. The Laws of Progressive Thinking 358 

XXVIII. The Unconscious Influence in Street Railway Adver- 
tising 366 

XXIX. The Questionnaire Method in Advertising .... 375 

XXX. The Social Service of Advertising . ' 395 

XXXI. Bibliography 409 

V 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS 

PAGE 

Flame Proof Co.— F. P. C. Wax 15, 17 

Whitman's Chocolates 26, 28 

Illusions of Length 32, 33, 35, 36, 367 

Illusions of Size 34, 37 

Illusions of Direction 36 

Munsing and Oneita Underwear 42 

Portable Houses and Fountain Pens 44 

Human Brain 46 

Rabbit-Duck Head 47 

Ambiguous Figures 48, 49, 50, 51 

Emerson Incubator Co - 70 

Vose & Sons Camera Co. . . * 71 

Carola Inner-Player 72 

Blasius Piano 73 

Packard Piano 74 

Irrelevant Food Advertisements 75, 76 

Crawford Shoe 78 

Crossett Shoe . 79 

Omega Oil 81, 82, 83 

Dr. Sleight's Fat Reducing Tablets 104 

Insexdie 105 

Swan Fountain Pen 105 

Petoskey Rug Mfg. and Carpet Co., Ltd. 106 

Wm. M. Walton's Cigars 107 

Racycle 107 

Great Western Cereal Co 108 

Quaker Oats 109 

Vitalized Phosphites 115 

Pompeian Mfg. Co 118 

Gold Dust 119 

Rough on Rats 120 

Buster Brown Stocking Co 121 

Bisected Lines 127 



viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGE 

Square and Rectangle 130 

J. W. Butler Paper Co 134 

Thos. Cook &. Son 138,140 

Hall Chemical Co 141 

Howard Obesity Ointment 142 

Dr. Bull's Cough Syrup 145 

Conklin Pen Co 44, 146 

Pelman School of Memory Training 147 

Karo Com Syrup 154 

American Reserve Bond Co 160 

Stevens Rifles 161 

Golden Fleece Yams 162 

Cream of Wheat 116, 165 

Gage Brothers & Co. — Millinery 167 

Regal Shoe 168 

"What did the Woggle Bug say?" 172 

Lucas Tinted Gloss Paint 179 

Westerfeld's Superior Pound Cakes 180 

Kerr's Studios 180 

Yucatan Gum 181 

Arrow Collars 182 

Calox.— Oxygen Tooth Powder 183 

Hand Sapolio 183 

"Say it with Flowers" 184 

Triscuit. — Natural Food Co 190 

Holbrook's Sauce 191 

Jap-a-lac 178, 192 

"Modern Eloquence" 202 

Cook's Flaked Rice 205 

American Radiator Co 212 

Postum Cereal 213 

Wilson's Outside Venetians 227 

Chicago College of Advertising 228 

George Mills Rogers. — Real Estate 229 

Advertising Schools 239 

Retum Coupons 248, 249, 250, 251, 255 

Ballot Form of Return Coupon 257 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS ix 

PAGE 

Burlington Route 264 

Dr. Slocum's Remedies 265 

Ralston Purina Cereals 270 

Murphy Varnish Co 271 

American Lead Pencil Co 228, 274 

The Press Co., Meriden, Conn 276 

Franklin Mills Flour 278 

Prudential Insurance Co 280 

Packer's Tar Soap 289, 290 

Pears' Soap 203, 298 

New York Central Railroad 299 

American Waltham Watch Co 300 

Railroad Time-Tables . . . . 327, 328 

California Fruit Growers Exchange 336 

Ivory Soap 211, 297, 340 

Chickering Piano 341 

National Biscuit Co. — Nabisco 77, 194, 342 

National Biscuit Co. — Uneeda Biscuit 343 

Franklin Mills Co.— Wheatlet 245, 277, 344 

Franklin Mills Co. — Egg-o-See 348 

Liebig Co.'s Extract of Beef 351 

Armour & Co 352, 353, 357 

White Star Coffee 169, 272, 354 

Korn Krisp 355 

Malt Marrow 357 



I 

INTRODUCTION 

Some good "doctoring" was done when men "picked 
up" their knowledge of medicine from their practice. 
To-day the state laws require that every physician shall 
have a basis of theory for his practical knowledge. He 
must know the exact chemical constituents of the drugs 
used. He must know the anatomy and the physiology of 
the human organism. He must be a theoretical man 
before he can be a practical one. If the laws did not 
prohibit it, he might pick up a good deal in actual experi- 
ence and might do a good deal of excellent work. The 
state laws, however, will not allow us to run chances 
with such people. 

We would not call upon an architect to construct a 
modern office building unless he knew something of the 
theory of architecture. We would not call upon a 
lawyer to defend us before the courts unless he knew 
something of the theory of law. Some states audacities 
require teachers to pass examinations on the theory of 
teaching before they are allowed to give instruction. 

In this day and generation we are not afraid of 
theories, systems, ideals, and imagination. What we do 
avoid is chance, luck, haphazard undertakings, parrot or 
rule-of-thumb action, and the like. We may be willing 
to decide on unimportant things by instinct or by the 
flipping of a coin, but when it comes to the serious things 
of life we want to know that we are trusting to some- 
thing more than mere chance. 

Advertising is a serious thing with the business man 



•2 THE PSYCKOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

of to-day. It is estimated that the business men of the 
United States are spending $800,000,000 a year in 
printed forms of advertising. Furthermore one au- 
thority claims that seventy-five per cent, of all this is 
unprofitable. Every business man is anxious that no 
part of these unprofitable advertisements shall fall to his 
lot. The enormity of the expense, the keenness of com- 
petition, and the great liability of failure have awakened 
the advertising world to the pressing need for some 
basis of assurance in its hazardous undertakings. 

I have attempted to read broadly on the subject of 
advertising ; I have taken an active part in various kinds 
of advertising; I have been in intimate contact with 
manufacturers, salesmen, publishers, professional ad- 
vertisers, etc., and in all that I have read, and in all my 
conversations, I have never seen or heard any reference 
to anything except psychology which could furnish a 
stable foundation for a theory of advertising. Nothing 
else is ever suggested as a possibility. Ordinarily the 
business man does not realize that he means psychology 
when he says that he "must know his customers' wants — 
what will^catch their attention, what will impress them 
and lead them to buy," etc. In all these expressions he 
is saying that he must be a psychologist. He is talking 
about the minds of his customers, and psychology is 
nothing but a stubborn and systematic attempt to under- 
stand and explain the workings of the minds of these 
very people. In Printers^ Ink for October, 1895, ap- 
peared the following editorial : 

Probably when we are a little more enlightened, the adver- 
tising writer, like the teacher, will study psychology. For, 
however diverse their occupation may at first sight appear, the 
advertising writer and the teacher have one great object in 
common — to influence the human mind. The teacher has a 



INTRODUCTION 3 

scientific foundation for Ms work in that direction, but the 
advertising writer is really also a psychologist. Human nature 
is a great factor in advertising success, and he who writes 
advertisements without reference to it is apt to find that he 
has reckoned without his host. 

In Publicity^ March, 1901, appeared an article which 
is even more suggestive than the editorial in Printers^ 
Ink. The following is a quotation from that article : 

The time is not far away when the advertising writer will 
find out the inestimable benefits of a knowledge of psychology. 
The preparation of copy has usually followed the instincts 
rather than the analytical functions. An advertisement has 
been written to describe the articles which it was wished to 
place before the reader; a bit of cleverness, an attractive cut, 
or some other catchy device has been used, with the hope that 
the hit or miss ratio could be made as favorable as possible. 

But the future must needs be full of better methods than 
these to make advertising advance with the same rapidity as 
it has during the latter part of the last century. And this will 
come through a closer knowledge of the psychological composi- 
tion of the mind. The so-called "students of human nature" 
will then be called successful psychologists, and the successful 
advertisers will be likewise termed psychological advertisers. 

The mere mention of psychological terms — habit, self, con- 
ception, discrimination, association, memory, imagination and. 
perception, reason, emotion, instinct, and will — should create 
a flood of new thought that should appeal to every advanced 
consumer of advertising space. 

Previous to the appearance of this article (March, 
1901) there had been no attempt to present psychology 
to the business world in a usable form. As far as the 
advertiser could see all psychologies were written with 
a purely theoretical end in view. They contained a vast 
amount of technical material devoid of interest to the 
layman who struggled through the pages. This condi- 
tion made it quite difficult for the business man to ex- 
tract that part of the subject which was of value to him. 



4 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Several of the leading advertising magazines and ad- 
vertising agencies sought to father a movement which 
would result in such a presentation of the subject of 
psychology that it would be of use to the intelligent 
and practical advertiser. These efforts on the part of 
the advertis'ers were successful in stimulating several 
professional psychologists to co-operate with practical 
advertisers in applying psychology to advertising. 
Psychological laboratories were fitted up to make vari- 
ous tests upon advertisements. Elaborate investigations 
were undertaken and carried through to a successful 
issue. Psychologists turned to the study of advertisings 
in all its phases while, on the other hand, intelligent and 
successful advertisers began to devote attention to a 
systematic study of psychology. Investigators in the 
various parts of the country and among different classes 
of society united in their efforts to solve some of the 
knotty problems which are ever before the business man 
who desires publicity for his commodity. Addresses 
were made before advertising clubs upon the specific 
topic of the psychology of advertising. The leading 
advertising journals in America and Europe sought and 
published articles on the subject. 

The changed attitude of the advertising world be- 
came apparent in a few years. As typical of this change 
should be considered such statements as the following, 
taken from Printers' Ink, the issue of July 24, 1907: 
"Scientific advertising follows the laws of psychology. 
The successful advertiser, either personally or through 
his advertising department, must carefully study psy- 
chology. He must understand how the human mind 
acts. He must know what repels and what attracts. 
He must know what will create an interest and what 
will fall flat. . . . He must be a student of human 



INTRODUCTION 5 

nature, and he must know the laws of the human mind." 
Although italics were not used in the original, the word 
^^must" is here put in italics to draw attention to the 
actual emphasis used by the author. In articles appear- 
ing on the subject before the last few years, all persons 
had spoken of the study of psychology as something 
which might be brought about in the future. At the 
present time the writers are asserting that the success- 
ful advertiser must study psychology and that he must 
do it at once. The Bibliography at the end of this vol- 
ume contains the names of the important contributions 
made to the psychology of advertising during the last 
twenty-four years. 

Although the attitude of the advertising world has 
changed and even though much has been done to pre- 
sent psychology in a helpful form to the advertisers, 
the work of the psychologist is not yet available to the 
business world because the material has not been pre- 
sented in any one accessible place. Contributions are 
scattered through the files of a score of American and 
European publications. Some articles appearing under 
this head are of minor significance, while others are so 
important that they should be collected in a place and 
form such that they would be available to the largest 
possible number of readers. The psychology of adver- 
tising has reached a stage in its development where all 
that has thus far been accomplished should be recon- 
sidered. The worthless should be discarded and the 
valuable brought out into due prominence in systematic 
arrangement. In view of this condition of affairs the 
author has assumed the pleasing task of systematizing 
the subject of the psychology of advertising and of pre- 
senting it in such a form that it will be of distinct 
practical value to all who are interested in business 
promotion. 



6 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



II 

PERCEPTION 

Between our minds and bodies there is the closest 
possible relationship. The basis of this relationship 
is the nervous system. For our present purposes the 
nervous system may be thought of as consisting of 
three parts : the brain, the nerve endings (sense organs), 
and the fibers connecting the brain to these nerve end- 
ings. The brain fills the skull and is about one-fortieth 
of the weight of the entire body. The nerve endings 
are found in the so-called sense organs, that is, the eyes, 
the nose, the mouth, the ears, and the skin, and also 
in the joints and muscles. The nerve fibers are white, 
threadlike bands, which connect each nerve ending with 
a particular part of the brain, e.g., the optic nerve is 
such a bundle of nerve fibers and it connects the various 
nerve endings in the eye with specific portions of the 
back part of the brain. The function of the nervous 
system may be likened to the transmitter, connecting 
wire, and receiver of a telephone. The similarity is 
striking in the case of all the nerve endings, but par- 
ticularly so in the case of the ear. If air waves of a 
certain quality and of sufficient intensity strike against 
the transmitter of a telephone, electric currents are set 
up. They are propagated along the line till they reach 
the receiver. Here they reassume the form of air waves, 
and when heard are what we call sound. If air waves, 
vibrating from fourteen to forty thousand times a sec- 
ond, strike against our ear, a corresponding wave is 



PERCEPTION 7 

propagated along the auditory nerve to the brain, where 
by some unknown process a sensation of sound is awak- 
ened which corresponds to the air wave. It will be 
sufficient to regard this and all other sensations as 
the direct result of the contact of the outer world with 
our nerve endings and particularly with our sense or- 
gans. The more intense the contact the more intense 
the sensation, and the quality of the sensation changes 
with the quality of the contact. 

The first time a child opens its eyes the ether waves 
strike against the retina in which the nerve endings are 
located. Here a current is set up which is propagated 
to the brain. Then a pure sensation of sight occurs. The 
nature of the sensation depends entirely on the nature 
of the light and the current which it sets up. There 
is no recognition of the light, there is no comparison 
of it with other sensations, and no fusing of it into 
former sensations. This is the only really pure sen- 
sation of sight which the child will ever have, for its 
next sensation of sight will be seen in relation to the 
first sensation. It would be affirming too much to say 
that the child recognizes or compares this second sen- 
sation, but it is quite certain that this second sensa- 
tion is to a very limited degree modified because of the 
preceding one. The second experience is added to from 
the previous one and so is not a pure sensation, but is 
a perception. A perception is a fusion of sensations 
with former experiences and embraces comparison, rec- 
ognition, etc. When the term "perception" is used, 
special reference is intended to the sensation or sensa- 
tions which are received through the sense organs and 
which enter into the total product called a perception. 
In the case of a young child, perceptions are largely 
sensational, while former experiences play a small part. 



8 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

When we come into contact with new objects or come 
into new experiences, we depend upon sensations to 
form a large part of our perceptions, and the former 
experiences add relatively a small part to the total 
product. The first time we saw an orange, we saw it 
merely as an object of a particular color. Then we 
touched it, and our perception of it became the per- 
ception of an object with a particular color and a par- 
ticular shape and touch. Then we tasted and smelt 
it, and each of these new sensations added a new ele- 
ment to our perception. Now, as we see an orange in 
the distance, we perceive it as an object having a certain 
color, touch, taste, odor, weight, etc. The only sen- 
sation that we have, as the orange is in the distance, 
is one of sight, but our perception contains these other 
elements which we add from our former experience. 
Little by little the elements added to perception by 
sensation decrease and the elements added by former 
experience increase till we can get a good perception 
of an orange even if it is at a great distance from us 
and if it is in poor light. The process continues and 
we begin to use symbols for the object and our per- 
ceptions are of symbols rather than of objects. One 
of the first symbols to be perceived is the spoken word, 
later the^ picture, and then the printed word. The spoken 
word "orange'' becomes associated with the sight, touch, 
taste, etc., of the fruit. Whenever we hear the word 
"orange" we immediately think of the fruit with its 
special appearance, touch, taste, etc. Our awareness 
of the absent object is called an "idea," awareness of 
objects present to the senses is called a "perception." 
The symbol has no symbolic signification, and becomes 
the object of the sensation itself unless it typifies to 
the persons something which they have met in their 



PERCEPTION 9 

former experience. Thus a Chinese letter is to me no 
symbol, but is a group of lines. As I look at it I re- 
ceive the same sensation that a Chinaman does, but 
the perception is ditferent because he adds more from 
his former experience than I do. The letter awakens 
in his mind an idea of some object or event which is 
symbolized by the letter. The letter awakens in my 
mind no idea because it has not been associated in 
my experience with any object or event. 

A cartoon of Woodrow Wilson awakens in me an 
idea of the man rather than a perception of the few 
curved and straight lines composing the symbolic car- 
toon. 

The distinction between the terms ^^perception" and 
^^idea^' is very small. If an orange is before me, I per- 
ceive the orange. If a symbol of an orange is before 
me, I may merely perceive the symbol that is present 
or the symbol may awaken in my mind an idea of the 
absent orange. 

Whether we are thinking of present or absent ob- 
jects, — whether our thought is in the form of percep- 
tions or of ideas, — it is certain that a large part of our 
thinking is determined by the sensations which come 
to us through eye and ear, and the other sense 
organs. We first become acquainted with objects 
through the sensations which we receive from them, 
and when we think of them afterward we think in terms 
of sensations. If I should try to learn about a new 
kind of fruit which was discovered in Africa, I could 
acquire the knowledge of it in two different ways: I 
could secure some of the fruit and then receive all the 
sensations from it possible. I would look at it, touch 
it, lift it, smell it, bite it, taste it. This would be the 
best way to learn of it. If this were impossible I might 



10 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

read descriptions and see pictures of it and then I 
would think of it (have ideas of it) in terms of touch, 
weight, smell, and taste which were taken from former 
experiences in which similar objects were present to 
my senses. Whether we think by means of perceptions 
or by means of ideas, the original material of thought 
and the forms of thought come to us in sensations. 

The original, easiest, and surest method of acquiring 
knowledge is through perceptions, in which the sen- 
sations play a leading part. In many instances the 
object of thought cannot be present to the senses and, 
furthermore, the processes of thought are made more 
rapid by substituting symbols for the original. Thus, 
early in the history of the race, a spoken language was 
developed in which spoken words were symbols for ob- 
jects of thought. Later, a pictorial writing was in- 
vented in which crude portraits were made to symbolize 
objects. The latest products of civilized humanity in 
this direction are, first, more perfect portraits land, 
second, a form of printed language in which the original 
symbolic spoken word is represented by a sym]t>ol. This 
second form is the most convenient and is the one in 
ordinary use, but it should be observed that our printed 
words are nothing but symbols of symbols. The printed 
word is an uninteresting thing in itself and is only used 
because it assists perception on account of its sim- 
plicity and ease of manipulation. It is easy to de- 
scribe a scene or a commodity and to reduce the 
description to printed form that will be accessible to 
thousands. It would be extremely difficult to deliver 
the scene and the commodity directly to these same 
people. The description and illustration are, however, 
not so clear, distinct, and interesting as is the original 
thing described The great danger with the printed 



PERCEPTION 11 

symbol is that it will lose in perspicuity and interest 
what it gains in convenience. The printed word has 
almost no interest for us in itself. It becomes inter- 
esting only in so far as it symbolizes interesting things 
to us. The more the printed page has to say and the 
easier it is for us to interpret it, the more interesting 
it becomes. 

Whether fortunately or unfortunately, the advertiser 
is compelled to rely on symbols in exploiting what he 
has to offer. He cannot, ordinarily, provide the pos- 
sible customer with that which he has to offer and thus 
allow him to become acquainted with the goods in the 
normal and direct way. He is compelled to substitute 
the symbol for the thing symbolized. He has a choice 
between two kinds of symbols — printed words and pic- 
torial illustrations. 

The first form of writing was picture writing, but 
was abandoned because it was not so convenient as 
are the phonetic characters now in use. Picture writ- 
ing could not be written or read so easily and quickly 
as the writing in the characters now in use and it was 
therefore discarded. According to the standard of ease 
of interpretation, all forms of type must be judged. Type 
forms must not be regarded as a production of artistic 
demands, but as a product of the demands of con- 
venience. Hundreds of styles of "artistic type" have 
been brought forth, but they have not remained in use, for 
they are confusing to the eye and are not artistic in the 
full sense of the term. Those forms of type and of 
illustration best perform their proper functions which 
are so easy of interpretation that they are not noticed 
at all. There is no advantage in emphasizing the sym- 
bol, but there is a great advantage in emphasizing the 
thing symbolized. In using printed forms, the adver- 



12 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

tiser supplies a very small part to the total idea whicli 
lie desires to create, and he should therefore make this 
little mean as much as possible. 

A series of experiments were carried on to determine 
whether white or black type made the more attractive 
display in magazine advertisements. Experiments were 
made with over five hundred persons. The background 
for the white type was gray in some cases, but in most 
cases it was black. The results show that the ordinary 
reader is more likely to notice display type which is 
black than a display type of the same sort which is 
white. 

A series of laboratory experiments were made on the 
same subject. Specially prepared pages were shown 
for one-seventh of a second. On part of the sheets black 
letters on white background and white letters on black 
background were shown. In other cases one half of 
the sheet had a black background, with words in wiiite 
type, and the other half of the sheet had a white back- 
ground with words in black type. Scores of cards were 
constructed in which all the possible combinations of 
white and black were made and shown to a number 
of persons for such a short space of time that no one 
could perceive all there was on any sheet. Under these 
circumstances the subjects s;aw what first attracted 
their attention and what was the easiest to perceive. 
The final results showed that the black letters on a 
white background were seen oftener than the white 
type on a black background. 

It seems quite certain that, other things being equal, 
tliose advertisements will be the most often read which 
are printed in type which is the most easily read. The 
difference in the appearance of the type in many cases 
may be so small that even persons experienced in the 



PERCEPTION 13 

choosing of type may not be able to tell which one 
is the more legible, and yet the difference in their 
values may be great enough to make it a matter of 
importance to the advertiser as to which type he shall 
use. 

If the matter of the proper use of type is of impor- 
tance to the advertiser, it is even more important that 
he should make a wise use of the illustration, which is 
the second form of symbol at his disposal. 

The illustration is frequently used merely as a 
means of attracting attention, and its function as a 
symbolic illustration is disregarded. In a few cases 
this may be wise and even necessary, but when we con- 
sider the value of an illustration as a symbol, we are 
surprised that illustrations are not used more exten- 
sively as well as more judiciously. The first form of 
writing, as stated above, was picture writing, and the 
most simple and direct form of graphic representation 
is through the picture and not through the printed 
word. At a single glance we can usually read about 
four words; that is to say, the width of perception for 
printed words is about four. At a single glance at 
an illustration we can see as much as could be told in 
a whole page of printed matter. The width of percep- 
tion for Illustrations is very much more extensive than 
it is for printed forms of expression. 

The illustration may perform either one or both of 
two functions. It may be a mere picture used to 
attract attention or it may be an "illustration" and 
a real aid to perception by assisting the text to tell the 
story which is to be presented. In the first case it 
would be called an irrelevant illustration; in the second 
case it is relevant. There have been several investi- 
gations carried on to determine the relative attention 



14 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

value of relevant and irrelevant illustrations. Although 
the results thus far reached are not so decisive as might 
be desired, yet it seems certain that the attention value 
of relevant illustrations is greater than had been sup- 
posed and that the irrelevant ^'picture" is frequently 
not so potent in attracting attention as a relevant illus- 
tration would be. Under these circumstances it seems 
that, in general, the illustration in an advertisement 
should have the double function of attracting attention 
and assisting perception. Which one of these functions 
is the more important might be a profitable question 
for discussion, but when these two functions can be 
united in the same illustration, its value is enhanced 
twofold. Irrelevant illustrations are produced merely 
because they are supposed to attract attention, when in 
reality they may attract the attention of no one except 
the person who designed them and of the unfortunate 
man who has to pay for them. Similarly there are many 
illustrations produced and inserted in advertisements 
because they are supposed to assist the perception. They 
are supposed to tell the story of the goods advertised 
and to be a form of argumentation. The designer of 
the illustration and one familiar with the goods knows 
what the picture stands for, and so for him it is a symbol 
of the goods and tells the story of the special advantages 
of the goods. To one unacquainted with the illustra- 
tion and with the goods advertised, the illustration is 
no illustration at all. 

When we want to teach a child the letters of the 
alphabet, we do not secure some "sketchy" and artistic 
looking letters,, but we secure those which are simple 
in outline and of a large size. We choose those which 
make a very decided sensation, for in that way we help 
determine the perception. When the child becomes 



PERCEPTION 



15 



more familiar with the alphabet, he can read small 
letters and those which are not printed so plainly. In 
forming perceptions there must at first be a large ele- 
ment furnished by sensation, whether the perception 
be formed from an object directly or indirectly from 
a symbol. Those who forget this principle are likely 
to construct illustrations which do not illustrate. Their 
symbols are only symbols for those who are well ac- 
quainted with the goods advertised. As an example 
of this sort of illustrations we reproduce herewith an 
illustration from magazine advertising. 



EP.C. 
WAX 

is the 
l>est 
and 
most 
econ- 
omical 
Laun- 
dry 
Wax 
sold 



your 



The 
kind 

that keeps' 
the iron 

CLEAN 
(aSMOOTH 



Put up in little wooden 
tubes with an automatic 
handle that keeps the 
wax in position and 
prevents waste 
The neatest and nicest 
•way that wax can be 
used for ironing purpose ^ 

AND 

for S two-cent stamps 

we will send you 2* 

sticks to try -After that 

they can be had from 

dealer 'cause Z never satisfy 



FLAME PROOF CO. 



NEW YORK 



No. 1 



16 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

This advertisement for F. P. C. wax (No. 1) seems 
to be an attempt to tell a great deal about the goods 
by means of an illustration. It took me some time to 
translate it, and after I had interpreted it as far as 
possible, I showed it to some ladies who were maga- 
zine readers. None of them had ever taken the pains 
to figure it out. One of them thought that it was 
an advertisement of Bibles. When my attention was 
called to it, I saw the resemblance between the cut as 
a whole and the cover of an ordinary Bible. The white 
space is evidently intended to look like the bottom of 
an iron and the border containing the words "F. P. C 
Wax" is intended for a cut of a stick of the wax. None 
of the ladies had interpreted the cut in that way, but 
when their attention was called to it, they agreed with 
me that that was probably what the "artist" had in- 
tended. We were unable to interpret the white dots 
and the heavy black border. To those familiar with 
the advertisement the sensation aroused by the cut 
is sufficient to produce the desired perception. For all 
others the sensation is not sufficient to call up the 
necessary elements to complete the perception and it 
has no more meaning than a Chinese puzzle. It has 
nothing which it seems to be trying to tell to those who 
turn over the pages of the magazine, and so does not 
attract their attention. We notice those illustrations 
which have something to say and say it plainly. We 
disregard in general those things which do not awaken 
in us a perception. The sensation which does not em- 
body itself into a perception is of such little interest to 
us that we pay no attention to it at all. 

The advertiser desires to produce certain percep- 
tions and ideas in the minds of the possible customers. 
The material means with which he may accomplish 



PERCEPTION 



17 



this end are printed words and illustrations, which in 
the first instance awaken sensations; these in turn em- 
body themselves into perceptions and ideas. These sen- 
sations seem so unimportant that they are frequently 




No. 2 



forgotten and the place which they are to take in form- 
ing the desired perceptions and ideas is disregarded. 

This second advertisement of F. P. 0/ wax (No. 2) 
appeared several months later than the one given above, 
and is inserted here to illustrate how an advertise- 
ment may be improved in the particular point under 
discussion. The newer cut is really an illustration. It 



18 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

helps perception by giving a sensation which is more 
decided and more easily interpreted. It furthermore 
attracts attention and tells the story better than could 
be done by any text. 

The advertiser is so familiar with what he has to 
offer that he cannot appreciate the difficulty the pub- 
lic has in getting a clear and complete perception by 
means of his advertisements of the goods advertised. 
It is almost impossible to err on the side of clear- 
ness. A sketchy illustration may appear artistic to 
the designer, but there is danger that it will be re- 
garded as meaningless scrawls by the laity, and so it 
will not receive a second thought from them. The text 
and the illustration should, first of all, be clear and 
should in every way possible assist the mind of the 
possible customer in forming a correct idea of the goods 
being exploited. 



APPERCEPTION 19 



III 

APPERCEPTION 

Anatomy is the science which divides the human 
body into its constituent parts, and is a completed 
science when it has all of these parts correctly described 
and labeled. Physiology is the science which describes 
and explains the different functions of the human body. 
It supplements anatomy by showing the function of each 
of the bones, muscles, and organs, and by showing their 
mutual relations. In anatomy we divide the body into 
distinct divisions, and in physiology we discover differ- 
ent functions. We often try to think of mind after the 
analogy of the body, and by so doing are led into con- 
fusion. The attempt has been made to divide the mind 
into a definite number of separate faculties (anatomy). 
The function of each faculty has been described as some- 
thing quite different from the other faculties, and an 
attempt was made to define these faculties exactly and 
to describe their functions completely (physiology). 
The attempt has failed and has been abandoned. The 
mind is not a bundle of faculties. It is not com- 
posed of memory, reason, association, etc., but it is 
a unit which remembers, reasons, feels, etc. No one 
function is carried on to the exclusion of all others at 
any one time. During all of its conscious existence 
the mind feels, knows, wills, etc., but at certain times 
it is employed in reasoning more than at others, and at 
one time it may be feeling more intensely than at others, 
but no one function ever totally occupies the field. 



20 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

When the mind recognizes an event as having occurred 
in tlie past, it is said to remember, but feeling, atten- 
tion, and association of ideas may have entered into this 
process of memory. No one mental process is a thing 
existing apart and independent of other processes. The 
anatomical method can never be applied to the mind. 
The functions of the mind are not independent activities 
of the mind, but in every function memory, perception, 
suggestion, and many other functions play a more or 
less important part. 

We have no "apperceiving" faculty which is to be 
distinguished from all other faculties, and which carries 
on an independent process. The mind does act in a par- 
ticular and well-known manner, which we have called 
"apperception." The term has been used for two 
centuries, and is applied to a well-known process, or 
function, of the mind which is of great practical and 
theoretical importance. It includes sensations, percep- 
tions, assimilation, association, recognition, feeling, will, 
attention, and other actions of the mind, and yet is a 
very simple and well-known process. It can best be 
understood if discussed and illustrated from its various 
aspects. 

The first thing to be said about apperception is that 
it is the act of the mind by which perceptions and ideas 
become clear and distinct. I may look at my ink bottle 
on the middle of the table. I see it very clearly and 
distinctly. I can also see, at the same time, other 
objects on the table, and even some which are not on 
it at all. As long as I continue to look at the ink bottle 
the objects distant from the table are not visible. The 
ink bottle is very clear and the objects near it are com- 
paratively so ; those a few feet away are very indistinct 
or entirelv invisible. I am said to apperceive the bottle, 



APPERCEPTION 21 

but to perceive the more distant objects. Certain parts 
of the bottle are not noticed particularly, while some of 
the objects on the table stand out plainly. It is quite 
evident that ^^clearness" does not draw a set line between 
the various objects, but there are all grades of clear- 
ness, from the most clear to the most obscure. We 
feel that the mental process connected with the ink 
bottle and that connected with the other objects are 
different and yet there is an uninterrupted gradation 
from one to the other. When considered from this point 
of view apperception is simply an act of attention, for 
what we attend to becomes clear and distinct to us, 
while that which is not attended to remains indistinct. 
Furthermore, there are all degrees of attention. Certain 
things demand our greatest attention, while others are 
entirely disregarded. Most things, however, are of the 
intermediary class. We pay a certain amount of atten- 
tion to them, but they might easily receive more or less. 
Some things catch our attention so slightly (are so 
slightly apperceived) that we are not aware that we 
have noticed them at all. I did not know that I had 
ever noticed the walls of the barber shop which I patron- 
ize, but as soon as I entered it recently I knew that 
changes liad been made, and I missed certain details 
which I had frequently seen, but to which I had paid 
so little heed that they were merely perceived and could 
not be said to have been apperceived at all. 

The second thing to remark about apperception is that 
it is more than mere attention. It is attention of a 
particular kind. Our attention to an object or event is 
an act of apperception if the attention is brought about 
by means of the relationship of this object or event to 
our previous experience. Apperception has been defined 
as the bringing to hear what has been retained of past 



^22 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

experience in such a way as to interpret^ to give weight 
to the new experience. This aspect of apperception has 
been most clearly brought out in the following quota- 
tion from Dexter and Garlack : 

"A child who has not learned any physiology, and who 
has not previously looked through a microscope, looks at 
a drop of blood under the microscope. He probably 
says that he sees nothing. 

"Another child who has, we will suppose, studied 
botanical sections under the microscope, looks at the 
same drop of blood and says that he sees some small 
round bodies. 

"A third child who has learned a little physiology, 
looks through the microscope, recognizes the small round 
bodies as corpuscles, notes that the majority are red- 
dish, looks for and perhaps finds a white corpuscle, and 
so comes to the conclusion that it is a drop of blood that 
he sees. 

"In the three instances everything is the same except 
the children. The differences in the results of the acts 
of observation must be due to the differences in the 
minds of the children. The reason that the third child 
saw more than the other two was that he was fitted 
by previous training to see more. In order that we may 
see a thing properly it is not sufficient that rays of light 
should come from the object to the eye and nerve vibra- 
tions travel along the optic nerve to the brain. The 
mind must be in a position to interpret, to understand 
these vibrations. To sensations coming from without 
the mind adds imagination (i.e.^ image-making) work- 
ing from within. This combination of action of object 
on mind and the reaction of mind on object is known as 
apperception.^^ 

The third thing to notice about the process of apper- 



APPEECEPTION 23 

ception is that it increases our knowledge by gradually 
adding new elements to pur previous store of experience. 
In the use of the microscope, as cited above, ^acli child 
added to its store of knowledge in proportion to the 
amount of previous training which could be brought to 
bear at this point. The first child had had no previous 
training in this or in any related work, and so was 
unable to profit by this experience. He did not focus 
his eye correctly, and could not direct his attention to 
what the third child saw. An object, event, or situation 
which has no relation to our previous experience fails to 
attract our attention, — is not apperceived, — makes no 
impression on us, and adds nothing to our store of 
knowledge. Nothing is regarded worthy of our con- 
sideration which does not relate itself to our previous 
experience. In fact, we can imagine nothing which is 
out of relation to all our previous experiences. Things 
and events are only significant in so far as they signify 
relationships which we know. The slight difference 
between the letters "O" and "Q" is immediately noticed 
by us, but would not be seen by any one unfamiliar with 
our alphabet. There are many important character- 
istics about the Chinese alphabet which we never observe, 
because they mean nothing to us. They are unimportant 
for us because they do not unite themselves with our 
previous stock of ideas. We interpret all things by our 
own standards (our stock of ideas) — we observe only 
those things which have significance for us, we increase 
our store of ideas not by adding new and independent 
ones, but by uniting the old with the new. We are not 
capable of forming entirely new ideas, but must con- 
tent ourselves with adding new elements to our stock in 
trade. All our so-called new ideas are composed very 
largely of old elements. 



24 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The practical importance of this subject for the ad- 
vertiser is found in the three aspects of the process as 
discussed above. In the first place, some advertisements- 
never stand out clearly and distinctly in the minds of 
the possible customers. We may turn over the pages 
of a magazine and see every advertisement there, but 
our seeing may be of the sort of those of whom it was 
said, "having eyes they see not.'' I frequently turn over 
£he pages of publications and direct my eyes toward 
advertisements and hold them there long enough to have 
noticed all the striking characteristics of them, and yet 
in ten minutes afterward I do not know that these par- 
ticular advertisements are in the publication at all. I 
had perceived them, but had not apperceived them. The 
designers of these advertisements had not been success- 
ful in concentrating my mind on any particular thing 
which had a special reference to my previous experience, 
and which would therefore be apperceived by me. 

We cannot apperceive a large number of things at the 
same time. An advertisement which is constructed 
upon the principle that all parts of it should be attrac- 
tive at the same time will so divide the attention that 
no part of it will stand out prominently, and so it will 
not be noticed at all. A superfluity of details should be 
strenuously guarded against in both the text and the 
illustration. If a single point of an advertisement is 
apperceived it serves as an opening wedge for the entire 
advertisement. If, however, there are too many details 
the attention may be so distracted that none of it will 
be apperceived, although it may all be seen (perceived). 
The things which we perceive do make a slight impres- 
sion on us, but they are so unimportant in comparison 
with the things that we apperceive that we may almost 
disregard them entirely. 



APPERCEPTION 25 

The second point for the advertiser to consider is that 
the apperception value (identical with attention value 
in this case) of the advertisement does not depend so 
much on what the reader receives from the advertise- 
ment, but what he adds to it. Your advertisement and 
all other printed matter is composed of a few straight 
lines and" a few curved ones, of a few dots, and perhaps 
one or more colored surfaces. These, when seen, cause 
a sensation of sight, but that is the smallest part of the 
result of your advertisement. These visual sensations 
are immediately enforced by the previous experience of 
the reader. The value of your advertisement depends 
almost entirely on the number and kind of former experi- 
ences which it awakens. The advertisement is not a 
thing which contains within itself the reason for its exist- 
ence. In and of itself it is perfectly worthless. The 
aim of the advertisement is to call forth activity in the 
minds of its readers — and, it might be added, action of a 
particular sort. The advertisement which is beautiful 
and pleasing to its designer, and which begets activity 
in his mind, may be perfectly worthless as an advertise- 
ment. The drop of blood in the microscope brought 
forth no activity on the part of the first child who looked 
at it, as cited above. The child had nothing in its former 
experience which was suggested by the appearance of the 
drop of blood, and so it was not interpreted and was not 
connected with the child's former life, and so made no 
impression on him. That which happened to the chil- 
dren in looking through the microscope happens every 
day to the readers of advertisements. The same adver- 
tisement will call forth different amounts of activity 
from different readers. Some advertisements have a 
meaning to those who are well acquainted with them, 
and to such they tell their story accurately and quickly. 



26 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISIIS^G 

To some readers they tell a confused or erroneous story ; 
to others they have nothing to tell at all. As an example 
of such advertisements we have reproduced the adver- 
tisement (No. 1) of Whitman's chocolates. 




No. 1 



This looks like a very neat advertisement, but it fails 
at the two crucial points — ^it neither attracts attention 
nor assists in forming a correct perception of the goods 
advertised. As a proof of this statement it is but neces- 
sary to refer to the result obtained with this advertise- 
ment in a series of tests recently made. The magazine 



APPERCEPTION 27 

containing this advertisement was shown to 516 yonng 
people between the ages of ten and twenty-five. After 
they had looked at all the advertisements they were 
asked to write down all the advertisements which they 
had noticed and could remember. One girl remembered 
that she had seen an advertisement of candy, but could 
not remember whose it was or what the advertisement 
was. One boy remembered that "Whitman^s candy'^ 
was advertised, but thought the advertisement had the 
picture of a lady eating a piece of candy. The first of 
the two probably referred to Huyler's advertisement 
(Huyler advertised in the same issue) and the second 
certainly confused the two advertisements. Besides 
these two none of the 516 persons noticed the advertise- 
ment sufficiently to remember that it was there at all. 
This second advertisement (No. 2) of Whitman's ap- 
peared in a later issue of the same magazine. I have 
made no tests of this advertisement, but feel sure that if 
the 516 had seen this instead of the other advertisement 
a very large per cent, of them would have noticed it and 
have remembered it. It attracts attention and tells 
more at a glance than could be told in many well-formed 
sentences. It would create a desire on the part of many 
of these young people to send for or to purchase a box 
of such desirable looking candy. It is an illustration 
which illustrates by helping perception, and it also 
attracts attention because it has something to tell. 

The third thing for the advertiser to observe in connec- 
tion with apperception is that advancement in knowledge 
is made by joining the new on to the old. The pedagogi- 
cal maxim of advancing from the known to the unknown 
finds its justification here. 

It is very difficult to get the public to think along a 
new line, because they cannot connect th^ new fact with 



28 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

their previous experience, i.e., they cannot apperceive 
it. This makes it very difficult to introduce a new 
article on the market. Old firms find it difficult to 
introduce a new brand, and new firms find it difficult 




No. 2 



to get themselves noticed at all. Frequently firms have 
resorted to questionable means to get the public even 
to notice them. It seems to be impossible for them to 
get a hearing for the details of their propositions until 
they have let the public become familiar with their 



APPERCEPTION 29 

names and know who they are. The promoters of Omega 
Oil have been severely criticised for their goose, but the 
goose has introduced them to the public, and now they 
are in a position to get a hearing and to present the 
arguments for their commodity. It is quite possible 
that the expense of keeping the goose before the public 
was an unnecessary luxury, but they have been wise 
in not advancing their argument faster than the public 
was willing to hear it. They have taken but one step at 
a time. They first let the public know that there was 
such a thing as Omega Oil, and they took great pains 
to make this new fact known, and in doing this they 
were acting in accordance wdth the principles of apper- 
ception. They first gave the public some experience of 
Omega Oil, and then tried to get the public to interpret 
their arguments in the light of tha*t previous experience. 

It is not always necessary or even wise to attempt 
to present all the arguments for a commodity at a single 
time. It is frequently wise to carry on an educational 
campaign and to present single arguments. In this way 
the mind of the possible customer is not crowded with a 
lot of new and disconnected facts, but each argument 
has time to be assimilated and to form a part of his 
experience, and is called up to strengthen and impress 
each succeeding argument. 

In writing an advertisement the public to be reached 
must be carefully studied. In exploiting a new com- 
modity the writer should ask himself what there is about 
his goods which will fall into "prepared soil'^ on the 
part of the reader. The reader must first be appealed 
to by something which he already knows, and thus 
activity on his part is awakened, and this activity may 
be made use of for presenting the new elements, which, 
if presented at first, would have met with no response 



30 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

whatever/ Nothing should be presented as something 
absolutely new, but as an improvement or substitute 
for something which is well known. The reader's 
interest can be best awakened by appealing to his past 
experiences. 



ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 31 



IV 

ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 

If there is anything in the world that we feel snre 
of, it is that our senses (eyes, ears, etc.) do not deceive 
us, but that they present the outside world to us just 
as it is. Some have been so impressed with the truth- 
fulness of their senses that they have discredited all 
other sources of knowledge and are unwilling to accept 
anything as true which they cannot see. "Seeing is 
believing," and nothing is so convincing as our percep- 
tions. 

Many centuries ago it was discovered that under cer- 
tain conditions even our senses deceived us. This dis- 
covery was emphasized and the certainty of any and all 
our knowledge was questioned till the extremest sort 
of skepticism prevailed. Such a condition was abnor- 
mal and transient, but it certainly is a great shock to us 
when we discover that under certain conditions our 
senses are not to be depended upon. 

All the sense organs are the product of a long evolu- 
tion in which the various organs were developed as 
instruments of communication by means of which we 
might adjust ourselves to our environments. Of all the 
sense organs the eye is the most highly developed, and 
yet it was not one of the first to be developed. It is 
marvelously well adjusted for the functions which it 
has to perform, but it has certain weaknesses and de- 
fects which are surprising. 

Although each of the sense organs is a source of 



32 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

illusion, this chapter will be confined to a presentation 
of some of the most striking illusions of the eye. 

One of the most glaring of the so-called "optical 
illusions" is the illusion as to the length of lines. We 
judge distances by the amount of eye movement which 
is necessary to look from one extremity of the line to 
the other. Under some circumstances this eye move- 
ment is facilitated and under others it is retarded. 
Lines or distances over which the eye moves readily are 
underestimated, while those over which the eye moves 
with difficulty are overestimated. 

< > 

>— < 



No. 1 



No. 1 shows two lines of equal length. The line at 
the top seems much shorter and the explanation is as 
given above. The arrowheads which are turned in stop 
the eye movement before the end of the line is reached. 
The arrowheads which are turned out invite the eye to 
go even further than the end of the line. I have con- 
ducted experiments with very finely constructed instru- 
ments which showed that as I looked at the bottom line 
my eye moved further than it did when I looked at the 
upper line. 

When out walking, we are inclined to judge the dis- 
tance traversed by the amount of effort we have put 
forth in covering the distance. Any one who has had 
occasion to walk on railroad ties knows that the dis- 
tance which he thought he had covered was much 



ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 33 

greater than the distance which he had actually cov- 
ered. In walking on the railroad ties, every tie must 
be noticed and its distance from the next tie must be 
roughly estimated. There is a constant starting and 
stopping which calls for the putting forth of an exces- 
sive amount of energy. When we walk over a smooth 
and well-known path there is no starting and stopping 
at all, but movement is continuous and easy. In the 
case of these walks the distance covered is judged ac- 
cording to the amount of energy which the limbs must 
put forth to cover the distance. A similar illusion oc- 
curs when the eye is called upon to judge of distances 
which, roughly speaking, correspond to the railroad ties 
and the smooth path. 

In No. 2 the extents indicated by A and B are equal. 
A is an open space bounded by two dots, and the eye 



C 



l l lllllllll 



tiiinmiim ^ imiiiimiiii 

No. 2 

moves over it readily and without any delays. B is a 
space bounded by two dots broken by three others, and, 
although the eye seems to run over them smoothly, there 
is a slight tendency to notice each dot, and this stopping 
and starting at each dot requires more energy than it 
does to move the eye over an empty space of the same 
size. As seen' extents are estimated according to the 
amount of energy necessary to move the eye over them, 
B is judged to be greater than A. The other illusions 



34 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

shown in No. 2 are explained in the same way — C ap- 
pears much shorter than D, and F appears much shorter 
than E or G. 

In No. 3 the two squares are of eqjial size, but the 
left-hand one appears to be much the larger. As the 
eye passes over the left square there is a tendency to 
stop at each cross line, and these stoppings and start- 
ings cause us to overestimate the size of the square. 

Nos. 2 and 3 are but a few of the examples which 
might be given to show that filled space is overestimated 
and that empty space is underestimated. In every case 



No. 3 



the cause of the illusion is found in the fact that we 
base our estimation of extents upon the eye movements 
which are necessary to look over the field or extent 
being estimated. 

All eye movements are made by means of the three 
pairs of muscles which are attached to each eye. They 
are so adjusted that they can move the eye in any direc- 
tion, but the pairs of muscles are not symmetrically 
placed, and as a natural consequence it is harder to 
move the eyes in certain directions than in others. If 
you move your eyes from right to left and from left to 
right, you will observe that it is much easier than it is 
to move them up and down. Our conclusion from this 
would be that if we judge distances by eye movement, 



ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 



35 



we would overestimate vertical distances and under- 
estimate horizontal distances. Such is the case. 

In No. 4 the horizontal and vertical lines are equal, 
but to most persons the vertical line appears longer. A 



No. 4 



square does not look to be square, but looks as if its 
vertical sides were longer than its horizontal ones. 

No. 5 combines several different causes of illusions, 
and the result is very striking. Measurements made 
along the dotted lines show the horizontal line to be 
about one-sixth longer than the vertical line. The ex- 
planation of this illusion is more difficult to find than 
that of the figures above given, but it is quite certain 
that all the explanations given above apply here, and 
in addition we must mention the "error of expectancy." 
We expect to see the horizontal arms of a cross shorter 
than the height of it, and so we are inclined to see it 
that way even when the reverse is true. The error of 
expectancy will be more fully discussed in the next 
chapter. 



36 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

In certain positions straight lines look crooked and 
crooked ones look straight. 




No. 5 



No. 6 shows straight lines which seem to be decidedly 
warped. The four horizontal lines are two pairs of 
straight and parallel lines. The explanation of this 



^^^^^ j//^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^n^^^^^mr 


:^^^^^^^^/ ^^^^\ 




No. 6 



ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 37 

illusion is that we underestimate the size of large angles 
and overestimate the size of small ones. Each horizon- 
tal line is crossed by a number of oblique lines and each 
oblique line forms two acute and two obtuse angles with 
each horizontal line. As we overestimate the size of 
the acute angles and underestimate the size of the large 
ones, the straight lines must appear crooked to allow 
for these misjudgments. 

In certain positions figures which are the same size 
may appear to be very far from being equal. 




No. 7 

No. 7 shows two identical figures, but the lower one 
appears to be much smaller than the upper one. The 
explanation of this illusion is somewhat different from 
the explanation of the other illusions as given above. 
In comparing the size of two objects we ordinarily judge 
by the comparative size of adjoining areas. In the 
figures shown the large side of one is next to the small 
side of the other. We involuntarily compare these ad- 
joining sides, and so the illusion occurs. 

There is another class of illusions which do not depend 
upon eye movement, but upon the way the different rays 
of light affect the retina of the eye. We "see" objects 
when the rays of light reflected from them fall upon 



38 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the retina of the eye. From large objects more light is 
reflected than from small objects. Because of this we 
have come to judge objects not only from the eye move- 
ment, but also from the size of the object as it is reflected 
upon the eye. The rays of light reflected from some 
colors spread themselves out, or "irradiate,'' and so the 
image of the object as it is reflected in the eye is 
greater than the image of an object of the same size 
but of a color which does not irradiate. For this 
reason white objects appear larger than black ones. 
The stock buyers of the West are often compelled to 
guess at the weight of animals. I am told that they 
always, reduce their "guess" on white animals and add 
to the apparent size (fl black ones. Nor is this illusion 
confined to white and black. Red, orange, and yellow 
objects look larger than objects of the same size which 
are green and blue. Corpulent people dress themselves 
in black or in the darker shades of blue or green. Small, 
thin people dress in white, red, orange, or yellow. 

Another source of errors is found in the fact which, 
technically expressed, is that the eye is not corrected 
for chromatic aberration. The result of this defect in 
the eye is that certain colors look closer than others. 
Thus red objects look closer than green ones. I remem- 
ber looking at a church window which had a red disk 
in a green background. The red appeared to stand out 
from the green in such a remarkable manner that I was 
not satisfied till, after the service was over, I went to 
the window and felt of it. The red and the green were 
in the same plane, but, as the red might have stood out, 
the illusion was not counteracted by my knowledge of 
the perspective and was very striking. 

Tailors and dressmakers have taken advantage of 
some of the sources of illusions as given above. They 



ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 39 

know how to cover defects and to produce the desired 
appearances. Corpulent ladies are not found wearing 
checks, nor are tall ladies in the habit of wearing verti- 
cal stripes. As far as the writer knows, advertisers 
have never made a conscious effort to profit by illusions 
in their illustrations and construction of display. It is 
not the function of this article to suggest how the prin- 
ciples here enunciated might be applied to any particu- 
lar concrete case, but the ingenious advertiser will find 
the application. The Purina Mills put up their goodc 
in checkerboard packages, which make the packages 
look larger than they really are. This illusion is illus- 
trated in No. 3. Ordinarily the illustration in advertise- 
ments of fountain pens represents the pen in a horizon- 
tal position. I have recently noticed some of the illus- 
trations in which the pen is represented in a vertical 
position. This makes the pen look larger, as is indi- 
cated in No. 4. 

If the designer of an advertisement desires to give the 
impression of bigness to an article which he is present- 
ing, he might make use of some or all of the illusions 
given above. The cut of the article might be so con- 
structed that the eye would move completely over it or 
even beyond it, as is shown in the lower figure of No. 1. 
It might be of such a nature that the eye would not 
move over it readily, as is the case with B, D, E, and G 
in No. 2. It might be checkered like the left-hand square 
of No. 3. It might have its dimensions indicated by 
vertical and not by horizontal lines. It might take ad- 
vantage of the error of expectation, as is shown in No. 
5. Its size might be made to appear greater by the in- 
troduction of acute angles, as is shown in No. 6, in which 
the distance between the two parallel lines is increased 
and decreased by acute and obtuse angles. The cut 



40 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

might be brought into contrast with some other figure 
which would give the impression of great size, as is 
done in the upper figure of No. 7. Finally, the part of 
the cut which is to look large might be colored red, 
orange, yellow, or white. If several of these principles 
of illusions could be employed in a single cut the effect 
would be astonishing. 

As will be seen, the cause of all illusions of perception 
is found in some maladjustment of our normal sense or- 
gans. The advertiser is perfectly justified in taking 
advantage of this defect of ours, and in some cases this 
could be done to advantage. 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 41 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 

In Evanston, Illinois, two grocery firms are accus- 
tomed to advertise on hand-bills which are placed in 
the morning papers before they are delivered by the 
carriers. A friend of mine, who was the head of a 
family, had frequently noticed these bills in his morn- 
ing paper and, having noticed at some time the name of 
"Robinson Brothers" on que of the advertisements, 
had come to the conclusion that all these hand-bills 
were from Robinson Brothers. On a certain morning 
Winter's Grocery offered to sell several lines of stand- 
ard goods at a very great reduction from the ordinary 
price. As my friend was going down town that morn- 
ing his wife handed him the hand-bill and asked him 
to order quite an extensive quantity of the special bar- 
gains offered that morning. He took the advertisement, 
checked off what his wife wanted, and went down town. 
As he entered Robinson Brothers' store he held Winter's 
advertisement in his hand and read off to the clerk 
the order which he was commissioned to make. When 
the goods were delivered he was taken to task by his 
wife for ordering the goods at the wrong store and 
thereby failing to save the special reductions for that 
day. It so happened that the advertisement was still 
in his pocket. As he took it out and looked at it again 
he was very much surprised to see "Winter's Grocery" 
in plain type at the bottom. It was not comforting to 
him either to remember the w^ay the clerk had smiled 
when he had held the advertisement in his hand and 



42 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

ordered the goods. He even believed he remembered 
that the cashier stopped work and scanned him and 
the advertisement while the order was being given. 

In the reduced reproduction (No. 1) of a full-page 
advertisement, which appeared in Everybody's Maga- 






■'^SS» 



ELASTIC PiBBED 

Union Suits 



1 


The Muiisiiiff Indefweaf 




f,i\ei a mjMnjum of co-nfort 
jt a niininium of expense, 
t otibmes perfect on of fit and S-ish , 
* -H Tinsomblcn'if of p-K' Thf •« Is - 
'o r-h.r biph r'^ic unJc atarso inc< 








S^r'O 




[ .p^ •;£i;3i 


1 


sWi '' ■ ':'/■ 


J 


WMBw^ ^i^liWs&Vi^OI'ftif'' 1^ 



No. 1 



2ine, the Oneita goods occupied three-fourths of the 
page and the Munsing goods one-fourth. It seems that 
there should be no confusion about this, but such has 
not been the case. The Munsing people received a num- 
ber of letters of inquiry concerning the Oneita union 
suits. For persons desiring union suits this full-page 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 43 

advertisement was all supposed to be an advertisement 
issuing from the manufacturers of the Munsing under- 
wear. An advertising manager of a progressive maga- 
zine saw^ this page and, like many other readers, sup- 
posed that it was all one. He wrote to the Munsing 
people, making them rates on the full-page advertise- 
ment, and enclosed the page from which the half-tone 
was made as shown above. 

Confusions often arise between advertisements which 
present the most dissimilar kinds of goods. It might 
seem surprising that the advertisements for portable 
houses should be confused with the advertisement of 
pens, but the following illustration will show how 
naturally such an error could occur : 

In the reduced reproduction of the full-page adver- 
tisement (No. 2) the Conklin Pen Company occupies 
the upper right-hand quarter page and the lower left- 
hand quarter page. The upper right-hand quarter is 
of such a nature that it arrests the reader's attention 
as he turns over the page. It is of such an indefinite 
nature that it does not direct the attention to anything 
in particular, but merely arrests it and causes one to 
look dowm. It does not draw attention .to the lower 
left-hand quarter more than it does to the lower right- 
hand quarter. Under these circumstances the lower 
quarter which appeals to the reader the most strongly 
receives the most attention. We may for the present 
assume that the two lower quarters are equally attrac- 
tive. Under these circumstances it will depend upon 
the reader himself as to whether he will see the port- 
able houses or the pens. If he has been thinking of 
portable houses — if he wants a portable house — ^his 
attention will immediately be attracted by the adver- 
tisement of Mershon & Morley, and he will take it for 



44 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

granted that Merslion & Morley have used the entire 
right-hand half of the page. This conclusion is not 
merely hypothetical, for Mershon & Morley have positive 
proof as to very many such confusions and they are 
of the opinion that they have received as much benefit 




No. 2 



from the upper right-hand quarter as the Conklin Pen 
Company has. 

Department store advertising lead^ to very many more 
illusions of apperception than are ordinarily detected. 
Mandel Brothers of Chicago advertised a special brand 
of writing paper one morning and during the day Mar- 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 45 

shall Field & Company received forty orders for this 
brand from people who believed that Field's and not 
MandePs were advertising it. Field's roughly estimated 
that they receive as many as thirty orders weekly which 
are known to be due to illusions of apperception in which 
Field's receive the benefit of competitors advertising. 

Of two hat firms of Chicago one puts great emphasis 
on its own name and address, the other emphasizes the 
style of the hat sold. For convenience' sake we shall 
call the first firm "A" and the second ^^B." Hatter A 
has made his name so well known that when a possible 
customer sees an advertisement of hats he at once begins 
to think of A. Last summer Hatter B advertised a 
particular style of hat very extensively. His name was 
on all the advertisements, of course. The name, how- 
ever, was not the important or the emphasized thing. 
After they had read the advertisement through many 
persons still supposed that it w^as A's advertisement. 
Hatter A is not willing to have his name or that of 
his competitor mentioned, for he does not desire to 
see the present condition changed. His position can be 
appreciated when w^e learn that he sold over twenty 
dozen hats last summer to persons who thought they 
were getting tlie hat which they had seen advertised 
by B. 

I have frequently observed that people misread ad- 
vertisements. In some cases the mistakes are astonish- 
ing. After a young lady had completed "looking 
through" a magazine, I asked her to write down as full 
an account as possible of some of the advertisements 
in the magazine. Here is what she wrote: "What sen- 
sations are more agreeable after exercise than a hard 
rub with a towel and a rub with Armour's toilet soap, 
and a dash of water? Armour's soap may not be very 



46 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

valuable, but it is very refreshing after exercise. 
Armour's soap may be bought at any store at five or 
ten cents a bar." What she had read was the following : 
"What sensations are more agreeable than those follow- 
ing some good, quick exercise, a rub with a rough towel, 
a scrub with Ivor}^ soap and a dash of cold water? . . . 
If the Ivory soap is not positively essential, it is at 
least delightfully cleansing," etc. I asked several hun- 
dred persons to write down a description of the adver- 
tisements which they had just read. This confusion 
of Armour's and Ivory soap is but one of scores of simi- 
lar confusions w^hich I discovered. 

At an international congress of psychologists held in 
Munich, in 1896, an alleged "photograph" of the human 
brain (No. 3) was exhibited. 




No. 3 



All those present were much interested in the 
structure and functions of the brain. Many of 
them, at first sight, saw nothing unusual about the 
picture, but observed the position of the various 
convolutions and fissures of the brain. Later it 
dawned upon them that it was not a photograph of 
the brain at all, but was a group of naked babies. I 
have since that time shown the picture to various per- 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 47 

sons and have noticed that those who are familiar with 
the brain first see a brain, but other persons are likely 
to see the babies at once. 

The first time I saw this photograph of a brain I did 
not notice the babies for several seconds ; then for some 
time I could see it as either a brain or a group of babies. 
Now I find that I cannot see it as a brain at all, but 
every time I look at it I see the babies and there is 
scarcely any resemblance to a brain there. 

The following cut (No. 4) differs from the one last 
discussed in this particular. I can see it equally well 
in two different ways. 




No. 4 
\ 

If I look away from it and think how it should be to 
represent a duck and then turn my eyes upon it, behold 
— it is a duck. If I think how it should be to represent 
a rabbit and then look at it, it ceases to look like a 
duck and is the likeness of a rabbit. The figure itself 
may represent equally well either a rabbit or a duck, 
but cannot possibly suggest both to me at the same 
time. If I continue to look at it steadily for some 
minutes it changes from a rabbit to a duck and then 
back to a rabbit. When I see it as one it does not seem 
possible that it could ever look like the other, for the 
two things are so totally different in appearance. 

The following illustration (No. 5) differs from the 
one given immediately above in several important par- 



48 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

ticulars. The one given above is seen equally well in 
either of two ways, and we seem to have no preference 
as to which way we shall see it. The one given below 
can be seen in at least four different ways, but we 
see it much more readily in one way than in any other. 




No. 5 



The easiest way to interpret this figure is to regard 
it as a representation of a staircase as seen from above. 
It is quite possible, however, to see it as a representation 
of the same stairs as seen from below. This latter in- 
terpretation is made easier if you think just how the 
stairs would look if seen from below, and if at the same 
time you direct your eye to the point marked "a" in the 
cut. It is possible to interpret the cut, not as a staircase 
at all, but as a strip of cardboard bent at right angles 
like an accordion plait and situated in front of the 
apparent background. It is difficult to "see" the figure 
this way. It is still more difficult to see the figure 
as a plane surface composed of straight lines without 
any perspective. This fourth interpretation is the one 
that would apparently be the most natural, for it is the 
one which takes the cut for just what it is and adds 
nothing to it. It might be added that the angles in the 
staircase figure may be seen as right angles, acute angles, 
or oblique angles. 



ILLUSIO:&^S OF APPERCEPTION 



49 



No. 6 is like the previous illustrations in that it can 
be seen in more than one way, but it is different in that 
the figure seems to change under the eye more rapidly 




No. 6 

than the others. It assumes two or three different ap- 
pearances in a very few seconds. 

These changes are assisted by moving the eye from 
one part of the figure to another. In looking at solid 
figures or bodies our eyes usually rest on the nearest 
edge or surface. It comes about in this way that the 
lines at which we look are very likely to appear to be 
the nearest edge or surface of the solid. 

No. 7 consists of a group of either six or seven blocks. 
If it is looked at steadily for some seconds, the blocks 
seem to fall and to arrange themselves in a new way. 



50 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

If at first there were but six blocks, there may be seven 
there after they have fallen. Many people find it very 
difficult to count the blocks, for while they are counting, 
the number chiJUges. If you look at No. 7a and hold 




No. 7 



an image of 'it in your mind while you count the blocks 
in No. 7 you will probably find six blocks. If, however, 
3^ou first look at No. 7& and retain its image in your mind 
you will be able to find seven blocl^s in No. 7. If the 




No. 7a 



No. 7b 



desired results are not secured, turn the page upside- 
down and the blocks will then certainly '^fall." 

No. 8, at first sight, appears to most people as a book 
which is half opened and turned in such a way that the 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 



51 



cover alone is visible. To some it will appear as if 
the book was opened toward them and as if two of the 
pages w^ere visible. If we try to think how a book 
should look when opened and turned away from us, and 
if we then look at the figure, it will appear to represent 
the book of which we are thinking and also in the posi- 
tion in which we imagined it. 

The upper or feathered end of the arrow (No. 9) is 
identical with No. 8 and yet it appears to be flat, while 



W 





No. S 



V 



No. 9 



that one appeared as a solid. If we cover up the shaft 
and head of the arrow as shown in this figure, we can 
then see the top of the figure as a book. If we think 
of it as the end of an arrow it is flat, but if we think 
of it as a book it immediately appears as a solid drawn 
in perspective. 

If I put on red glasses and then look at a landscape, 
all objects appear red to me. If I put on green glasses 
all objects appear green. The objects are colored by the 
glasses which were before my eyes. In a similar way, 
by apperception, the thoughts which are in my mind 
color all the objects at ivhich I looh. We see things 



52 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

through our own eyes and with our own minds. This 
is equivalent to saying that all we see is changed by the 
thoughts which are in our minds when we look. It is 
also equivalent to saying that we see everything in rela- 
tion to our own previous experience. Although the 
grass is green I am unable to see it as green till I remove 
the red glasses. The rose may be red, but it will not 
appear so to me till I take off the green glasses. In a 
similar way I fail to see the green grass when I am 
thinking of the red rose and I fail to see the red rose 
when I am thinking of the green grass, although both are 
present all the time. We see most easily those things 
of which we happen to he thinking or of which we have 
had previous experience, hut we see with difficulty those 
things of which we have had no previous experience. 

For the practical advertiser the theoretical discus 
sion of the illusions of apperception has a special im- 
portance, as it assists him to discern the causes of sucli 
illusions and to avoid them in his advertisements. The 
principal cause of all illusions of apperception is found 
in the fact that the mind of the reader is not prepared 
for the reception of the case as presented. The second 
cause of such illusions is that the presentation of the 
case is not as clear and distinct as it should be. The 
first of these facts is the peculiar and distinctive cause 
of most illusions of apperception. The reader's mind 
may be unprepared either because it is distracted by 
a competing thought or because the material presented 
is entirely new. The presentation may be lacking in 
clearness because in some particular it is ambiguous. 

By observing the part which these two causes played 
in the illusions given above we are better prepared to 
understand and therefore to avoid such illusions. The 
householder who misread Robinson for Winter had his 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 53 

mind preoccupied with the thought of Robinson. Winter 
had not succeeded in occupying a place in his mind, 
while Robinson had. On the other hand, Robinson's 
and Winter's advertisements look as much alike as two 
peas and neither has a characteristic feature which 
would help to identify it. 

The readers of Everybody's Magazine looked at the 
lower right-hand corner of the page and read "The 
N. W. Knitting Company, Minneapolis." With this 
thought in mind they looked at the Oneita goods, but 
failed to notice that they were not sold by the N. W. 
Knitting Company. The Oneita people are in part 
responsible for the illusion in that they allowed their 
advertisement to appear without an address and on a 
page with a similar advertisement which has an address. 
The more recent advertisements of the Oneita union 
suits have an address given and therefore are not so 
subject to illusions of this sort. 

The confusion by which readers supposed that the 
portable houses were presented by a full half -page ad- 
vertisement is a typical illusion of apperception. The 
readers had their minds preoccupied by the thought of 
portable houses, and so the attention went to portable 
houses, and not to "The Pen That Fills Itself." The 
Conklin Pen Company did not make it perfectly clear 
that the hand was pointing to their space. 

In the confusion of hats referred ta, Hatter A had 
made his name so familiar to the residents of this city 
that when they read a hat advertisement they did it with 
their minds preoccupied with the thought that it was 
A's advertisement. It came about in this way that when 
they read B's advertisement they read it as A's and 
failed to notice B's name, which was given at the bottom. 
It is quite possible tliat B might have greatly reduced 



54 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the number of confusions if he had put more emphasis 
upon his own name and address. 

The young lady who misread Armour's for Ivory had 
been influenced by extensive advertisements of Armour's 
which had appeared in her town. She had associated 
the name of Armour and soap so closely together that 
when she read of soap she naturally assumed that it 
was Armour's and failed to see Ivory, just as the inex- 
perienced proofreader reads the proof as he thinks it 
ought to be and fails to observe some of the most glaring 
errors. It should also be observed that the soap adver- 
tisement did not emphasize the name of Ivory at all. 

The figures given above illustrate the same principles 
of illusions of apperception, but they make it clearer 
than any confusion of concrete advertisements can 
possibly do. In most, if not in all, of the figures the 
reader can voluntarily preempt his mind with a thought 
and then can see in the figure that of which he is think- 
ing. He can in this way interpret each figure in two or 
more ways. By means of these figures we can see the 
part the mind adds to a sensation when it. interprets a 
written, printed, or drawn symbol. These figures also 
show the need of clear and distinct presentation. They 
ai*e extremely ambiguous, and can with equal ease be 
interpreted in two or more ways. With slight changes 
all of these figures could be remodeled so that it would 
be much more difficult to interpret them in any way 
except the one which the author desired. • 

That firm which does the most and the best advertis- 
ing is the one that preempts the minds of the possible 
customers and so gets the benefit of more advertisements 
than it pays for. The firms that advertise extensively 
and do not fail to put the proper emphasis on their 
names and addresses are the firms that profit most by 



ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 55 

confusions. New firms and firms that put little emphasis 
on their names and addresses would be much surprised 
if they knew how many possible customers read their 
advertisements and still fail to notice who they are. 

Many advertisers believe that they should put all their 
emphasis on the quality of the goods. They assume that 
if any one wants the goods thus presented they will take 
the trouble to ascertain the brand of the goods, the name 
of the firm, and its address. Such a theory sounds well, 
but the instances of confusion cited above indicate the 
weakness of the theory when applied to specific adver- 
tisements. 

In this chapter we have confined our attention to 
illusions in which the reader has confused one advertise- 
ment or one figure for another. Ordinarily illusions 
do not go to this extreme, but are confined to confusions 
and misunderstandings as to the specific arguments of 
the advertisements. Since we have positive evidence 
that these extreme illusions are not uncommon, w^e can 
well believe that illusions of a less extreme but serious 
nature are of all too frequent occurrence. The number 
of such illusions would be materially decreased if the 
writers of advertisements would see to it that the minds 
of the possible customers are prepared for the argument 
which they are about to write and if they would present 
their arguments clearly and distinctly. 



56 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



VI 

PEESONAL DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL 
IMAGERY 

Yesterday I looked in at a shop window where the 
current magazines were displayed. I saw the front 
outer cover of over a score of them. Now, as I sit in 
my study, miles away from that window, I can still see 
the magazines with my "mind's eye" ; that is to say, I can 
form a mental image of the window and the magazines. 
I can describe some of the covers accurately as to color, 
shape, type, etc. I know that there were several maga- 
zines off to the left side of the window, but all I can see 
of them now is the barest outline. They are so indistinct 
that I cannot tell what they are at all. My mental 
image of them is very indistinct. 

But recently I was talking with a friend while a com- 
pany of young people in an adjoining room was playing 
on the piano and violin and singing college songs. As 
I sit here I can imagine how my friend's voice sounded ; 
I can hear in imagination how the piano and the violin 
sounded ; I can hear in imagination the tunes which they 
were singing ; that is to say, I can form a mental image of 
the sounds which I had previously heard. I notice, how- 
ever, that my mental image is not so distinct and pro- 
nounced as the original perception. I cannot form a 
mental image of some of the notes which I heard from 
the violin. Only the more striking parts of the tunes 
seem to be plain, and even they seem to be quite low 
and of much less volume than the originals. 

Only an hour ago T ate my breakfast. The odor and 



DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY 57 

taste of the coffee were at that time very pleasing to me. 
Now I can imagine how it smelt and tasted, but the 
images of it are not very vivid and are not strong enough 
to give me any pleasure in recalling them. 

Last night I was on the ice playing hockey. The exer- 
cise was very vigorous and exciting. At the time I did 
not stop to think how it felt to "put the puck/' but I 
must have felt the exertion of my muscles as I performed 
the act. Now I can form a mental image of the act ; I 
can feel my muscles as they make the strain necessary 
for the performance. I was perspiring when I left the 
pond and soon my woolen underwear became excessively 
unpleasant. I felt the unpleasant contact on my skin 
at that time, and now I can form a mental image of the 
sensation, which is so strong that it makes me want to 
stop writing to scratch. 

As is indicated by the examples given above, I can 
form a mental image of that which I have seen, heard, 
tasted, smelt, felt (in my muscles), or touched (with 
my skin) . In general it might be said that we can form 
a mental image of anything which we have ever per- 
ceived. There are many exceptions to this statement, 
as w^ill be shown later. 

Almost all of our dreams and reveries and a large 
part of our more serious thinking are composed of a 
succession of these mental images of things which we 
have previously experienced. We cannot see the images 
in the mind of our neighbor, but we are likely to suppose 
that his thinking is very much like our own. It was 
formerly supposed that such was the case. It was as- 
sumed that the normal mind could form images of every- 
thing which it had experienced. It was further as- 
sumed that there were no personal differences as to the 
clearness and vividness of such mental images. 



58 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

In 1880 Francis Galton discovered that there was a 
great difference in individuals in their ability to form 
these mental images. He found that some persons could 
form mental images which were almost as vivid and 
strong as the original perception, while for others the 
past was veiled in indistinctness. He also found that 
certain persons could form mental images of one class 
of perceptions, but could form no mental images of other 
classes. Thus, one man could not imagine how his 
friends looked when he was absent from them ; another 
could not imagine how a piano sounded when the piano 
was out of his hearing. 

Prof. William James, of Harvard University, con- 
tinued the investigations begun by Mr. Galton. He col- 
lected papers from hundreds of persons in which each 
one described his own image of his breakfast table. One 
who is a good visualizer writes : 

"This morning's breakfast table is both dim and 
bright : it is dim if I try to think of it when my eyes are 
open upon any object; it is perfectly clear and bright 
if I think of it with my eyes closed. All the objects are 
clear at once, yet when I confine my attention to any one 
object it becomes far more distinct. I have more power 
to recall color than any other one thing ; if, for example, 
I were to recall a plate decorated with flowers, I could 
reproduce in a drawing the exact tones, etc. The color 
of anything that was on the table is perfectly vivid. 
There is very little limit to the extent of my images: I 
can see all four sides of a room ; I can see all four sides 
of two, three, four, or even more rooms with such dis- 
tinctness that if you should ask me what was in any 
particular place in any one, or ask me to count the 
chairs, etc., I could do it without the least hesitation. 
The more I learn by heart the more clearly do I see 



DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY 59 

images of my pages. Even before I can recite the lines 
I see them so that I could give them very slowly, word 
for word, but my mind is so occupied in looking at my 
printed page that I have no idea of what I am saying, 
of the sense of it, etc. When I first found myself doing 
this, I used to think it was merely because I knew the 
lines imperfectly, but I have quite convinced myself that 
I really do see an image. The strongest proof that such 
is really the fact is, I think, the following : 

"I can look down the mentally seen page and see the 
words that commence all the lines, and from any one of 
these words I can continue the line. I find this much 
easier to do if the words begin in a straight line than if 
there are breaks. Example : 

''Etantfait . . . 

''Tons ... ' 

''A des . . . 

''Que fit ... 

''Geres ... 
"Avec . . . 

"Un fleur ... . • ^ " 

"Comme . . . 

"(La Fontaine 8, iv.)'' 

Those who are poor visualizers are likely to suspect 
the writer of ^the above paper as exaggerating the vivid- 
ness of his visual images, yet there is every reason to 
suppose that there is no exaggeration about it. 

One who is a poor visualizer writes : 

"My ability to form mental images seems, from what 
I have studied of other people's images, to be defective 
and somewhat peculiar. The process by which I remem- 
ber any particular event is not by any distinct images, 
but a sort of panorama, the faintest impressions of which 
are perceptible through a thick fog. I cannot shut my 



60 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

eyes and get a distinct image of any one, although I used 
to be able to a few years ago, and the faculty seems to 
have gradually slipped away. In my most vivid dreams, 
where the events appear like the most real facts, I am 
often troubled with a dimness of sight which causes the 
image to appear indistinct. To come to the question 
of the breakfast table, there is nothing definite about it. 
Everything is vague. I cannot say what I see; could 
not possibly count the chairs, but I happen to know that 
there are ten. I see nothing in detail. The chief thing 
is a general impression that I cannot tell what I do see. 
The color is about the same, as far as I can recall it, 
only very much washed out. Perhaps the only color I 
can see at all distinctly is that of the tablecloth, and 
I could probably see the color of the wall-paper if I could 
remember what color it was.'' 

Every year I ask each of my students in psychology 
to write out in full a description of his mental image of 
his breakfast table, a railroad train, and a football 
game. In these papers are examples of as good and as 
poor visualizers as those given from the papers collected 
by Professor James. I have found that there is not only 
a personal difference in the ability to form visual images, 
but that the same differences exi«t for the other classes 
of perceptions. One student who has strong auditory 
imagery writes as follows : 

^^When I think of the breakfast table I do not seem to 
have a clear visual image of it. I can see the length of it, 
the three chairs, — though I can't tell the color or shape- 
of these, — the white cloth and something on it, but I 
can't see the pattern of the dishes or any of the food. 
I can very plainly hear the rattle of the dishes and of 
the silver and above this hear the conversation, also the 
other noises, such as a train which passes every morning 



DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY 61 

while we are at breakfast. Again in a football game I 
distinctly hear the noise, but do not see clearly anything 
or anybody. I hear the stillness when every one is 
intent and then the loud cheering. Here I notice the 
differences of pitch and tone." 

I had read that some people were unable to imagine 
sounds which they had heard, but it had not impressed 
me, for I had supposed that such persons were great 
exceptions. I was truly surprised when I found so 
many of my students writing papers similar to those 
from which extracts are here given : 

"My mental imagery is visual, as I seem to see things 
and not to hear, feel, or smell them. The element of 
sound seems practically never to enter in. When I think 
of a breakfast table or a football game I have a distinct 
image. I see colors, but hear no sound." 

Another, in describing his image of a railroad train, 
writes : 

"I am not able to state whether I hear the train or 
not. I am inclined to think that it is a noiseless one. 
It is hard for me to conceive of the sound of a bell, for 
instance. I can see the bell move to and fro, and for an 
instant seem to hear the ding, dong ; but it is gone before 
I can identify it. When I try to conceive of shouts I am 
like one groping in the dark. I cannot possibly retain 
the conception of a sound for any length of time." 

Another, who seems to have no vivid images of any 
kind, writes : 

"When I recall the breakfast table I see it and the 
persons around it. The number of them is distinct, for 
there is only one of them on each side of the table. But 
they seem like mere objects in space. Only when I think 
of each separately do I clearly see them. As for the 
table, all I see is a general whiteness, interspersed with 



62 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

objects. I hear nothing at all, and indeed the whole 
thing is so indistinct it bewilders me when I think of 
it. My mental imagery is very vague and hazy, unless 
I have previously taken special notice of what I now 
have an image. For instance, when I have an image of 
a certain person, I cannot tell his particular character- 
istics unless my attention was formerly directed to 
them.'' 

Another writes : 

"There is no sound in connection with any image. 
In remembering I call up an incident and gradually fill 
out the details. I can very seldom recall how anything 
sounds. One sound from the play ^Robespierre,' by 
Henry Irving, which I heard about two years ago and 
which I could recall some time afterward, I have been 
unable to recall this fall, though I have tried to do so. 
I can see the scene quite perfectly, the position of the 
actors and stage setting, even the action of a player who 
brought out the sound." 

Quite a large proportion of persons find it impossible 
to imagine motion at all. As they think of a football 
game all the players are standing stock still; they are 
as they are represented in a photograph. They are in 
the act of running, but no motion is represented. Like- 
wise, the banners and streamers are all motionless. They 
find it impossible to think of such a thing as motion. 
Others find that the motions are the most vivid part of 
their images. What they remember of a scene is prin- 
cipally movement. One writes : 

"When the word ^breakfast table' was given out I 
saw our breakfast table at home, especially the table and 
the white tablecloth. The cloth seemed to be the most 
distinct object. I can see each one in his place at the 
table. I can see no color except that of the tablecloth. 



DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY 63 

The dishes are there, but are very indistinct. I cannot 
hear the rattle of the dishes or the voices very distinctly ; 
the voices seem much louder than the dishes, but neither 
are very clear. I can feel the motions which I make 
during the breakfast hour. 1 feel myself come in, sit 
down, and begin to eat. I can see the motions of those 
about me quite plainly. I believe the feeling of motion 
was the most distinct feeling I had. When the word 
^railroad train' was given, I saw the train very plainly 
just stopping in front of the depot. I saw the people 
getting on the train; these people were very indistinct. 
It is their motions rather than the people themselves 
which I see. I can feel myself getting on the train, 
finding a seat, and sitting down. I cannot hear the noise 
of the train, but can hear rather indistinctly the con- 
ductor calling the stations. I believe my mental imagery 
is more motile [of movement] than anything else. Al- 
though I can see some things quite plainly, I seem to feel 
the movements most distinctly.'' 

A very few in describing their images of the breakfast 
table made special mention of the taste of the food and 
of its odor. I have discovered no one whose prevailing 
imagery is for either taste or smell. With very many 
the image of touch is very vivid. They can imagine just 
how velvet feels, how a fly feels on one's nose, the discom- 
fort of a tight shoe, and the pleasure of stroking a 
smooth marble surface. 

It is a well-observed fact that different classes of soci- 
ety think differently and that arguments which would 
appeal to one class would be worthless with another. A 
man's occupation, his age, his environment, etc., make a 
difference in his manner of thinking, and in the motives 
which prompt him to action. In appealing to people we 
ordinarily think of these conditions and formulate our 



64 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

argument in accordance with these motives. That is to 
say, we address ourselves to a particular social or indus- 
trial class. The study of mental imagery makes it evi- 
dent that there are personal differences apart from dif- 
ferences due to environment, but which are inherent in 
the individual. Some well-educated persons are so desti- 
tute of visual images that they are utterly unable to ap- 
preciate the description of a scene when it is described in 
visual terms. Many persons find themselves bored even 
by Victor Hugo's description of the scene of the battle 
of Waterloo. To them the whole scene is unimaginable 
and therefore unintelligible and uninteresting. I have 
been interested in observing that the authors which are 
read with universal delight are those who appeal to 
all the various classes of mental imagery. Dickens, Sir 
Walter Scott, Tennyson, Washington Irving, and many 
of the authors who are universally appreciated, appeal 
to and awaken many auditory images as well as images 
of taste, smell, touch, and motion; Browning appeals 
most often and most exclusively to visual images. It 
is quite certain that a person can best be appealed to 
through his dominating imagery. A person who has 
visual images that are very clear and distinct appreci- 
ates descriptions of scenes. A person with auditory 
imagery delights in having auditory images awakened. 
The same holds true for the other classes of mental 
imagery. Of all the writings of Washington Irving 
"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow'' is one of the favorites. 
One element of strength in this is the manner in which 
the author succeeds in awakening the different classes 
of mental imagery in the reader. Take, for example, 
the following passages, in which the "eye-minded'' 
reader sees the scene while the "ear-minded" reader 
hears that which is being described : 



DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY 65 

^^Not far from this village, perhaps about two miles, 
there is a little valley, or rather lap of land, among high 
hills, which is one of the quietest places in all the world. 
A small brook glides through it, with just murmur 
enough to lull one to repose; and the occasional whistle 
of a quail, or tapping of a woodpecker, is almost the only 
sound that ever breaks in on the uniform tranquility. 
... I had wandered into it at noontime, when all nature 
is peculiarly quiet, and was startled by the roar of my 
own gun as it broke the Sabbath stillness around and 
was prolonged and reverberated by the angry echoes.'' 

As an example of the way in which Washington Irving 
could awaken images of taste and of odor, examine the 
following, taken from the same selection : 

"The pedagogue's mouth watered as he looked upon 
this sumptuous promise of luxurious winter fare. In 
his devouring mind's eye he pictured to himself every 
roasting pig running about with a pudding in his belly 
and an apple in his mouth ; the pigeons were snugly put 
to bed in a comfortable pie, and tucked in with a cover- 
let of crust; the geese were swimming in their own 
gravy, and the ducks pairing cosily in dishes, like snug 
married couples, with a decent competency of onion 
sauce. In the porkers. he saw carved out the future 
sleek side of bacon and juicy, relishing ham ; not a turkey 
but he beheld daintily trussed up, with its gizzard under 
its wing and peradventure, a necklace of savory sau- 
sage," etc. 

This author is not regarded as one of the greatest^ but 
certainly the fascination for his writings is found in part 
in the fact that in his imagination he could see the wood- 
land, he could hear the murmur of the brook, he could 
taste the pies, he could smell the fragrance of the 
orchards, he could feel the bumps as Ichabod Crane rode 



66 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the old horse Gunpowder, he could feel the muscle con- 
tract in the brawny arms of Brom Bones. Having all 
these images distinct himself, he depicted them so well 
that similar images are awakened in us in as far as we 
are capable of imagining what he described. It is not 
to be supposed that Washington Irving intentionally 
tried to awaken in his readers these various classes of 
images, but he did unconsciously what it might be wise 
for us to do consciously. 

An advertiser, as well as any other author, might do 
well to examine his own writings to see what sort. of 
images he is appealing to. It is in general best to 
appeal to as many different classes of images as possible, 
for in this way variety is given and each reader is ap- 
pealed to in the sort of imagery in which he thinks 
most readily and by means of which he is most easily 
influenced. 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 67 



VII 

PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF MENTAL 
IMAGEEY 

The young men and women of to-day are accused of 
being poorer spellers than their parents. The reasons 
for this may be many, but one has direct bearing upon 
our subject of discussion. Formerly children in school 
spelled orally. They saw the word printed in their 
books; they did more or less writing, and then felt the 
movements of their hands and arms as they wrote; 
they were called upon to spell the word in class orally, 
and so heard how it sounded. They thus had three 
"cues" for the word — they saw it, they felt it, and they 
heard it. When they were called upon to spell a word 
they had all of these three cues to assist them in re- 
membering how it was spelled, i.e.^ to assist them in 
forming an image of it. Some years ago oral spelling 
was displaced by written spelling. In this way one of 
the cues was abandoned, — the oral one, — and it was 
found that pupils made more mistakes in writing than 
those who had spelled orally. Because of this fact oral 
spelling is being brought back to the schoolroom. An 
attempt is being made to have the scholars see, hear, 
and feel the word, and, in this way, their spelling will 
be better than if they omitted one of the three processes. 
The scholar knows the word better and can form a more 
distinct image of it if he has these three cues to assist 
him. 

In a former age the seller, the buyer, and the commod- 
ity were brought together. Th6 seller described and ex- 



68 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

hibited his wares. The buyer saw the goods, heard of 
them, tasted them, smelt them, felt, and lifted them. 
He tested them by means of every sense organ to which 
they could appeal. In this way the buyer became ac- 
quainted with the goods. His perception of them was 
as complete as it could be made. In these latter days 
the market place has given way to the offit^e. The con- 
sequent separation of buyer, seller, and commodity made 
the commercial traveler with his sample case seem a 
necessity. But, with the growing volume of business, 
and with the increased need for more economical forms 
of transacting business, the printed page, as a form 
of advertisement, has superseded the market place, and 
is, in many cases, displacing the commercial traveler. 
In this transition from the market place and the com- 
mercial traveler to the printed page, the advertiser must 
be on his guard to preserve as many as possible of the 
good features of the older institutions. In the two older 
forms of barter all the senses of the purchaser were 
appealed to, if possible, and in addition to this the word 
of mouth of the seller was added to increase the im- 
pressions and to call special attention to the strong 
features of the commodity. In the printed page the 
word of mouth is the only feature which is of necessity 
entirely absent. Indeed, the printed page cannot appeal 
directly to any of the senses except the eye, but the 
argument may be of such a nature that the reader's 
senses are appealed to indirectly through his imagina- 
tion. 

One of the great weaknesses of the present-day adver- 
tising is found in the fact that the writer of the ad- 
vertisement fails to appeal thus indirectly to the senses. 
How^ many advertisers describe a piano so vividly that 
the reader can hear it? How many food products are 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 69 

SO described that the reader can taste the food? How 
many advertisements describe a perfume so that the 
reader can smell it? How many describe an undergar- 
ment so that the reader can feel the pleasant contact 
with his body? Many advertisers seem never to have 
thought of this, and make no attempt at such descrip- 
tions. 

The cause of this deficiency is twofold. In the first 
place, it is not easy in type to appeal to any other sense 
than that of sight. Other than visual images are diffi- 
cult to awaken when the means employed is the printed 
page. In the second place, the individual writers are 
deficient in certain forms of mental imagery, and there- 
fore are not adepts in describing articles in terms which 
to themselves are not significant. This second ground 
for failure in writing effective advertisements will be 
made clear by the following examples taken from good 
and from poor advertisements. "Good'' and "poor'' 
are used here in a very narrow sense. For convenience' 
sake these advertisements are called good which are 
good according to the single standard here under con- 
sideration. 

A piano is primarily not a thing to look at or an 
object for profitable investment, but it is a musical in- 
strument. It might be beautiful and cheap, but still 
be very undesirable. The chief thing about a piano 
is the quality of its tone. Many advertisers of pianos 
do not seem to have the slightest appreciation of this 
fact. As a first example of this, read the following ad- 
vertisement (No. 1), in which an entire advertisement 
of the Emerson piano is reproduced exactly, with the 
single exception that the word "incubator" is substi- 
tuted for "piano." 

The Emerson advertisement is not peculiar because 



70 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

of its deficienc}'. In fact, the majority of piano adver- 
tisements are equally poor. The following advertise- 
ment of the Vose (No. 2) belongs to the same class. 
In it the word "camera" is substituted for "piano." 



Emerson 

Incubators 



T F any one offers you a " just as 
^ good " Incubator at a lower price 
than an EMERSON costs, you had 
better buy it — but make sure it is 
"■ just as good." A reputation for 
reliable goods is better than a repu- 
tation for low prices. Our prices, 
however, must be right or there 
would not be to-day over 76,000 
Emerson Incubators in use! 

Write for illustrated catalogue and our 
easy payment plan. 

EMERSON INCUBATOR CO. 
BOSTON DEPT. E. CHICAGO 

120 Boylston St. 195 Wabash Ave. 



No. 1 

What has been said of these two advertisements would 
hold true of the advertisements in the current issues of 
the magazines of the Gabler piano, and of many others. 

These advertisements apply equally well for paint- 
ings^ perfumes, fountain pens, bicycles, snuff or sau- 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 71 

sages, and would be equally poor if used to advertise 
any of them. They are not specific, and do not describe 
or refer in any way to the essential characteristic of a 
piano. They awaken no images of sound; they do not 
make us hear the piano in our imagination. 

The reproduced advertisement of the Carola (No. 3) 



vose 

CAMERAS 

HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED 50 YEARS 

and are receiving more favorable comments to-day 
from an artistic standpoint than all other makes 
combined. 

I WE s 

♦ Challenge Comparisons. ♦ 



s 

I 



f 



By our easy payment plan, every family in mod- 
erate circumstances can own a vose camera. We 
allow a liberal price for old instruments in exchange, 
and deliver the camera in your house free of expense. 
You can deal with us at a distant point the same as in 
Boston. Send for catalogue and full information. 



• 



♦ 



s VOSE & SONS CAMERA CO., s 



1 63 Bovl.ston Street. 



Boston 



No. 2 



depicts the joy derived from the rhythm of music, but 
it awakens no images of tone. The advertisement rep- 
resents a Carola as superior to a drum because it is 
easier to play. 

The little antiquated advertisement of the Blasius 
(No. 4) was an attempt in the right direction. The 
musical scale suggests music specifically; the picture 
of the piano recalls the sounds of the music to a certain 
extent; the lady at the piano suggests music, for she is 





in/ ^mm 



the children HomCS 

provide their 
own music and amuse- 
ment. They can dance 
at any time. And how 
they enjoy it! CPerhaps 
not those highly artificial 
drawing room steps, but 
those delightful dances that 
are so graceful, and full of 
rhythm. You will remember 
what the great educator, 
Stanley Hall, said of them — 

"I voald hare claiicin(2 taujjht in 
every school, even if the school 
had to be opened ereninjjs for 
that purpose." 

— But you want your 
children to dance at home* 

And the 



Piano 



IS first aid and best aid. You who already have a piano of the rarely 
used type, have gone a long way toward owning an Inner-Player. Your instru- 
ment, with a few monthly payments added, would bring to your home " ..edi- 
atelv the Nf odem Piano— the piano which even a child can play — AND PLAY 
WITH EXPRESSION. 

The mmHAjnrnm-mmm Piano has two keyboards. On one, you 
play by hand, as a perfect piano. On the other, inside and out of sight, the 
eighty-eight flexible fingers strike with the accuracy of a trained pianist, and 
with the delicate touch of an artist. No other Player-Piano has this Miniature 
Keyboard. 



YOUR NAME & ADDRESS 

Factory Distributor 

Set Up Here By Your Paper 



No. 3 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 73 

not turning around to be looked at (cf. an advertise- 
ment of Ivers & Pond pianos in the current magazines), 
but is intent upon her playing. The text also uses words 
whose sole function is to awaken images of sound. These 
expressions appear in the advertisement: "Excellent 
tone," "the sweetest tone I ever heard,'' "sweet and 




No. 4 



melodious in tone," "like a grand church organ for 
power and volume; and a brilliant, sweet-toned piano, 
in one." 

The man who cannot appreciate the tone of a musical 
Instrument, and who can form but indistinct images 
of musical tones, is not a good man to write the adver- 
tisements for a music house. He might improve his 
style of writing by reading selections in which the author 
shows by his writing that he hears in imagination what 
he describes and his descriptions are so vivid that he 
makes us hear it too. 

In determining which foods I shall eat it is a matter 
of some importance to know how the goods are mantl- 
factured, what the price is, how it is prepared for the 
table, and whether it is nourishing or harmful to my 



74 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

system. The one essential element, however, is the 
taste. When I look over a bill of fare I seek out what 
I think will taste good. When I order groceries I order 
what pleases and tickles my palate. I want the food 
that makes me smack my lips, that makes my mouth 
water. Under these circumstances all other considera- 
tions are minimized to the extreme. 




Lasting Tone-beauty 



is what one demands m a piano. The 
Packard tone is singularly rich and of 
great endurance. " Practice " will not de- 
stroy it. Becomes ampler and more sym- 
pathetic with use. Superior materials and 
skillful workmanship insure this perma- 
nence of tone-loveliness. 

We will send catalogue and full particu. 

lars upon request. Address P O. Box C 

THE PACKARD CO., Fort Wayne, Ind. 



No. 5 



In advertisements of food products I have been sur- 
prised to note that many foods are advertised as if they 
had no taste at all. One would suppose that the food 
was to be taken by means of a hypodermic injection 
and not by the ordinary process of taking the food 
into the mouth and hence into contact with the organ 
of taste. The advertisers seem to be at a loss to know 
what to say about their foods, and so have, in many 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGEKY 75 

cases, expressed themselves in such general terms that 
their advertisements could be applied equally well to 
almost any product whatever. The two reproduced 
advertisements (Nos. 6 and 7), taken from recent issues 
of household periodicals, are samples of such meaning- 
less generalities. 

These two advertisements are reproduced exactly with 
the single exception that the names of the commodities 




a.]?e THE BEiST 

Best beans only are used. 
Extra care exercised in blending. 
Corn shells and dirt are removed. 
Adulterations not permitted. 
Use of most Improved machinery. 
Standard ol merit— our watchword. 
Endless watchfulness during manufacture. 

Cost no more than others 



No. 6 



have been changed in each case. I would suggest to 
these firms that they might improve their advertisements 
by leaving off the name of the goods entirely and then 
offer a prize to the person who could guess what they 
were advertisements of, or else offer the prize for the 
one who should suggest the largest list of goods which 
could be equally well presented by these advertisements. 
Some advertisers of food are evidently chronic dys- 
peptics and take it for granted that all others are in 
the same condition. They have nothing to say about 
their foods except that they have wonderful medicinal 
properties. To me a food which is only healthful savors 



76 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING- 

of hospitals and sickrooms, and is something which a 
well man or woman would not want. 

There are advertisers who appreciate the epicurean 
tendency of the ordinary man and woman. They de- 




No. 7 



scribe foods in such a way that we immediately want 
what they describe. Of all the advertisements in cur- 
rent magazines jjerhaps the one of the National Biscuit 
Company reproduced herewith (No. 8) presents their 
product in the most tempting manner. According to 
this advertisement "Nabisco'' is something to he eaten, 



APPLICATIO:^^ OF MENTAL IMAGERY 77 




NABISCO 

Wafers 

A Fairy Sandwich with 
an upper and lower 
crust of indescribable 
delicacy, separated with 
a creamy flavoring of 

Lemon, Orange, 
Chpcolate, Vanilla, 

Strawberry, 
Raspberry, or Mint. 

Ask for your favorite flavor 
NATIONAL BISCUIT COMPANY 



No. 8 



78 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

and it is presented in such a way that it would seem 
that one cannot read of it without being convinced that 
it is good and something that he wants — and the quicker 
he gets it the better. 



raufcf'dSIi^' 



DETTER leather has! 
*-' never been canaed 
than goes into Craw- 
ford Shoes. 

That s whv they 
wear so long. 




BOSTOB M<w 3f:'l'3iiiiif'£','.C 



MM Otk BsocnuK Utkm •mc 



No. 9 



This advertisement has character and individuality. 
Its statements could not be applied to anything but 
foods or, indeed, to anything but Nabisco. They do 
not say that Nabisco is wholesome, but when I read 
them I feel sure that Nabisco would agree with me. 

The skin is the sense organ by means of which we 
receive sensations of pressure, touch, heat, and cold, 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 79 

and it is the organ which gives more "comfortable'' and 
"uncomfortable" feelings than any other. Having ex- 
perienced touch, pressure, cold, heat, and the comforts 
and pains connected with our skin, we should be able 



iSHOE 

rMAKES LIPES WALK. BASY^i 



l^eg&rding Shoes' 
ii\ general 



No other portion of the 
liuman body is so tortured. 
In the efforts inade to clothe 
and protect it, as the Feet. 

The experience of sur- 
Seons proves that a large 
proportion of sprained 
joints, ruptured ligaments 
and fractured limbs are the 
natural result of defective, 
yeaKened, deformed feet. 

Shoe friction and inequal> 
Jly of pressure cause pre- 
mature wear at particular 
points, as well as serious 
discomfort to the feet. 

There is no reason why 
footwear should not be 
comfortable as well as styl- 
ish and have at the same 
time the practical value of 
icrviceableness 

The day of (he high- 
f)rlced, custom-made shoe is 
over. Modern shoe manu- 
ftcturine uses precisefythe 
same kind of materials.made 
up upon correct anatomical 
principles, and guaranteed 
to give comfon, together 
vlth fine wearing qualily. 



■.CWIS A. CHOSSETT. INC. 



issett Shoes 
L particular 



Crossett Shoes fit the feet, 
instead of making the feet 
(it the shoes. 

They support at every 
point the series of arches 
of which the human fobt is 
composed— providing an in» 
oer space which the foorex- 
ectly fills without restraint. 

They go far towird seoui^ 
Ing a safe step, a firm Call 
ind a graceful carriage. 

They can be manurac> 
cured at a low price owine 
10 admirable methods and 
perfection of machinery— 
in short they are a typical 
American product. 

They have an individuali 
Ity of design, and that cer> 
tain character which is the 
essence of good style. 

The workmanship and 
finish of each shoe is there* 
suit of nearly twenty yqar* 
of constant improvement la 
materials and methods.. 

The name and price l» 
woven in the strap al 
the back of every Crossetl 
Shoe. 

NAKEK.. NOR.TB itBINGTON. MASS* 



No. 10 



to imagine such sensations, and to seek the pleasant 
and to avoid tlfe unpleasant. Some people are very 
deficient in imagining the sensations which we receive 
from the skin, and, strange to say, not a few of these 
deficient individuals have been put in charge of the 
advertisements which have to do with these very sen- 
sations. One of the prominent characteristics of all 



80 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

clothing is that it gives us either a pleasant or an un- 
pleasant sensation by means of its cotitact with our 
bodies. 

Shoes are sold for different prices; therefore the 
price is to be considered. They are things that wear out 
sooner or later; we therefore must consider their dura- 
bility. They are things that we see with our eyes; 
therefore their appearance — style — must be considered. 
Lastly, — but not last considered by the purchaser, — 
shoes come into close contact with our skins, and sensa- 
tions that are either pleasant or painful result ; we must 
therefore consider the fit and comfort of the shoe. A 
very common deficiency in shoe advertisements is found 
in the failure of the advertiser to imagine the comfort 
of the shoe advertised, and to express it in his argu- 
ment. As a typical advertisement of this sort consider 
the advertisement of the Crawford shoe (No. 9). It 
might well be the advertisement of a leather pocket- 
book, if a few insignificant changes were made. 

In the advertisement of the Crossett shoes (No. 10) the 
text matter is most excellent. The writer is one who can 
appreciate the comfort of a good-fitting and easy shoe; 
he has been able to imagine the sensation, and he has 
described it so vividly that the reader feels in imagina- 
tion the comfort of a Crossett shoe. 

Omega Oil is a liniment that is supposed to increase 
the pleasant sensations which we receive through the 
skin. The writer of this advertisement seems to have 
been able to imagine the uncomfortable feeling of sore 
feet, and of the comfort which his oil would secure. 
The artist who drew the sore feet (No. 11) surely could 
appreciate the situation in a striking manner. The 
artist does not depict and the author does not describe 
what he cannot imagine. 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 81 

Omega Oil is not only a thing which can be applied to 
and felt by the skin, but it is also a thing that can be 
seen and smelt. To many it might seem a little thing 



Omesla Oil 




The avera|e man weighs ahouf 140 
pounds and the aversre woman about 
120. 

If yoii want to realize how heavy that 
*. pick up something about those weights 
and see now long your hands and arms 
«an bear the strain 

• ff- you can stand it a full minute, you 
are doing remarkably well. 

Did vou ever slop and think ll»t your 
feet hofd up that big weight (or hours at 
t time every day ? 

That is why your feet are sore and 
tired at ni^ht 

That IS why they ache. itch, bum and 



A foot-bath before retiring is helpful 
but it does not go far enough 

The strained, tired-out muscles aivl 
lignnients call for something strengtheninft 
just .is your stomach calls for food. 

The kind of strength needed for sorifc 
(ired feet is the kind of strength to bt 
found in Omega Oil. 

Give your feet a good bathing in wanil 
wafer, and get all the impurities out of th» 
pores. Then rub the feet thoroughly with 
On)ega Oil. 

The Oil will go in through the cleaa 
open pores, and strengthen and comfort 
your feet m a manner that will a-^tonil^ 
you 



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izn 




lirl 1 coniullrc 




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ad'icr 1 itciacd to (Ivc it i (riU |n4 foa*4 I 














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unct u uy su witboul uy j.tn 


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raok Art. Ba:ttliMn. MA | 



Oatf* OU l» pot for tvcoibisf • Molneoi a«|bi w •• -prnt h» 

No. 11 



that Omega Oil is green, but that single advertisement, 
"It's Green" (No. 12), has done a great deal to help 
the readers to form a distinct image of the liniment. 
The man who cares but little for odors would not have 
taken so much space to say that it "smells nice" (No. 



82 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

13). In these three advertisements and others like 
them the advertiser of Omega Oil has shown his appre- 
ciation of the human mind to which he has been ap- 

It's Green 




OmedaOil 



One peculiar thing about 
Omega. Oil is its green 
color. Some people think it is colored green to make it 
look nice, but that is not so. Omega Oil is green because 
Nature makes it green It contains a powerful green 
herb that gives it its color, and it is this same herb that 
Wops pain in pcople',s bodies. -There are plenty of white, 
brown and yellow liniments, but there is only one Omega 
Oil, and' it is green There is nothing like Omega Oil 
for curing pain, just as there is nothing like the sun for 
fnkking rcsl daylight. ^ 

No. 12 



pealing. It may, however, be questionable whether such 
minor considerations for liniment as color and odor 
should receive so much emphasis as is given them here. 
As was shown in the preceding chapter, many people 
are deficient in certain forms of imagery. Most people 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 83 

can imagine with some degree of satisfaction how things 
look. Not quite so many can imagine how things sound 
or feel. Very many have difficulty in imagining how 
things taste and smell. This would be sufficient ground 

Smells Nice 




Omega Oil is good lor ever>"tluaff a I 



No. 13 



Omeda 
Oil 

You can tell by the 
smell of Omega Ofl. 
that it is different 
from any other lini- 
ment you ever saw. 
It has a peculiar 
and pleasant odor. 
Besides being the 
best remedy in tho 
world for stopping 
pains, it is also 
the nicest to use. 
It is not made of 
turpentine or ammo- 
nia, but the body of 
it is a pure vegeta- 
ble oil. Into this 
oil is put four other 
ingredients, one of 
which is, a green 
herb that stops paia 
a good deal on the 
same principle that 
a puiF of wind blows 
out a lamp, or water 
quenches a fire. 

I ought to b« good lot. 



for appealing especially to visual images if the commod- 
ity was primarily a thing of sight. When the objects 
advertised are things primarily perceived by other senses 
than the eye, the greatest care should be taken to awaken 
those more difficult images, i.e., those of sound, touch, 



84 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVEETISING 

taste, smell, etc. The man who is blind and deaf is 
greatly handicapped. He cannot perceive color or hear 
sound, and (if always blind and deaf) cannot imagine 
sights and sounds. The sense organs have been called 
the windows of the soul. The more sensations we re- 
ceive from an object the better we know it. The func- 
tion of the nervous system is to make us aware of the 
sights, sounds, feelings, tastes, etc., of the objects in our 
environment. The nervous system which does not re- 
spond to sound or to any other sensible qualities is 
defective. Advertisements are sometimes spoken of as 
the nervous system of the business world. That adver- 
tisement of musical instruments which contains nothing 
to awaken images of sounds is a defective advertisement. 
That advertisement of foods which awakens no images 
of taste is a defective advertisement. As our nervous 
system is arranged to give us all the possible sensations 
from every object, so the advertisement which is com- 
parable to the nervous system must awaken in the 
reader as many different kinds of images as the object 
itself can excite. 

It might be well for a young man who expects to 
make a profession of writing advertisements to make a 
test of his own mental imagery. If he finds that he 
is peculiarly weak in visual imagery he should seek 
employment with a firm that handles goods other than 
those which are particularly objects of sight, e.g., pic- 
tures. The man who cannot imagine how a musical 
instrument sounds should hesitate to write the adver- 
tisements of a musical house. The man who cannot 
imagine how foods taste will be greatly handicapped in 
attempting to write advertisements for food products. 
Forms of mental imagery may, to a limited extent, be 
cultivated, and, by giving special attention to the sub- 



APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 85 

ject, one with a weak form of imagery may greatly im- 
prove upon his former efforts, in which he followed out 
his natural bent without considering the forms of mental 
images which could be appealed to by his particular 
class of goods. 



86 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISI:NG 

VIII 
ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 

Every one has wondered how it happens that a 
thought or idea has suddenly and unexpectedly entered 
his mind. Not infrequently the particular idea had not 
been entertained for years, — perhaps it had no apparent 
connection with the present line of thought, — and yet 
here it is, seemingly unaltered and as distinct as it had 
been years before. 

If anything in the world has tlie appearance of law- 
lessness, it certainly is the flight of thought in these 
minds of ours. We can go from Chicago to Peking; 
from the present moment to the building of the pyra- 
mids or the creation of the universe. We can jnck out 
any object or event included within the borders of space 
or time. We can go from any one of these objects or 
events to any other in an instant of time, and whole mul- 
titudes of them may be passed in review in scarcely 
more than a single second. It would be difficult to 
imagine anything less confined and apparently less sub- 
ject to laws than the human mind. 

Furthermore, no two minds are alike. Men differ as 
to facial expression in a much less degree than in the 
manner in which they think. 

However hopeless the task may seem at first sight, it ' 
is nevertheless true that from the time of Aristotle down 
to the present day great thinkers have been engaged in 
trying to find laws according to which the mind acts. 
They have not been content with the surprise which they 
have felt when an idea has unexpectedly entered their 
minds, but they have gone further and sought for the 



ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 87 

laws which regulate this sudden appearance. Much 
progress has been made, and the mind is gradually being 
recognized as consistent and law-abiding as are all other 
things in the universe. 

In many cases we can readily see why we are think- 
ing of particular things at a specified time. As I walk 
down a busy street, unless I am oblivious to my sur- 
roundings my thought is determined for me by the 
objects which sm^round me. My eye is caught by an 
artistically decorated window in which sporting goods 
are displayed. My mind is fully occupied for the time 
with the perception of these articles. The perception 
of one object is superseded by the perception of an- 
other, and in most cases nothing but the present objects 
are thouglit of, and this perception of present objects 
does not recall to my mind any objects which I liave 
seen at other times. It happens, however, that as I 
see a sweater I think of the sweater which I used to 
wear, and then of the circumstances which attended its 
destruction. My mind is next occupied with the per- 
ception of clothing,- millinery, etc., as these objects, one 
after the otlier, meet the direct gaze of my eyes. At 
the sight of shoes I am reminded of my need for a 
new pair; then of the particular make of shoes which 
I ordinarily wear; then of the pair which I purchased 
a few months ago and of the circumstances attending 
the purchase. So I may go on for hours, and in a large 
part my thoughts will be limited to the perception 
of objects and events which surround me, but in cer- 
tain cases {e.g.y sweater and shoes) the perception sug- 
gests a previous experience. In the case of simple per- 
ception the mind seems to act under the ordinary laws 
of cause and effect. The objects on the street affect 
me and the perceptions are the result. What my 



88 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

thoughts shall be are determined for me by the external 
objects which affect my sense organs. 

Under other circumstances the mind seems to be in- 
dependent of surrounding objects and to supply the 
food for thought from former experiences. This is 
especially true in dreams, sleepless nights, and reveries. - 
Its working is clearly seen in all cases where we are 
not distracted by external objects and do not attempt 
to direct the thought along any particular line. Some 
time ago I read President Roosevelt's decision concern- 
ing the Sampson- Schley controversy. After retiring for 
the night I found that I was thinking of the Rocky 
Mountains, New Orleans, the Boer war, an Evanston 
dining-room, the siege of Peking, the recent action of 
the dowager empress, the American army and navy, 
and then of the Sampson- Schley controversy again. The 
interesting part of each idea tends to suggest, or to 
recall to the mind some previous experience with which 
this interesting part had been previously associated. 
As I thought of the Sampson- Schley controversy, the 
interesting thing just then was that it had been re- 
viewed by President Roosevelt. The interesting thing 
about President Roosevelt just then was that he had 
hunted in the Rockies. The interesting thing about 
that was that he had ridden a horse. In a similar man- 
ner the horse suggested New Orleans, where recent ship- 
ments of horses had been made to South Africa. This 
suggested the Boer war, this a conversation on war 
by a young lady who had returned to Evanston from 
China. She suggested Peking ; Peking suggested the dow- 
ager empress; she suggested her recent actions; these 
changed conditions suggested the American army and 
navy ; and they suggested Sampsoji and Schley, and they 
the controversy. 



ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 89 

As I walk along the street the action of my mind, 
even when not conlined to bare perceptions, seems dif- 
ferent from its action on the sleepless nighf. As far 
as the association of ideas is concerned, however, the 
action is practically identical. In the first case the 
perceptions of external objects (sweater and shoes) 
are effective in calling up ideas or experiences with 
which they had formerly been associated. In the sec- 
ond case the ideas are effective in calling up other ideas 
with which they had formerly been associated. 

The statement of the law as it applies to both cases 
and expressed in general terms is: "'Whenever there is 
in consciousness one element of a previous experience, 
this one element tends to bring hack the entire experi- 
ence.^^ Things thought together oj in immediate succes- 
sion become ^'associated," or welded together so that 
when one returns it tends to recall the others. The 
sight of a shoe suggested the entire "shoe experience," 
in which I had entered a store, purchased a pair of 
shoes, carried on a conversation with the proprietor, 
etc. The thought of President Roosevelt suggested 
an entire "Roosevelt experience," i.e., President Roose- 
velt mounted on a horse, attired in a particular costume, 
amid particular scenery, etc. 

But I had had many other "shoe experiences" and 
many other "President Roosevelt experiences." How 
did it happen that the shoe suggested the particular 
shoe experience which it did, and not tennis shoes which 
I had purchased recently, or the wooden shoes which 
I had examined years before? Why did not President 
Roosevelt suggest his trip to see his sick son, or his 
African exploration, or his death, or his literary pro- 
ductions? Each "one element in a previous experience" 
has been one element in many previous experiences. 



90 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Which one of these previous experiences will be sug- 
gested by the "one element" is the problem which is 
of interest to us. 

If we knew a person's past history completely, and 
if we knew the present external stimulus and the pres- 
ent condition of his mind, we could tell with some de- 
gree of certainty what the next idea would be which 
is to enter his mind. The laws upon which this certainty 
is based are the three following : 

The first law is that of habit based on repetition. 

According to this law the idea next to enter the mind 
is the one which has habitually been associated with 
[the interesting part of] the one present to the mind. 
The sight of a shoe, the printed word "shoe," the spoken 
word "shoe," and the«felt need of a shoe, each calls to 
my mind this particular make of shoes with which I 
have been familiar for years. I have perceived a shoe 
as a "Douglas"; I have seen "Douglas" and "shoe" 
printed together; I have heard "Douglas" and "shoe" 
spoken together; I have seen the portrait of Mr. Doug- 
las and a cut of his shoe appearing together; I have 
met my need for shoes wdth a "Douglas." All these 
associations have been frequent and have become so 
welded together with constant use that when shoe enters 
my mind, it draws its habitual associate, Douglas, 
with it. 

The second law is that of recency. 

If two things have been recently connected in the 
mindy when one is thought of again it suggests the other 
also. One day I read and thought of the exportation of 
horses from New Orleans. I do not know that horses 
and New Orleans were ever associated in my mind but 
this single time, but the next day as I thought of Presi- 
dent Roosevelt as mounted on a horse, the thought of 



ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 91 

horse immediately suggested its recent associate, New 
Orleans. The recency of this association made it ef- 
fective. If I had read of this exportation a month before 
instead of on the preceding day, it is not probable that 
this associate would have been suggested. 

The third law is that of vividness or intensity. 

If my present thought has been associated with a 
thousand different ohjects, that one will he suggested 
with which it has been most vividly associated. 

When I thought of the Boer war, war suggested the 
siege of Peking because the lady who had returned from 
China described the siege of Peking in such a thrilling 
manner — war and the siege of Peking were so intensely 
associated — that when I thought of war, war suggested 
this particular association. The association between 
war and Peking was not only vivid, but was also habit- 
ual and recent, even if these latter elements do not seem 
so prominent. 

Psychologists are practically agreed that these are 
the three special laws of the association of ideas and that 
the "idea which shall come next" conforms to these three 
simple formulae. 

The law; of habit is very much more important than 
the other two. When one element has been associated 
with one experience habitually, with another recently, 
and with still another vividly, the chances are that the 
habitual experience (associate) will be recalled. If, 
however, the one element has been associatecj with a 
certain experience habitually, recently, and vividly, this 
one element will certainly call up this particular ex- 
perience and none of the multitudes of other experi- 
ences with which it had been associated. 

The application of all this to advertising is direct. 
The merchant desires so to advertise his goods that 



92 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

his particular brand or article will be the only one sug- 
gested whenever his class of goods is thought of. 

Let the reader of this article test the truthfulness 
of the preceding analysis. Test it and see whether the 
laws of habit, recency, and vividness cover all the cases 
of association of ideas in your own mind. Think over 
your possible needs in wearing appareh Where would 
you go to supply that need, and what quality or make 
would you get? As you think of tliese possible needs 
what names, brands, or qualities are suggested? Now 
analyze these ideas and see if they do not all conform 
to the three law^s given above. You are probably sur- 
prised to see how many of the ideas are those which 
you have habitually associated with that class of goods. 
Try the same experiment with articles of food, luxury, 
investment, etc., and you will be convinced that the 
advertisements which are the most often seen have a 
great advantage over those which are less often seen. 

Long years ago you formed the habit of putting your 
coat on in a particular way. Perhaps you put the right 
sleeve on first, perhaps the left. You have formed the 
habit of putting it on just one way and you will put it 
on just that way as long as you live. If you put on 
the right sleeve first this morning, you will put it on 
the same way to-morrow morning and every other morn- 
ing. Of course you could change and put the left sleeve 
on first, but you won't do it. Tlie mind forms habits 
of thought and when they are once established they are 
controlling factors in the action of the mind. As a boy 
I associated certain names with certain articles of mer- 
chandise. I saw a particular soap advertised in various 
ways. Perhaps it was used in my home — I am not sure 
about that. This name and soap were so habitually 
associated in my mind as a boy that when I think of 



ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 93 

soap this particular soap is the kind I am most likely 
to think of even to the present time, although it has 
not been called to my mind so often of recent years as 
other kinds of soap. As far as the association of ideas 
is concerned, tliat advertisement is the most effective 
which is most often thought of in connection with the 
line of goods advertised, but the associations formed in 
youth are more effective than those formed in later 
years. Their effectiveness is lasting and will still have 
influence as long as the person lives. Hence goods of a 
constant and recurrent use might well be advertised in 
home or even in children's papers, and the advertise- 
ments might be so constructed that they would be appre- 
ciated by children. 

Whenever 1 think of photographical instruments I 
think of one particular make of cameras. If I should 
feel a need of buying a camera, I would find immediately 
that I was thinking of this particular make. If I were 
called upon to recommend a camera, this one would al- 
ways suggest itself to me first. It is suggested imme- 
diately and involuntarily. In my particular case this 
advertisement of cameras is successful and for me has a 
decided prestige over all other cameras. If I try to 
think out the reason why this particular one is sug- 
gested whenever I need or think of cameras, it seems to 
me that it is because it complies with both the laws of 
habit and vividness. I do not remember to have noticed 
any advertisement of cameras recently, nor have I had 
any occasion to think of tliem for some time. I do 
know, however, that for several years I saw this ad- 
vertisement repeatedly — therefore it is with me an 
habitual association. I also remember that at one time 
I read a booklet published by this company and that 
it impressed me profoundly— therefore it is for me a 
vivid association. 



94 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

If you made the test recommended above, you found 
that in some eases goods were suggested that were not 
the ones habitually thought of, but those which had been 
recently in the mind. Perhaps they had only been 
brought to your attention this single time. Although 
the effectiveness of habitual associations is all the more 
lasting the longer the advertisement is maintained, it 
gradually diminishes unless the repetition is continued. 
The recent associates are brought back to the mind with 
the greatest readiness, and in some cases they prevail 
over the merely habitual. This emi:)hasizes the necessity 
of keeping up the repetition to make the habitual most 
effective, to form the most recent associate, and thus 
take advantage of the prestige gained by former adver- 
tising. Only by frequent advertising are the habitual 
associations formed and the recent associates constantly 
made. 

You also noticed in your experiments that certain 
goods were suggested of which you had not recently 
thought and of which, perhaps, you had thought but once 
in your life. This one time you had seen a very striking 
advertisement, or had heard the goods highly recom- 
mended by a friend, or had seen and used the goods. 
For instance, one vivid and intense association of hats 
and Smith was so strong that at the very thought of 
hats Smith's name presented itself too. You thought 
of Smith and hats at the same time, and the two thoughts 
were so vivid that they became welded together by the 
white heat of the mind, and so when hats are in the 
mind Smith must come with them. This show.s that 
sometimes doing extraordinary things in advertising 
may succeed when it is desired to make a great im- 
pression and to have the associations formed under this 
white heat. It may be admitted that this sort of ad- 



' ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 95 

vertising has been successful in some cases. The law 
is that the mind is in general gradually molded. Lines 
of thought are developed and not suddenly formed. The 
advertiser who attempts suddenly to take the world by 
storm has "to go against nature" and is consequently 
at a very great disadvantage. 

The entire subject of association of ideas may be 
made clearer and more definite if, in conclusion, its 
action in another concrete case is given. For years I 
have seen the statement that the Burlington Railroad 
goes to Colorado. I have thus thought Burlington and 
Colorado together, and every time they have entered my 
mind together they have become more tightly welded 
together, or associated, until now Colorado is no sooner 
in my mind than I find that Burlington is also there. 
When I analyze this association to see how it has been 
formed, I find, in the first place, that for years I have 
seen the words Burlington and Colorado together. I 
have thought the two ideas together repeatedly, and the 
association has become habitual. In the second place, 
I find that but yesterday I saw the words Burlington 
and Colorado together and thought the two thoughts 
together and so the association was recent. In the third 
place, I remember that some weeks ago I had been at- 
tracted by the Burlington advertisement in which a 
book about Colorado was offered for six cents. This 
advertisement impressed me, and I gave it a large 
amount of attention or active thought and so the asso- 
ciation became vivid or intense. 

If the merchant can make his name or brand to be 
the habitual, recent, and vivid associate with his class 
of goods^ he will have such a pfestige over all others 
that his success seems assured. The securing of this re- 
sult should be one of the aims of the wise advertiser. 



96 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



IX 

FUSION 

Some years ago I was spending my Christmas vaca- 
tion at my old home. One morning I was sitting in the 
library reading short stories. While I was reading, jny 
sister went to the piano and began playing some of the 
tunes which she had played years before, and which I 
had particularly enjoyed. I did not notice the fact that 
she was playing at all, but I thought the stories were 
peculiarly beautiful. The next day I remarked about 
them and had occasion to refer to them. I was greatly 
disappointed upon reading them the second time to find 
that they were very commonplace and that ordinarily 
they would not have pleased me at all. If I liad paid 
strict attention to the short stories alone, they would 
have proved themselves to be very uninteresting. As it 
was, I paid partial attention to each and fused the music 
and the reading into one total impression which was 
extremely pleasing. 

On certain occasions when friends are together all 
have a jolly good time. A spirit of good fellowship 
reigns, and every one is happy and contented. The 
stories told are appreciated and applauded. The jokes 
all seem so fitting and pertinent. Even if they have 
been heard before, they are so well told and so apropos 
that they are as good as new. The next day one is often 
chagrined when he tries to relate the stories and jokes, 
and to tell why he had enjoyed the occasion so well. The 
stories may have been mere commonplaces and the jokes 



FUSION 97 

nothing but old standbj^s, but tliey did not stand alone ; 
they were enforced and improved by the spirit of good 
fellowship which pervaded the company. The place, 
the stories, the jokes, the refreshments, the amusement, 
and the occasion all united their influences to make a 
total impression. They were fused together, and their 
total-product was what had so delighted us. Any one 
of these things taken singly would have been insufficient 
to produce an3\ pleasant result, but when taken collec- 
tively each shines in a borrowed light. 

If I hold a lead-pencil vertically in my hand directly 
in front of my nose, the name of the manufacturer 
printed on the pencil will be barely visible, if it is on the 
extreme right side of the pencil. If, however, I close my 
right eye, the name disappears. If I make a mark on the 
pencil directly opposite the name of the manufacturer 
and hold the pencil as before, both the mark and the 
name are visible. If I close the right eye, the name 
disappears. If I close the left eye, the mark disappears. 
As I look at the pencil with my right eye I get a slightly 
different impression than I do when I look with my left 
eye, and vice versa. We are not conscious of these two 
partial impressions, for we fuse them into one total im- 
pression, which gives us a better perception of the pencil 
than is contained in the mathematical sum of the two 
partial perceptions. A discussion of the result of this 
fusion of the two impressions made upon the two eyes 
would be out of place at this point, but it might be 
remarked that among these results are accurate judg- 
ments of the distance and of tlie thickness of the pencil. 

At any point of time we may be receiving impressions 
of sight through the eyes, impressions of sound through 
the ears, impressions of hunger or thirst from the body, 
and at the same time we may be thinking of former 



98 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

experiences. All these impressions, sensations, ideas, 
etc., are fused together and have no separate existence. 
Each plays a part in determining the whole conscious 
impression or condition, but the parts do not exist alone. 
It is a general law of psychology that all things tend to 
fuse and only those things are analyzed that must he 
analyzed. In the beginning we perceive objects as con- 
crete wholes and then later analyze the wholes into 
parts. If the first animal which a child sees should be 
a dog, it would see the dog as a very different thing from 
what it would later appear to him. It would be a dog, 
but his idea of it would be so indefinite that he would 
not notice whether it had four or six legs, whether it had 
ears or trunk, nose or bill, or whether it was white or 
black. By later experience the child would learn that 
the dog was of a particular color, had four legs, two 
ears, that it barked, ate, and that it had certain other 
peculiarities and characteristics. The expert in natural 
history and the dog fancier each notice certain things 
about the dog thiat the rest of humanity never sees at all. 
We grasp everything as a concrete whole first, and then 
by later experience we analyze this whole and add to 
it. The point to be emphasized is that we do not first 
perceive' the parts and unite them to form the greater 
wholes, hut that we first perceive the wholes and 
only after the process of analysis has heen com- 
pleted do ice perceive the parts. There are cer- 
tain products of fusion which by most of us are never 
analyzed at all. This is the case with the sensations 
which we receive whenever we breathe. With every 
breath the diaphragm contracts and expands, the 
muscles raise and lower the ribs, the lungs receive and 
discharge a volume of air, the air passages in the nose 
and windpipe enlarge and contract. All these play a 



FUSION 99 

part in making the total sensation which we call breath- 
ing, but we cannot with ease analyze the different parts. 
They are fused together, and as it would be of no par- 
ticular benefit to analyze the product we have never 
done so, and we never would have known that the feeling 
was the product of these elements unless we had 
reasoned it out first. 

We know of no object which is independent of all 
other things. In fact, the value of all objects depends 
upon the relationships which they have to other things. 
We think of things only in their relations, and these 
relationships fuse and constitute the object as we know 
it. Anthracite or bituminous coal," yellow clay and 
black loam, can all be thought of as pure and clean, but 
under certain conditions they become dirt. None of 
these are dirt in themselves, but in certain abnormal 
positions they are nothing but filth. When bituminous 
coal is on the face of the coal heaver it is almost impos- 
sible to think of it as coal. It has ceased to be coal and 
has become dirt because of the abnormal environment 
into which it has come. 

The manner in which the environment fuses with an 
article and determines its value is well illustrated by 
food in a restaurant. The food may be of the very best 
quality and the preparation may have been faultless, yet 
if the service is poor, — if the waiter's linen is dirty and 
his manner slovenly, — the food does not taste good and 
is not appetizing. You may reason out that the waiter 
has nothing to do with the preparation of the food and 
that his linen has not come into contact with it, but all 
your reasoning will do you but little good. The idea of 
dirty linen and this particular food are in your mind 
indissolubly united, and now, instead of thinking of food 
in the abstract, you are compelled to think of food in this 



100 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

particular relationship, and the result is anything but 
appetizing. 

The same thing is illustrated in all places of business. 
Stores and offices have a tone or atmosphere about them, 
and everything they have to offer is seen through this 
atmosphere. I heard a gentleman say recently that he 
had gone to a particular store to bu}^ a certain article. 
The store was recommended to him and he was convinced 
that it was the best place to buy the merchandise desired. 
When he entered the store he found such a shoddy tone 
to the entire establishment that he could not believe that 
the goods which were shown him were desirable. If he 
could have seen the goods in another store he would 
have purchased them at once, but he could not convince 
himself that the goods shown him there were what he 
wanted, so he left without purchasing them. We are 
not able to look at things impartially and abstractly, but 
we judge of everything in the light of its environment — 
it fuses with its environment and the environment be- 
comes a part of it. 

The principle of fusion is a subject which should be 
carefully considered in placing an advertisement. If 
we could think quite analytically and see the advertise- 
ment just as it is, and as a thing independent of its 
environment, it might be profitable to place our adver- 
tisements on garbage boxes and in cheap and disrepu- 
table publications. As we are constructed, however, such 
a course would be suicidal, even for a house dealing in 
disreputable and cheap articles. The medium gives a 
tone of its own to all tJie advertisements contained in it. 
Personally I feel inclined to respect any firm that ad- 
vertises in a high-class magazine, and unless there is 
some particular reason to the contrary am willing to 
trust its honesty. I have always regarded handbills as 



Fusio:^ , \ \ _ 101 

cheap and irresponsible, and usually think of tlie goods 
advertised in this way as belonging to the same category. 

In tlie course of a conversation, a very intelligent lady 
recently said to me that she never read the advertise- 
ments in any of the magazines excepting in her home 
religious paper. Here she read not only all the reading 
matter, but all the advertisements as well. I asked her 
why she read these advertisements, and she said that 
she knew they could be depended upon. She had the 
utmost confidence in the editor and believed that he 
knew every firm advertising, and that by accepting its 
advertisement and publishing it he thereby gave it his 
stamp of approval. No advertisement appearing in this 
periodical w^as compelled to stand on its own merit 
alone, so far as she was concerned, but had added to it 
the confidence inspired by this publication. The adver- 
tisement and her confidence fused and formed a whole 
in which the lady never suspected that any other element 
entered than those which were in the advertisement 
itself. The lady referred to did not read the advertise- 
ments in other magazines as a usual thing. I have seen 
her turn over the advertising pages of other magazines 
to see whether there was anything there that interested 
her. She reads the advertisements in her favorite maga- 
zine and merely looks over the others. 

In choosing the publications in which he should place 
his advertisement, the advertiser should not only con- 
sider the circulation and the kind of circulation, but he 
should also consider the tone which each publication 
would add to his particular advertisement. It is well to 
have a large number of persons read your advertisement ; 
it is better to have those read it who are interested in it 
and have the means to purchase the goods advertised; 
but it is still better to have a large number of the right 



102 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

kind of persons see your advertisement in a publication 
which adds confidence and recommends it favorably to 
your prospective customers. Your advertisement will, 
to a greater or less extent, fuse with the publication in 
which it appears, and the product will not be your adver- 
tisement as it was prepared by you, but as it comes out 
of the mold into which you inserted it. 

The statement that a man is known by the company 
he keeps is not often challenged, and yet the statement 
would have been equally true if asserted of an adver- 
tisement. If a man is seen frequently in the company 
of rascals, we think at once that he has become a rascal, 
but do not suppose that he has reformed his associates. 
The honorable man loses his reputation by associating 
with dishonorable persons. An honest firm which ad- 
vertises in a disreputable sheet and brings its adver- 
tisement into association with advertisements of a dis- 
reputable character lays itself open to suspicion. The 
firm may be so well known that it would not be greatly 
injured by such a course, and it might by its presence 
raise the standard of the other advertisements. Such 
a work of philanthropy is too expensive and dangerous 
to recommend itself to the better known firms. If, on 
the other hand, a disreputable firm should place its ad- 
vertisement in a high-grade publication and among 
honest advertisers, it would for a time at least enjoy 
the confidence inspired by the publication and by the 
other advertisements. Every honest firm which adver^ 
tises should insist, however, that all dishonest advertise- 
ments be rejected, for, unless this is done, the honest 
men lose and the dishonest ones gain. The advertise- 
ments of a publication are in the mind of the public all 
classed together, and if it is known that one of them 
cannot be trusted, all are brought into disrepute. 



FUSION 103 

Because of this principle of fusion^ it is imperative 
that the advertiser should see that the make-up of the 
publication is not detrimental to his particular adver- 
tisement. Your advertisement would be injured, if, in 
the make-up, your advertisement of diamonds was placed 
among advertisements of a questionable character. If 
I should see an advertisement of an investment scheme 
that guaranteed unusually large profits, I would sus- 
pect fraud at once and would assume a skeptical atti- 
tude. If the next instant I should read your advertise- 
ment of diamonds, I would be suspicious and would 
hardly know why I was so. If the next moment I should 
read the advertisement of a medicine that cured all sorts 
of incurable diseases, my suspicions would be confirmed, 
and I would be sure that your diamonds were paste. If, 
on the other hand, I should see your advertisement 
placed among those which I knew to be reliable, I would 
be inclined to classify yours with the others, and would 
think that it was at least worth while to investigate the 
matter. 

The cut here shown (No. 1) is a good illustration of 
the violation of the proper consideration of the principle 
of fusion in the make-up of the advertisements of a daily 
paper. In a Chicago daily for June 22, 1902, appeared 
three partial columns giving announcements of deaths 
and burials. Inserted in the middle column was this 
advertisement for Dr. Sleight's fat-reducing tablets. It 
might be said that this advertisement would attract 
attention because of its position, but the effect of the 
atmosphere of death and burials upon the fat-reducing 
tablets is too apparent to need comment. 

Many of those who choose illustrations for their ad- 
vertisements follow the philosophy of the Irish boy who 
said that he liked to stub his toe because it felt so good 



104 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

when it stopped hurting. Many of us are unable to see 
how the boy had made any gain after it was all over, but 
he was satisfied and that was sufftcient. The philosophic 
disciples of the Irish boy are found in advertisers who 
have certain things to dispose of which will not do cer- 
tain harmful things. First they choose an illustration 
which will make you believe that what they have to sell 



DEATHS- 

BXL1,MAN--Imie 18, 1B02. Bntlim L, fcelsVM 
wife of Aodrew Bellm&n ftnd mother of Mrs. 
Hkmie fiuneilzke, £dwftrd. JohD uid Cbailet 

SV^^raJ to-^a; at 12 o'doeli from her lata Te9ldenc«, 

mis BUU It., to Gnceluid. 
BEST— Jacob, belofed husband of Dora Best, al 

Denver, Col., and bod of Uarie Best. 
9aBenl to-dkj at ! p m. from 413 a Paulina et. ; 

intenneot at Graceland. .Member cf Vernon 

CouicU, S4,.Bo;aJ League. 
8KE30N — Belored wife of John BeesoQ, June 20, 

1802. and alster cf Frank B. Metzingar. Ura 

A^isflral (rota her late re^dcnce. 4150 Artesian ar., 
to St. Agnes' Gtarrcb. to Forty-ninth St. and Ash- 
land ar., tbeacaTjy can to Mount Olivet, to-day. 

»EBNS— Mrs. Anni M.j_840 W. Tajlor it, 



^. m., to Forest Home. 
»»OWN^Jun» 19. WaUam Malcolm, aoD trf Bar- 

rlett M. Broim. ' 
Vuneral from family . residence, 6415 XomiKl ar., 
,^to-day at 10 a. m. Interment at Mount Hope. 
CLARK— John 8., June 19, beloved brother of 
':<Bry«n H. and Alice Clarit and Mrs. L. 0. Mc- 

Kflima.'Of Fscanaba. Mich. 

BO A ^acamoit ft. te^Sin^tnca'd Church. 
Xb*n Ulb masa will be celebrated, thence by 
foniaim to Mount Olivet. 
ODRTIN— Michael, at his brotber'a residence. 3148 
Cnion aT.,'iiatica ct Canigaholt, County Claie, 

tfimnnl to-day at a. m. from brother's residence 
■'Jo NaUrUy Church, thence by can to Mourn 
OUret, via 46th at. depou 
OARRIB— June 20, Adam, belwed .bosband of 

Marguerite Darric (nee Granuau). 
runaral Monday at »a5 a._.ln. Trom hu late rral- 
»-^ncf, 1154 Bourooy at.. Sj Prtsentatlon CUurcii; 
theask by carriages to Calvary Cemetery. 

ol Matilda Dow (nee Hueb- 
120 Darton Bt., to-day, 




•©OSS-sJOhn. Tioabaod 
•Vtineral from late r«sid 



*•«>»■ of -Jame* W. and Marpiret 
** _ L»wrenca »v., "»t New 
*-^- - • 2 mtutla. 



Dr. Sleight's 
Fat Reducing Tablets 



No. 1 



is just what you do not want, and then in the text they 
try to overcome this false impression, and to show you 
that what they have to offer is not so bad after all. Most 
of us are unable to see how the advertiser has gained, 
even if he has succeeded in giving us logical proof that 
his goods are not so bad as we were at first led to think. 
We are not logically inclined, and we take the illustra- 
tion and the text and combine the two. The best that 
the text can do is to destroy the evil effect of the illustra- 
tion. Of course, when we read in the text that the 
illustration does not correctly represent the goods, we 



FUSION 



105 



ought to discard the illustration entirely and think only 
of the text, but, unfortunately, we are not constructed 
that way. The impression made by the illustration and 
that made by the text fuse and form a whole which is the 
result formed by these two elements. 

In No. 2 of the reproduced advertisements the adver- 
tiser w^ants to bring out the fact that his insect powder 
will not kill human individuals, but will kill insects. 
The line of his argument would seem to be the exhibition 
of a picture of the skull of a person killed by his insect 
powder. He then confidentially assures you that his 





Iham- 
-, ,. mer it to get the lok 

^ V OownT Tbea it U not 

The Swan Foantaln Pen etarts wrltliig 
jDBtaDt U toucbei paper, w'"- - 
,dyev»n flow of ink. Tbe feed ( 
Illy adjusted to meet the needt 




No. 3 



powder is *'non-poisonous to human." Most people who 
notice the advertisement see the picture of the skull, but 
fail to see the ^'non^poisonous to human." 

The ^^ad-smith^' of No. 3 is trying to convince the pub- 
lic that his fountain pen will not blot. He shows us a 
cut of his pen doing just what he wants us to believe it 
will not- do. If we could look at the cut, then forget 
it entirely and read the text without being biased by 
the cut, this form of argumentation might be successful, 
but that is not the way in which we think. 

Advertisement No. 4 apparently illustrates the pro- 
prietor of the rug company as an escaped convict. The 
text makes no reference to this fact, but tries to impress 



106 TPIE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

upon us the idea that this is the gentleman with whom 
we should deal. 

Advertisement No. 5 is the advertisement of a sweet- 
smelling cigar. The way the designer of the advertise- 
ment goes about it to convince us that his cigars are 




LEFT BEHIND. 

Onr plan of selling all carpets from 
inanafacturer to consamer leaves ooa 
competitors but of the race. 

Ingrains, Brussels, Velvets, Axmln* 
isters, Moqaettes, Davonnierres, ar« 
all on the hsb. 

If it's Rngs, that's onr spectaltT; la 
fact, we make it a point to fur^b 
homes complete with floor coverings 
that are proper, and we do not dupU' 
cate fine patterns. 

Carpet cleaning and laying, feather 
renovating. Rugs from old carpets. 

PetoskeyRugMfg. 
and Carpet Co. Ltd. 

455 Mitchell Street,. 



No. 4 



sweet smelling is to show us Uncle Sam smoking a cigar 
which evidently has a very bad odor. In small type he. 
asserts that his cigars are not so bad, but I would not 
have read that part of the advertisement unless I had 
had an abnormal interest in poor advertisements. 

Advertisement No. 6 represents the ^^restful racycle," 
and does so by displaying a lady on such a wheel being 
chased by an infuriated bulldog. One of the most un- 



FUSION 



107 



pleasant things that can happen to a bicycle rider, and 
one of the things which might deter some ladies from 
buying a bicycle, is this fact that bicycle riders are liable 
to be chased by dogs. The writer of this advertisement, 
by means of this illustration, practically tells every pos- 




• FOR UNCLE SAiyi'8 :BIRTHDAY 
annlTersary yott don't want a 'stinka- 
dora.. Do honor (o your country, in' a' 
d.eJlclouB and sweet smoke on July 
4th by smoking one of odr exquisitely! 
flavored Billy Walton's 6c Straight 
iod Grand Duchesse Cigars They are 
tiie t)est cigars 'to be found In twwa 
and^ aw just what you want for a 
hT)lIday treat for your friends. Try 
thein by ftU means. 

tt'cmdANAV. WW. W. WAITOH. 



RIDE THE RESTFUL 



Racycle 

RIGID 

REASONABLE 

RADICALLY RIOHT 



Reduced Rates to Rest- 
d e n « Represenlatives. 
Request Rates and Re- 
prints of Royal Racycles. 

MIAMI CYCLE & 

MFQ. , COMPANY 

MIddIetown.O. 




No, 5 



No. 6 



sible customer to hesitate before she buys this wheel, 
because, if she buys it, she is likely to be chased by dogs. 
In advertisement No. 7 the author is trying to bring 
out the point that insects do not infest this particular 
brand of rolled oats. In his illustration he shows great 
crowds of insects swarming about it. If you examine 
the advertisement you see that, although the insects do 
have a particular liking for this kind of oats, they cannot 
get at them till the can is once opened. To my mind this 
brand of rolled oats and insects are so firmly united that 
I cannot think of the food without thinking of the 
insects. 



108 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Ordinarily the Quaker Oats advertisement has been 
identified by the presence of the good Quaker. He looks 
strong, hardy, clean, and honest. In No. 8 we have a 
portrait of a man who is disgusting in appearance. He 



THIS IS THE ORIGINAL 

nERA\ETlQ/lLLYSE:flLED 

-PACKAGE OF CEREALS 

Sanje^uantity ^^ cor?tair^e(( it} usual- 
Size ty^ojyounci Package 




For Sale by Grocers Everywhere 

The careful preparation given the contents of this package, justifies 
the manufacturers in claiming that it will keep indefinitely in good 
condition, and upon serving, present a flavor and bouquet, un- 
equaled by any cereal ever offered to the public 

Directions for Opening and Cooking on Edch Can 

THE GREAT WESTERN CEREAL COMPANY, Chicago, Dls. 



No. 7 

fuses with oats, and the product is something which is 
not appetizing and is a food wiiich I do not care to taste. 
I have always thought of Quaker Oats as something par- 
ticularly clean and healthful, and my idea was deter- 
mined in part by associating the food with the Quaker. 



FUSION 109 

When this advertisement is before me, I think that 
Quaker Oats are fit to eat only on condition that I ab- 
stract the thought of the food from that of this filthy- 
looking specimen of humanity. 

In an advertisement of food products the cut is com- 




Short-sighted man — lacks penetration. 

/ He b • sJioTMfgJited man Indeed who Cinnot «ee the other end of the medical bretklut food hMtL 
Apjr food that coddle! digestion til the time must nealcn digestion .at last by sheer lack of exerdstkl 

A strong digestion iBight not be greatly weakened by a diet of rich foods, — but even the strongeit 
digestion cannot withstand the weakening effects of laboratory foods. j 

Only a short-sighted man will deny that natural digestion most be relied on after all for asslmilatiolk 
ef the food elements which the body demands, — and the better the digestion the better the prospect ot 
liealth. The way to preserve the strength of natural digestion it to offer it only natural food. 

The one natural food that fills every need of body and nerve and brain, — that pvea every foot 
clement in exactly the proportion* demanded by the human system,— i» 

Quaker OsLts 

No other food has ever been granted that ttcad&t &TOr b shicb Quaker Oati it bcU it ( aSBm 
well-served breakfast tables. 

Yoo'U see the reasoo, iinlcsi yoa sn 

A. SHORTSIGHTED MAN. 

No. 8 

parable to the waiter in a restaurant. We know that 
the waiter does not prepare the food, yet he is the rep- 
resentative of the kitchen, and we will not enter a 
restaurant if the waiter looks repulsive. In a similar 
manner we know that the cut in an advertisement has 
nothing to do with the food advertised, but the cut is 



110 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the representative of the food, and we do not want the 
food if its representative looks repulsive. 

All the advertisements here reproduced seem to be 
co^nstructed in total disregard to the great principle of 
fusion which plays an important part in all our think- 
ing. In all these advertisements the cut and the text 
{e.g.y in the first advertisement the deaths and funerals 
and the tablet advertisement) fuse, and each plays its 
part in forming the total impression. We are not able 
to think of the text without thinking of or being 
influenced by the illustration. 

The ordinary man and woman are not accustomed to 
critical logical thinking. They are not accustomed to 
consider an object or argument on its own merits and 
independent of all other things. They are more inclined 
to take objects, arguments, and events in their entirety. 
They fuse all the impressions of a particular situation 
into one total impression, and are influenced by events 
in their totality without being able to analyze the ele- 
ments which have united to form the w^hole. If those 
who construct and place advertisements would consider 
this principle of fusion, they would be more careful in 
their choice of mediums, in the association of advertise- 
ments, in the make-up and in the construction of the 
individual advertisements. 



MEMORY 111 



MEMOKY 

Impressions once received leave traces of themselves, 
so that, ill imagination, we can live over the same ex- 
periences and can recognize them as related to our past. 
This knowledge of former impressions, or states of mind, 
which have already once dropped from consciousness, 
is what is l^nown as memory. 

I can imagine how the jungles of Africa must look. 
This is an act of productive imagination. Yesterday I 
was on the corner of Fifth avenue and Lake street in 
Chicago. I heard the sliouts of teamsters, the rattle 
of passing vehicles, and the roar of elevated trains ,*^ I 
saw the people, the wagons, and the cars. To-day I 
can, in imagination, live over the same experience, and 
as I do so I recognize the experience as belonging to 
my past. I am therefore remembering my past experi- 
ence: 

As I try to recall the street scene of yesterday I find 
that many of the details have escaped me. I cannot re- 
member how the teamsters looked nor what sort of 
cries they were uttering. I remember that there were 
teamsters and that they w^ere shouting at their horses, 
but I cannot, in my imagination, see their faces or hear 
their voices as I did yesterday. In short, my memory 
has faded, and has faded rapidly. It is not likely that 
any memory is so vivid as the original experience, 
neither does it contain all the details of the actual ex- 
perience. Immediately after crossing the street I could 



112 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Lave described the scene much better than I could now. 
A year hence I shall probably have forgotten all about it. 

Our memories gradually fade with time. Professor 
Ebbinghouse, of Germany, was the first to try to find 
out exactly hoAv fast our memories do fade. Since he 
published his thesis many others have taken up the work, 
and his and their results are fairly well established and 
definite. They have found that our memories are at 
their best two seconds after the experience has taken 
place. After two seconds the memory fades very 
rapidly, so that in twenty minutes we have forgotten 
more of an experience than we shall forget in the next 
thirty days. 

We forget very rapidly during the first few seconds, 
minutes and hours. What we remember a day is a very 
small part of our experiences, but it is the part which 
persists, as the memory fades very slowly after the first 
day. What we remember for twenty minutes and what 
we can get others to remember for that time is of great 
concern, for it is what we and they remember for longer 
times also. 

What the practical business man wants to know about 
memory can be put in two questions. 

First, how can I improve my own memory? 

Second, how can I so present my advertisements that 
they will be remembered by the public? 

It is not possible for a person with a poor memory 
to develop a good one, but every one can improve his 
memory by the observance of a few well-known and 
thoroughly established principles. The first principle 
is repetition. If you want to make sure that you will 
remember a name, say it over to yourself. Repeat it in 
all the ways possible — say it over aloud, write it, look 
at it after it is written, think how it sounded w^hen 



MEMORY 113 

you heard the name, recall it at frequent periods and 
until it has become thoroughly fixed in your mind. 

The second principle is intensity. If you want to 
remember a name, pay the strictest possible attention 
to it. If you apply the first principle ami repeat the 
name, then you should pay the maximum amount of at- 
tention to every repetition. In this way the process 
of learning will be so reduced that a single repetition 
may be enough, and still the name may be retained, for 
a long period of time. 

The third principle is that of association. The things 
which we think over, classify and systematize, and thus 
get associated with our previous experience, are the 
things which we commit most easily and retain the 
longest. 

As a boy at school I learned by repetition that Co- 
lumbus discovered America in 1492. At that time 
this was to me an entirely disconnected fact. It was not 
associated with anything else, and so cost me great 
effort of attention and frequent repetition before I had 
it thoroughly memorized. At a later time I was com- 
pelled to learn the approximate date of the fall of Con- 
stantinople, the application of the compass to naviga- 
tion, the invention of printing, the time of the activity 
of Copernicus, Michelangelo, Titian, Dtirer, Holbein, 
etc. Such a list of unconnected dates would have cost 
me much unprofitable effort if I had been compelled 
to learn them separately. As it was, I connected them 
all with the date of the discovery of America, and saw 
that these men and these events were all contemporane- 
ous and together made what is known as the Renais- 
sance. 

The details of a business or professional life which 
are connected in a series are not hard to learn, and 



114 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

are not soon forgotten. A man may have no trouble 
from forgetting the details of his business or profession, 
yet may have a poor memory for all events not thus 
associated. 

The fourth principle is that of ingenuity. I remem- 
ber the name of Miss Low, for she is a short woman. 
I remember a friend's telephone, which is 1391, by think- 
ing how unfortunate it is to have such a number to 
remember — 13 is supposed to be an unlucky number, 
and 91 is seven times 13. 

This method is applicable only to disconnected facts 
which we find difflculty in remembering by the methods 
given before. It is, however, a method which was used 
by the Roman oratojs and has been used more or less 
ever since. There is probably no one who does not 
make frequent use of it in attempting to remember 
names, dates, figures, and similar data. 

We all appreciate the value of a good memory, and 
are willing to pay any one w^ho will tell us how to train 
ours. This condition of affairs has made "memory 
training" a profitable business for the fakir. It is fairly 
well established now that one's native retentiveness is 
unchangeable. One who has an unretentive memory 
cannot possibly change it by any method of training. 
All he can do is to improve on his method of acquiring 
and recording knowledge. 

The third principle given above — ^^association — ^is the 
one by far of the most importance. 

The fourth principle is the one of least general appli- 
cation; indeed if an attempt is made to apply it too 
frequently, it becomes worse than useless, yet it is the 
principle used by most persons who have "memory train 
Ing" to sell. 

When the question arises, — how^ to construct an ad- 



MEMORY 115 

vertisement so that the reader cannot forget it, we find 
that the question is answered by the proper application 
of the principles enunciated above. The advertisement 
that is repeated over and over again at frequent inter- 
vals gradually becomes fixed in the memory of the 

Vitalized Phosphites. 

Brain 

and 

Nenre 

Food, 

Prom no pbM* 
pbold principle of 
the Ox Brain an^ 
(be Efflbry* •! 
Wheat. 

Has been used more than thirty years by thousands 
of active business men and women, from whom 
sustained, vigorous application of brain and nen*- 
ous power is required, promptly relieving the dc* 
pression from overwork, worry, nervous excite- 
inent, and sleeplessness, increasing activity and 
vital force by feeding the brain and nerves with 
the exact food they require for their nutrition and 
normal action. 

May we send you a descriptive pamphlet J 




Bl&!f& 



Pkbparkd by 

S6 West 35tb streets 
New York atr» 



If not found at DrvogMX aent by maa {$lMfi- 
CROSBY'S COLD AND CATARRH CURB. 
Tb« best ^emedr In existence for cold In the head and i 
By mall, 60 cents. 



Xo. 1. — This advertisement is engraved 
on the memory by the expensive 
process of mere repetition. 

reader. It may be a crude and an expensive method, 
but it seems to be effective. 

This method gailis added effect by repeating one or 
more characteristic features, and by changing some of 
the features at each appearance of the advertisement. 
Thus the reproduced advertisement of Vitalized Phos- 
phites (No. 1) is frequently repeated in identical form. 
We cannot forget this advertisement, but it has taken 
too many repetitions to secure the desired results. 



116 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The reproduced advertisement of Cream of Wheat 
(No. 2) is but one of a series of advertisements in all 
of which the colored chef appears prominently. This 
characteristic feature causes us to associate all of the 
series, and hence the effect of repetition is secured. At 




No. 2. — This series of advertisements represents 
the central feature, but always in a new form. 

the same time, there is sufficient diversity, because the 
colored chef is never represented in the same way in 
any two of the advertisements as they appear from 
month to month. Similar statements could be made of 
a host of other excellent advertisements. 

The advertisement which makes an intensive impres- 
sion is one which the advertiser does not easily forget. 



MEMORY 117 

The methods for securing this intensity are many, but a 
few examples will serve to make the method plain. 

Bright colors impress us more than dull ones. The 
bright-colored inserts and advertisements run in colors 
are remembered better than others, because they make 
a greater impression on us. 

In any experience it is the first and the last parts 
of it that impress us most and that get fixed most firmly 
in our memories. The first and the last advertisements 
in a magazine are the most effective. Likewise the first 
and the last parts of any particular advertisement (un- 
less very short) are the parts that we remember best. 

The back cover-page is valuable because when the 
magazine is lying on a table the back cover-page is likely 
to be turned up, but in addition to that it is a valuable 
page because it is likely to be the first or the last seen 
by most readers. 

The second cover-page is valuable because it is so 
likely to be seen first, and even to be seen by those who 
do not look at the advertisements in the back of the 
magazine — if such persons still exist! 

The intensity of the impression which an advertise- 
ment makes is dependent upon the response which it 
secures from the readers. The pedagogue would call 
this action the "motor response," even though it were 
nothing more than the writing of a postal card. Such 
action is vital in assisting the memory of the readers. 

An advertisement which secures a response sufficient 
to lead to the writing of a postal card has a chance of 
being remembered which is incomparably greater than 
that of other advertisements. The advertisement of 
Pompeian Massage Cream (No. 3) will not soon be for- 
gotten by those who are induced to send the name of 
their dealer to the Pompeian Manufacturing Company. 



118 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



Rhymes and alliterations are rhetorical forms which 
seem to be of great assistance when we attempt to com- 
mit verses, and even when we do not want to remember 
them the rhythm may make such an impression that we 
can't forget them. The "Spotless Town'' is an illus- 




No. 3. — Those who answer this adver- 
tisement will not easily forget it. 

tration of a successful application of this psychological 
fact. 

There is. much poor advertising being done at the 
present time in a futile attempt to produce a successful 
imitation of the "Spotless Town." The rhythm and the' 
alliteration must be excellent, else they make the whole 
attempt seem ridiculous, and the advertisement falls 
flat. 

Anything humorous or ridiculous — even a pun — is 
hard to forget. But unless the attempt is successful, 
the result is ludicrous and futile. Furthermore, that 



MEMORY 



119 



which impresses one person as funny may seem silly 
to another. The reproduced advertisement of Gold Dust 
(ISO. 4) seems funny to some, but does not to others. 
The reproduced advertisement of Rough on Rats (No. 
5) impresses some persons as silly, while others think 
it funny. 

Advertising is a serious business, and unless the ad- 
vertisement i-s extremely clever, it is unwise to attempt 




Gold Dust Stands Alone 

In the washing powder Held— It has no substitute. Yb« 
must either use 

GOLD DUST 

<M something Inierlor — ^there is no middle ground. 
Buy GOLD DUST sod jrou buy th« best 

UUSpOR I 'vork. oil ckxh. dlY.mr. u>l ifrmra. pollAlnt brus woii 



COMPANY. CMcar>-Mabn of FAIRY SOAT. 

GOLD DUST makes bard water soft 



No. 4. — Those who laugh at this ad- 
vertisement will remember it. ^ 

to present the humorous side of life, although it is highly 
valuable when well done. 

Anything will be remembered which awakens our emo- 
tions, whether the thing be ugly or beautiful, whether 
it causes us to smile or to sympathize with the sorrows 
of others. That which excites an emotion is not easily 
forgotten, and hence is a good form of advertising, if 
it can convince the reason at the same time that it 
stimulates the feelings. The advertisement of Gold Dust 
(No. 4) pleases me and convinces me that the product 
is good. The advertisement of Rough on Rats (No. 5) 



120 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

amuses me because it is so excessively silly. It does not 
please me, does not convince me of the desirability of 
the goods. I find that both advertisements have made 
such" an intense impression on me that they have stuck 
in my memory, and I see no prospect of being able to 
forget them soon. 

The writer of advertisements must consider the prin- 
ciple of association, and ordinarily does so, even if he 
does it unconsciously. He should present his argument 
in such a form that it will naturally and easily be asso- 



^ 


li^^§B^^^^^^^^^9^^'« tvr-^ 




\ 


'^R^^^.> 


C; 


h 


mffliliWMrr.i'l 


. rir'n 5tO( '"VV."'," ''.''""'Vr. 


^ 


-- -r- ^^•T-r..-^'.-vT' ^^- .-'■ -, - --^ 



No. 5. — An evident attempt to be humorous. 



elated by the reader with his own former experience. 
This is best done by appealing to those interests and 
motives which are the ruling principles of the reader's 
thinking. Personally, I should forget a recipe for a 
cake before I had finished reading it, but to a cook it is 
full of interest, and does not stand out as an isolated 
fact, but as a modification or addition of something 
already in his mind. The statement that the bond bears 
four per cent, interest is not forgotten by the capitalist ; 
for he immediately associates the bond of which this 
statement is made with the group of similar bonds, and 
so the statement is remembered, not as an isolated fact. 



MEMORY 



121 



but in connection with a Avliole series of facts which are 
constantly before his mind. 

The arguments of an advertisement should be such 
as are easily associated with the personal interests and 
with the former experience of the majority of the 
readers. 

The reproduced advertisement of the Buster Brown 



ThtUt IS Money IK ^TocwtleiJ — ^ ^ 

5\^BU5TER BROWJI 



5% 



O/.GOLD 
BOND5 



itHtBUrrrKBRoNVKjTocKiMcij'roR Bd^cr ari tut BtjT 25*JTock. 

A 5%1NTE1?EJ'T CoOtoH LIKt THUf 

TKIJ CoOpONvJ-HoOjLD BE J-AVEP 

lACT coOpon lerpRrJTxrr^ yoOk iwE^TKtVr or 25« vXt/^ yoOhavb 

J20« WORTH OS COOPOKJ THETABE REDtEMABUl BVTOE HfJ<OTACrOgIltr 
K5%■^ilV],^HlS U ir,MORt.THAKAWV NV/K PAY>r*Yot}KMTHECl«(» 
THt PRIJ^CIPM.. 





Here Is the opportunity to give 
your boy a lesson In the value of 
money and the growth of interest 



Buster Brawa'it 



t tiockinn forilrli liav* 



Boster Brown Stocking Co. 
346 Broadway, Mew Tork 

Notice SS,''.C»"';i'.5'^^4"""''.»'.l!i 



No. 6. — The wrong associations suggested. 



Stocking Co. (ISo. 6) is in direct violation of this prin- 
ciple. The advertisement was evidently written by a 
man, and appeals to men as being a good advertisement. 
It would be remembered by men, and if they were the 
purchasers of boys' stockings, it would be an excellent 
advertisement. In reality the men do not buy the stock- 
ings, and so the advertisement appeals to those who have 
nothing to do with the business — except those who pay 
for the advertisement. 



122 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The following expressions appeal powerfully to a 
manufacturer, but not to a mother : 

^^Five per cent, gold bonds/' ^'Clip your coupons and 
make money," '^Give your boy a lesson in the value of 
money and the groAvth of interest," "This is one per cent, 
more than any bank pays, and allows you the use of the 
principal, allowing you a share of our profits," etc. 

The principle of ingenuity can liave but an occasional 
application, but there are instances when it has been 
employed with great effectiveness. Thus "Uneeda" is 
a name which cannot be forgotten. It pleases by its very 
ingenuity, although most of the attempts in this direc- 
tion have been futile. Thus "Uwanta" is recognized 
as an imitation, and is neither impressive nor pleasing. 
"Keen Kutter" is a name for tools which is not easily 
forgotten. "Syrup of Figs" is a name for a patent medi- 
cine which is easily remembered, although the product 
contains no figs. 

A tailor in Chicago advertised himself and his shop 
in such an ingenious way that no one could read his 
advertisement and forget the essential features of it. 
His street number was 33, his telephone number was the 
same. There were 33 letters in his name and address. 
He sold a business suit for |33. The number 33 stood out 
prominently as the striking feature of his advertisement 
and impressed many as being unique, and at the same 
time fixed in their minds his name and address, and the 
cost of his suits. 

The four principles enunciated above for impressing 
advertisements on the minds of possible customers are 
capable of unlimited application, and will not disappoint 
any; for they are the laws which have been found to 
govern the minds of all persons as far as their memories 
are concerned. 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 123 



XI 
THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 

We all know what is meant by pleasure and pain, by 
joy and grief. These feelings and emotions are not 
better understood after we have attempted to define 
them. They are known only by experience, and we are 
all familiar with them. In the present chapter we are 
interested in the effect which pleasure and pain and 
the different emotions have upon the mind and the body 
of the person experiencing them. These effects are not 
sufficiently recognized and yet they are of special sig- 
nificance to the advertiser. 

For the sake of brevity we shall use the word "pleas- 
ure" not merely to express such simple pleasures as 
tasting an appetizing morsel, but also to express such 
pleasurable emotions as joy, love, benevolence, gratitude, 
pride, etc. The word "pain'' or "displeasure" will like- 
wise be used to express simple painful sensations and 
also emotions which involve pain, such as fear, hate, 
jealousy, antipathy, etc. 

Every pleasurable and every painful experience has 
a direct reflex effect on the bodily functions and also on 
the action of the mind. These effects are widespread 
and important. Some of these changes, even though 
significant, are not directly detected without the use of 
delicate recording instruments. Pleasures actually 
cause the limbs to increase in size, and, accompanying 
the physical change, is a feeling of expansiveness which 



124 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

serves to heighten the pleasure. With pain the limbs 
shrivel in size, and this is accompanied by a feeling of 
depression. 

Under the influence of pleasure the efficiency of the 
heart-action is greatly enhanced. This increase of blood 
supply gives us a feeling of buoyancy and increased 
vitality, which greatly enhances the already pleasing 
experience. Displeasure, on the other hand, interferes 
with the normal action of the heart. This gives us a 
feeling of sluggishness and depression. 

Pleasure assists the rhythmical action of the lungs and 
adds to the depth of breathing. These changes serve but 
to add to the already pleasing experience. Pain inter- 
feres with the rhythm of breathing, makes the lung 
action less deep, and gives a feeling of being stifled, 
hindered, and checked in carrying out our purposes. 

Pleasing experiences, increase our muscular strength 
and cause us to feel like men. We feel more like under- 
taking great tasks and have more faith in our ability 
to accomplish them. Pain decreases muscular strength 
and gives us a feeling of weakness and lack of confidence. 
Pleasures not only give greater strength to the voluntary 
muscles, but they affect directly the action of all the 
voluntary and involuntary muscles of the body. In 
pleasure the hands go out from the body, the shoulders 
are thrown back and the head elevated. We open up and 
become subject to the influences in our environment. 
Being pleased with what we are receiving, we become 
receptive and expand that we may take in more of the 
same sort. In pain the hands are drawn in towards the 
chest and the whole body draws in within itself as if to 
protect itself against outside influences. These actions 
of the body are reflected in the mental attitude. In 
pleasure our minds expand. We become extremely sug- 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 125 

gestible, and are likely to see everything in a favorable 
light. We are prompt to act and confident of success. 
In pain we are displeased with the present experiences 
and so withdraw within ourselves to keep from being 
acted upon. We refuse to receive suggestions, are not 
easily influenced, and are in a suspicious attitude toward 
everything which is proposed. When in pain we ques- 
tion the motives of even our friends and only suspicious 
thoughts are called up in our minds. 

These brief statements of facts serve to call to the 
reader's attention the mental attitude in which the 
person is placed by the influence of pleasure and pain. 
Keen observers of men have not been slow in profiting 
by these facts. In ^Tickwick Papers," speaking from 
the viewpoint of the defendant, Dickens says : "A good, 
contented, well-breakfasted juryman is a capital thing 
to get hold of. Discontented or hungry jurymen always 
find for the plaintiff." Here Dickens expresses the fact 
that man is not pre-eminently logical, but that his think- 
ing is influenced by his present state of feelings. If the 
juryman were discontented and hungry, he would be 
feeling pessimistic and suspicious and would believe 
in the guilt of the defendant. 

The modern business man does his utmost to minister 
to the pleasure of the customers in his store. He knows 
they will place a larger order if they are feeling happy 
than if they are feeling otherwise. The American slang 
expression, "jolly up," means the pleasing by flattery 
of the one from whom it is desired to obtain a favor. 
The merchant attempts to please the customer by the 
appearance of the store, by courteous treatment, and by 
every other possible method. The same pains must be 
taken by the advertiser in his attempts to please those 
to whom his appeals are made. The methods open to the 



126 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

advertiser are relatively few and hence all available 
means should be employed most assiduously. 

In the present chapter the importance of pleasing the 
advertiser by appealing to his esthetic sense will be em- 
phasized, and suggestions will be given of concrete 
methods which are available to the advertiser in appeal- 
ing to the sense of the beautiful. 

To be beautiful a thing must possess certain charac- 
teristics which awaken a feeling of appreciation in. the 
normal person. It is true that the artistic judgment is 
not possessed equally by all, or at least it is not equally 
developed in all. There are, however, certain combina- 
tions of sounds which are universally called harmonies 
and others which are called discords. There are certain 
combinations of colors which are regarded as pleasing 
and others which are displeasing. There are likewise 
certain geometrical forms or space arrangements which 
are beautiful, and others which are displeasing. The 
musician knows what tones will harmonize and which 
ones will not. The man without a musical education 
does not possess such knowledge, but he appreciates the 
harmony of tones when he hears it. The colorist knows 
how to produce pleasing effects with colors. He has ac- 
quired this knowledge which others do not possess, 
although they are able to appreciate his work. The 
artist knows how to produce pleasing effects with sym- 
metry and proportion of space forms. The uninitiated 
does not possess such knowledge or ability, although he 
is able to appreciate the work of the artist and can dis- 
tinguish it from the work of the novice. 

Perhaps the simplest thing that could be suggested 
which would have an element of esthetic feeling con- 
nected with it is the bisection of a straight line. It 
seems almost absurd to suppose that the position of the 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 127 

point of division in a straight line would have anything 
to do with a feeling of pleasure. Such, however, is 
certainly the case, but, as might be expected, the esthetic 
feeling is not very pronounced. As an illustration, look 
at No. 1. Here we have a series of straight vertical 
lines divided by short cross lines. Look at the lines 
carefully and you will probably feel that the lines A, B, 
and C are divided in a more pleasing manner than F, 
G, and H. In other words, if a straight vertical line 
is to be divided into two unequal parts, you prefer to 



BCD 



H 



No. 1. — A series of bisected lines. Which bisection 
is the most pleasing? 



have the division come above the middle. This is not 
an altogether unimportant discovery. 

In judging of vertical distances, we overestimate the 
upper half. For this reason the line E, which is divided 
into two equal parts, appears to be divided into two 
slightly unequal parts and the lower section seems to be 
the smaller. The line D is divided at a point slightly 
above the middle, but it appears to be divided into two 



128 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

exactly equal parts. Many persons would say that the 
line D is more pleasing than E, for' D appears to be 
divided into two equal parts, while E appears as if an 
unsuccessful attempt had been made to divide the line 
into two equal parts. 

Line D seems to be perfectly symmetrical — its two 
parts appear equal. The symmetry about this division 
pleases us, and most persons would say that this line, 
which is divided symmetrically, is more pleasing than A 
or H, which are not divided symmetrically. 

The two parts of the lines A, B, C, and H appear too 
unequal and the two parts of line E appear too nearly 
equal. Lines C and F are very pleasing. They have 
divisions which do not seem to be too much alike, so the 
divisions give diversity. The parts are not so different 
that they destroy the feeling of unity in the line. A line 
is pleasing if its two parts are not too much alike and 
not too different. The ratio of the smaller section of 
the line to the larger section in C and F is approximately 
that of 3 to 5. That is to say, if a vertical line is eight 
inches long, the result is pleasing if the line is divided 
into two sections which are respectively 3 and 5 inches 
long. Exact experimentation and measurements of ar- 
tistic productions show that there is a remarkable pref- 
erence for this ratio, which is known as the "golden 
section.'' The exact ratio is that of 1 to 1.618, which is 
approximately that of 3 to 5. A line is divided most 
artistically, if the lower section is 1.618 times as great as 
the upper. Although this fraction seems very formi- 
dable, it is the arithmetical expression of a simple pro- 
portion which is this : the short section is to the longer 
section as the longer section is to the sum of both sec- 
tions. Any division of a line which approximates this 
golden section is pleasing, but a division which approxi- 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 129 

mates the symmetrical division (and is not quite sym- 
metrical) is displeasing. 

If you hold No. 1 sideways, the lines will all be changed 
from vertical to horizontal. The divisions will now 
assume a new relation. The divisions of lines A, B, and 
C cease to be more pleasing than those of F, G, and H. 
E now seems to be divided symmetrically and is more 
pleasing than D. In fact, for most persons the sym- 
metrical divisions of E seem to be more pleasing than 
those of even C and F, which are divided according to 
the ratio of the "golden section." The most pleasing 
division of a horizontal line is that of perfect symmetry 
and the next most pleasing is that of the "golden 
section." 

In these divisions of straight lines into two equal 
parts unity is secured ; in the divisions according to the 
ratio of the golden section diversity is secured, and the 
unity is not entirely lost. Unity and diversity are es- 
sential elements in all esthetic pleasures. In vertical 
lines we seem to prefer the emphasis on the diversity, 
while in horizontal lines the exact symmetry, or unity, 
is most pleasing. 

The discovery of the most pleasing proportion between 
the parts of straight lines w^ould be of decidedly more 
importance if we should find that the same ratio holds 
for the parts of more complicated figures. Is a rectangle 
more pleasing than a square? (For the sake of brevity 
of expression we disregard the fact that a square is a par- 
ticular form of a rectangle.) Men have been called on 
to decide this question times without number. By in- 
vestigating a very large number of sucli decisions we 
may be able to discover something of value. The archi- 
tect is called upon to decide this question every time he 
constructs a building in which the artistic effect plays 



130 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISmG 

any part — and it always should. Think of the temples, 
palaces, cathedrals, cottages, museums, and all other 
structures in which the artistic element plays a large 
part. In a great proportion of these the height is not 
equal to the width. The individual rooms not infre- 
quently bear the same ratios as the height and width 
of the entire building. Careful measurement of such 
structures has revealed a striking tendency to approxi- 
mate what we have learned as the ^'golden section." In 
fact, it was originally called the "golden section of archi- 
tecture'/' because it was discovered so uniformly in archi- 
tecture. 

Think of the shape of the flags of all nations, of all 



No. 2. — A square and a rectangle. Which is the more beautiful ? 

the picture frames which you have ever seen, of win- 
dow panes, mirrors, playing cards, sheets of paper, en- 
velopes, books, periodicals, and all other objects in 
which the shape is determined to a greater or less extent 
by artistic demands. In most of these objects we find a 
very decided tendency to make the height equal the 
width, or else the height is to the width approximately 
as 3 is to 5. 

Look at the square and the rectangle in No. 2. The 
height of the rectangle is to its base as 3 to 5. Most 
persons say that the rectangle is the more pleasing ; some 
have a preference for the square. In the square we have 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 131 

a very decidecj symmetry. Each line is equal to every 
other line. A straight line drawn through the center of 
the figure from any angle divides the figure into two 
equivalent parts. In the rectangle the height is not 
equal to the length, but a line drawn through the center 
of the figure divides it into two equivalent parts. The 
square seems to possess much symmetry but little diver- 
sity. The rectangle possesses both unity and diversity. 

A very careful investigator of the esthetic value of 
the different space forms gives some interesting results 
as the fruits of his labors. Thus, a rectangle whose base 
is three per cent, greater than the height is more pleas- 
ing than the perfect square. This is accounted for be- 
cause we overestimate the height of a square about three 
per cent. Thus the rectangle whose base is three per 
cent, greater than its height appears to be a perfect 
square and so is more pleasing than the perfect square. 
If the height of a rectangle is approximately eighteen 
per cent, greater or less than its base, the figure is dis- 
pleasing because it looks like an imperfect square. If 
the difference in the two. dimensions of the rectangle 
becomes as great as forty per cent., the effect is pleasing 
because the difference is great enough to make it evident 
that the figure was not meant for a square. If one 
dimension of the rectangle exceeds the other approxi- 
mately sixty per cent., we have the ratio of the "golden 
section," and the result is more pleasing than it is for 
any other ratio of base to height. If one dimension of 
a rectangle exceeds the other by more than two hundred 
and fifty per cent., the result is not satisfactory. The 
difference between the two dimensions seems to become 
too great and the unity of the figure is weakened. 

When we consider that the ratio of one dimension to 
the other is but a minor element in the total esthetic 



132 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

effect, we are not surprised that we find exceptions to 
the conclusions reached in the foregoing, but the surpris- 
ing thing is the lack of more exceptions. Buildings that 
exceed in height the ratio as given here do not look 
beautiful, and if the disproportion becomes great because 
of the excessive height, we call the buildings skyscrapers 
and regard them as eyesores to the American cities. A 
building whose width is many times its height is usually 
ugly and is designated as a shed. 

That which has been said of the square and the rec- 
tangle holds equally true for the circle and the ellipse. 
A circle is a pleasing form which pleases because of its 
symmetry and regularity. An ellipse that is too much 
like a circle is much less pleasing than an ellipse in 
which the smaller diameter is to the greater one as 3 
is to 5. The same holds true of a triangle also. 

The space used by an advertiser is usually a rectangle. 
In choosing this space, does the advertiser take into 
consideration the relation of the height and width which 
will produce the most pleasing effect? He certainly 
does and the space he chooses meets the conditions of 
esthetic pleasure as given above, although he may be 
entirely unconscious of any such intention. Thus in an 
ordinary niagazine the full page and the ordinary quar- 
ter-page (the upper right, upper left, lower right, and 
lower left) approximate most nearly the "golden sec- 
tion." 

Next in .the approximation to the standard is the 
division into upper and lower halves; next comes the 
horizontal quarter, and last the division into right and 
left halves. This order of esthetic effect is also the order 
of frequency of choice of space. The fact that a right 
or left half-page may be next to reading matter makes 
this division more popular than it otherwise would be. 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 133 

Turn over the pages of advertisements in any magazine 
and look at the different spaces to see which class of 
spaces pleases you most and which least, and you will 
probably choose the spaces in the order as indicated 
above. ( No mention has been made of small advertise- 
ments, but what has been said of the larger spaces holds 
true of the smaller also.) 

Some advertisers have used narrow spaces which ex- 
tend entirely across the page. The effect has not been 
pleasing, although such shapes might be striking, be- 
cause of their oddity. It is to be hoped that no pub- 
lisher will allow the pages of his magazine to be chopped 
up into vertical quarters, for the effect would be most 
inartistic. 

The artistic subdivisions of spaces follow the laws of 
symmetry and proportion as given above. Almost every 
artistic production can be sub-divided into two equiv- 
alent parts by drawing a vertical line through the middle 
of it. Such symmetry as this is called bilateral sym- 
metry. As a typical example of bilateral symmetry as 
well as pleasing proportion in an advertisement we re- 
produce herewith the advertisement of the Butler Paper 
Company (No. 3). The line drawn vertically through 
this advertisement divides it into two symmetrical parts. 
Every subdivision of the display and of the text is 
centered. The horizontal divisions are strictly bilateral 
symmetry. Dotted lines are drawn to indicate the verti- 
cal divisions. In this we see that the subdivisions are 
not equal, but increase from the bottom upward in a 
pleasing proportion. A marked display is found in the 
words "Snow Flake,'' which serve*^to divide the text 
into two unequal divisions which are related to each 
other in a pleasing proportion. Such an arrangement 
of the vertical subdivisions is certainly more pleasing 



134 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



than equal subdivisions would be. By such subdivisions 
as we have here the unity of the page is not destroyed, 
and diversity is secured. 

It should be observed that this advertisement of the 
Butler Paper Company has employed an unusually 




No. 3. — An example of bilateral symmetry. 

large number of figures w^hich are symmetrical and many 
more which are arranged on the ratio of the "golden 
section.'^ As a reswlt, pleasing unity and diversity are 
both secured. The symmetry is pronounced in the 
twenty-four crystals or stars which are used as a decora- 
tion in the border.. There are twelve different kinds of 



THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 135 

stars, but each star has six main subdivisions and six 
minor subdivisions. There are enough stars to give 
diversity, and the stars are sufficiently alike to give unity 
to the border as a whole. 

The white rectangle on which the text is found is 
slightly too long to be in the exact ratio of the golden 
section, while the darker border is too wide to meet 
the conditiop, but these rectangles* are as near to the 
ratio of the golden section as could be produced in such 
a complicated figure as this. 

It is no accident that the conventional ellipse at the 
top of the advertisement is in the same ratio as the 
rectangles, i.e.y that of the golden section. If this adver- 
tisement w:ere either lengtliened or shortened, its pro- 
portions would vary from that of the "golden section,"' 
and the results would be recognized by the ordinary 
observer as less satisfactory. 

It is not necessary to exaggerate the importance of 
these laws of symmetry and proportion. They con- 
tribute an appreciable amount to the beautification of 
the advertising page and hence to the production of 
pleasure in the mind of every possible customer who sees 
the advertisement. Inasmuch as the pleasure of the cus- 
tomer is of such fundamental importance the advertiser 
cannot afford to neglect any element which contributes 
to the total pleasurable effect. There are other laws 
which are of importance in giving a pleasing effect to a 
page. Among such laws might be mentioned' ease of 
comprehension, ease of eye-movement, appropriate point 
of orientation and utility. 

Space will not admit of a presentation of these prin- 
ciples, but the purpose of this chapter has been attained 
if the reader has become impressed with the importance 
of pleasing the possible customer and with the sig- 



136 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

nificance of such simple laws as that of proportion and 
symmetry in accomplishing -the desired result. These 
laws are of universal application in laying out adver- 
tisements and in choosing spaces, and an appreciation of 
their importance by the advertisers of the land would 
lead to a beautification of the advertising pages of our 
publications and hence to an increase in their value to 
the advertiser. 



APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 137 



XII 

APPEALS TO THE CUSTOMER'S 
SYMPATHY 

In the last chapter we saw the significance of pleas- 
ure and pain in inducing the proper attitude in the 
minds of the customers. We also saw how a pleasing 
effect could be produced by the judicious use of the laws 
of symmetry and proportion in constructing advertise- 
ments. In the present chapter we shall continue the 
general discussion of the benefit of awakening the feel- 
ings and emotions and will confine the discussion to a 
single emotion, namely, that of sympathy. 

By sympathy we mean in general a particular men- 
tal attitude which is induced by the realization of the 
fact that some one else is going through that particular 
form of experience. Thus I laugh and feel happy be- 
cause those about me are rejoicing, and I weep because 
I see my friends weep. To a certain extent we seem to 
imagine ourselves as in the condition actually experi- 
enced by those about us and hence feel as we assume 
they must feel. The feelings awakened sympathetically 
are intense enough to cause weeping, laughing, and all 
the ordinary forms of expressing the emotions. 

We are not indifferent as to the objects upon which 
we bestow our sympathy. I feel no sympathy with the 
tree that is struck by the woodman's axe nor for the stone 
that is crushed under the wheels of a traction engine. I 
may feel sympathy for the mouse whose nest is destroyed 
or for the horse that is cruelly treated. I sympathize 
with animals because I believe that they have feelings 



138 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

similar to mine. I feel more sympathy for the higher 
animals (dogs and horses) than I do for the lower ani- 
mals, for I believe that their feelings are more like mine. 
I have a certain amount of sympathy for all humanity, 




JTHE WINTER .RESORT<Qf the-worlcJ. ^aj 

ntxcellencc, is Egypt, easily and directly reached ; by many 
luxurious Transatlantic linrr^ from New York and Boston to 
Alexandria. Cook's Nile Steamers from Cairo to the First' 
and Second Cataracts, (for the Sudan, Khartoum, etc..) leave 
lour times weekly November to March. ;^ Select Tours and 
high class Cruises from New^York, January," February and 
March. ,\Thirty Spring and^Summer /Tours to Europe (of 
season 1904. For plan>_of*i>liamers*prJDl£d.ji)atter,i»nci to 
Jtcure Jserlhs appl^ jo' 

THOS. COOK & SON 

^lcw York, Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago* 
San Francisco, etc. 



No. 1. — I do not share their pleasures. 



but I sympathize most with those of my own set or 
clique, with those who think the same thoughts that I 
think and who are in every way most like myself. After 
those of this inner circle of acquaintances, my sympathy 
is greatest for those whom I might call my ideals. If I 



APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 139 

desire to be prosperous, I feel keen sympathy with the 
man 'who appears to be prosperous. If I am ambitious 
to be a well-dressed man, I feel sympathetically towards 
those who are well dressed. If I desire to attain a cer- 
tain station in life, I feel sympathetically with those 
who appear to have attained my ambition. 

In the advertisement of Thomas Cook & Son (No. 1) 
I do not think of the old lady and gentleman as being of 
'my class. They are not my ideals and I therefore have 
comparatively little sympathy with them. They are en- 
joying themselves immensely and probably never had a 
better time in all their lives than they are having as 
members of this touring party, but as I look at them I 
am not pleased at all. Their pleasure is not contagious 
so far as I am concerned. I seem to be immune from all 
their pleasures. I have no desire to imitate their actions 
and become a member of Cook's touring party. 

In»contrast with this first advertisement of Thomas 
Cook & Son their advertisement of "Magara to the 
Saguenay" (No. 2) should be considered. The two per- 
sons depicted in this second advertisement approximate 
my ideals. They seem to be enjoying the trip immensely. 
I believe that they have good taste and if they choose this 
cruise for their vacation the same trip would be desir- 
able for me too. In every case of sympathy we imitate 
to a certain degree the persons with whom we sympa- 
thize. The action of these young people stimulate me to 
imitate their action by purchasing a ticket from Cooks 
and starting on the trip. 

No. 3 is a reproduced advertisement of a fat-reducing 
compound. The illustration is supposed to be ludicrous, 
but to me it is ridiculous. The fat lady in the illustra- 
tion does not seem to make the best of a bad situation. 
She dresses in plaids, which, as every corpulent person 



140 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 







^ 



.-^^ 



OOK/S 

qilAVm SERVICE 



^^^^</~^ 



CruisesT^ 
Cool Iratitudes 




mAGARA 



THE SACUENAY 



Fourteen Delightful Vacation Days, including such points 
of interest as Toronto, Alexandria Bay; among the Thou- 
sand Islands by daylight and moonlight; down the noble 
St. Lawrence and its thrilling rapids to Montreal. Then 

A WONDERFUL SIX^DAY CRUISE 

on the magnificent steamship "Cape Eternity"— ex- 
clusively reserved — to the Saguenay River! Quebec, 
Lakes Champlain and George and the Hudson River 
conclude a tour of beautiful scenic routes unparal- 
leled on this continent. Tours start from Chicago 
July 17th and 31st, August 14th and 28th. From 
Niagara Falls one day later. Early reservations 
advisable. 

Ask for Particulars of Escorted and Individual Tours to 
CANADIAN ROCKIES— ALASKA— PACIFIC COAST- 
NATIONAL PARKS— EUROPE— BERMUDA— SOUTH 
AMERICA— JAPAN— CHINA 

THOS- COOK & SON, CHICAGO 

203 South Dearborn St. 



No. 2 



APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 141 

knows, serve but to increase the apparent size. Both 
the lady and the gentleman are the kind of people whom 
we do not admire, who are far from our ideals and who 
present but few elements of likeness to ourselves. The 
material advertised might be good for such persons as 

TOO FAT 

A person generally kno\«» 
when he is beconiins (00[ 
fleshy. As A rule, however, 
he shuis his eyes lo tlie fact, 
I beheves it lo be only tenH 
ponry, antil he mddenly reakze&' 
that he lias routed iiiany poupdl 
and DO reincdy appears lo be (orth- 
coiituig. loyou.wholiavedi tiled 
into iliis Situation, we can offet 
truiJis tliat are beyond the sliadow 
ol questioning. We an brinf; 
down your weight, not bv elab- 
orate and expensive reauciioa 
remedies, but by simple treatment 
(hat brings health and strength int 
its train. Our hies are filled wiiU 
hundreds, yes thousands of iesr\r 
nonob to this effect, and art th^ 
best guarantees ol our signal suc- 
cess Hereare tv»oof many. Mrsi 
S. Mann. o( LaMoite. la., writes : 
Ml X r ears ago t l<M( TO lb*y 
of Fn( in 3 wtoiilliK b.v II19 
»ll mfSlsoil »n4 ■ lt»«e it Aft 
e:»ino4l nil «Miiir« iti nciclift 
»liic«>. 

LOST 40 POUMDS. s^.'.- te VoT^ii?.US^ 

VThrte years ago 1 took a lour month** ueatment and wa»\ 
'reductd 4 lbs. m weight. 1 have DOt gained any in wcighi 
»uice." We are giving away barrels 

and Barrels of 
Sample Boxes Free 

just to provf how eflccMve. plestsant 

^nd 4<Ue ihts Tfinedv is. to reduce 

•vvghi II you v»ani one. send us yoar 

>o:«me iiid address anrt 4< to cover posi- 

Age. etc E^cii box is mAiled in a plain 

Acaled wrapper wuli no .idvertisin? on it 

4o indicate what it couUms. Pnce. laige 

Ci'e but, SI 00 posipaid. Correspond- 

mce strictly confidenii it. 

HiU Cheniidl Co , De^i- H. M . St lK>uis, Mo, 

No. 3. — Ridiculous but not ludicrous. 





the illustration depicts, but that is no reason for me to 
imitate their actions and become one with them in any 
line of action. 

No. 4 is a reproduction of an advertisement of a fat- 
reducing tablet, and the illustration is that of a lady 
who at once begets my sympathy. She is apparently 
making the best of a bad condition. If she is going to 



142 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



use the Howard Obesity Ointment, it certainly must be 
worth considering. I feel sorry for her and sympathize 
with her in her affliction. She certainly feels about the 
matter just as I should, and consequently it is easy for 
me to imagine myself in her stead and to feel the need 



WASH YOUR FAT AWAY 

Howard Obesity Ointment 

f^ External Remedy 




^ikK to which 11 IS applied 
-restoring the natural 
Mooin o)f jouth.ieaMi.c; uo 
wtiuUksot flubbiuetrf. 

No iia-.-cr r-» flruj^b that 
nut! the -I n-iacn ; no tiiet- 
itikf; Hi >. ' I'l^e of habits 
whattv'.T. 

The apphcation is "^ini- ' 
I Mciiy Uieit. Yoii nu.r< ly 
.ippiy the vi'Umetil to t.ie 
part >ou wish rt-d'.ccl, 
then literallv "-rash tiu 
J il fi.i'rtv" vn;>lo'-r •i-uiy 
loilie most deh^. lie sV. ii. 

We Guarantee 
Results 

On receipt of k. quest we will 
send you oat book on ob<:'-ity, 
which gi%es crii.t.>. atid f.icts of 
the new cii=.co\,t-ry— a cure by 
at>sorplio!i 

All C^yrret'p.'Siileiii'o Contiidned 
(onftdciitial. 

THE HOWARD CO. 

suite •«<>.•>•>• V> 't^'- '^>d %U 



I 



No. 4. — She begets my sympathy. 

for relief from obesity and to take the necessary steps 
to secure such relief. 

The tragedy and the comedy are forms of literature 
and of dramatic representations which have always been 
popular. There is scarcely a tragedy without its comic 
parts, but frequently there are comedies without any 
element of the tragic. There are probably more great 
tragedies than comedies, but it is true that the ordinary 



APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 143 

men and women read more comedy (including the comic 
in a so-called tragedy) than tragedy, and that the same 
holds true for their attendance upon dramatic repre- 
sentations. 

In a comedy the rollicking fun may be introduced 
immediately, and the reader or the spectator may be 
brought into the spirit of the whole at once without 
danger of any shock to the sensibilities because of the 
suddenness of the introduction of the emotional element. 

In tragedy the reader or the spectator is usually inr 
troduced gradually into the emotional tone of the whole. 
The hero (if it be the hero who suffers) is first intro- 
duced, and then after we feel acquainted with him and 
have an interest in him, we are called upon to enter 
into his sorrows and to feel with him. 

In a political campaign the politician may relate the 
instances of wrong and oppression for which the oppos- 
ing party is responsible, or else he may tell of the pros- 
perity and good cheer brought about by his own party. 
In raising money to found a charitable institution the 
philanthropist may tell of the squalor and misery of the 
persons in the district in which the institution is to be 
located, or else he may tell of the joys which the institu- 
tion will bring into the lives of the persons concerned. 
In appealing for funds to carry on the missionary work 
in Africa the minister may describe the deplorable and' 
almost hopeless condition of the natives, or else he may 
tell of the wonderful successes of the missionaries al- 
ready on the field, and appeal for funds to continue the 
already successful work. It certainly is questionable 
which method the politician, the philanthropist, the 
minister, etc., should follow. As far as my personal ob- 
servations go, it seems to me that when sympathy for 
sorrow is successfully awakened, it is more effective in 



144 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

bringing about the desired action than is sympathy for 
the joys of the persons concerned. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that the persons for whom the appeal is 
being made in all these cases are those for whom the 
hearers have more than a passing interest, and the cre- 
ating of this interest may be the product of a long proc- 
ess of education. It may also be true that these most 
successful pathetic appeals would be avoided in the 
future by the very persons who had been moved most 
effectively. The depiction of the darker sides of life may 
be very effective, but the depiction of the rosier hues is 
more attractive to most people. 

It is said that savages laugh more loudly than persons 
in civilized countries, and in general loud or boisterous 
expressions of pleasure are not regarded as in good 
taste. Culture and good breeding have decreed that we 
shall not express our griefs in the sight or hearing of 
others. In fact, it is not in good form to express grief 
at all. We are not allowed to parade our sorrows before 
the gaze of the public. It seems to be assumed that 
every one has sorrows enough of his own and therefore 
should not be called upon to share the sorrows of others. 
This attitude towards expressions of grief seems to be 
quite universal, and is taken so much as a matter of 
course that we feel offended when persons seek to 
awaken our sympathy by any form of external mani- 
festation. Even in dramatic representations the expres- 
sions which accompany sorrow or pain are largely 
subordinated to apparent attempts to stifle such mani- 
festations. We weep more readily with those who seem 
to have great cause for weeping, but restrain it, than 
for those who give way to their feelings. This attitude 
towards the manifestations of sorrow often causes us to 
be offended by manifestations of suffering. Thus in No. 



APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 145 

5 there is an appeal made to our sympathy in such a 
rude manner that we feel angry toward the advertiser, 
if not with the publisher, for allowing us to be insulted 
by such an audacious attack upon our sensibilities. 
One function of representations of feelings and emo- 

DISEASED LUNGS 

art the rctult o( a ncjitded coa jh .or mI^ 

KU a ^rave mliUke to ntjied any hnt»f 

chlat afTedion. You may have bW 

cipitnt coiuumption btfon/ 

you realize tt..^. 

. Tb* following are tiUI quattiou^ 
Save you caught a cold f 
Have you a tevere, racking amgkt 
Js your throat hoarte and tonii 
Do you cough up nueutf 
Are yowhaggard and losing fieth? 




Th«se are sAioBi coodiUoas, which, if ootpraapitr 
conect«d, mil aZect tou laogs asd io a ihort UiM 
Toa wUi be on tb« roaa to eouamptioal 



There ia a tare core for a coM aod all the abo««: 
aitmenta, erea indpieot co&auniptioii,,in Dr. Biiir» 
Cough STTop. Ida ksoini the world orer aa a famovi 
docuir's prescripUoa that haa cured thooaaada ft 
cues. It ia prescribed bf phyaiciasa beeaoa* tbaf ! 
know it haa aared many people from an earlr fnn,' 
Poo't delay ; gae bow before too lat« the cewmllA' 

Dr. Bull's 
Cough Syrup 



eapecUli; 



' ( eaotbt a bsd oo14. I'^sraboadrnft.asathiabll 
cUliF, I »u troabled nrj badir vltn li, aod noib- 
vould f1>e me relief I oouiDed ap pbl<(iB anJ 
wu*|ued uiou righl aloDf Ploailf a tr1«o4 liiTlMi 
me Of IT a twiUe or Dr. BulVi C«a|b Brnip. I did mI 
haro tPDCb (aJth Io Itatflrvi bo«<Ter, »bca I took laa 
foonh do«. I be^aa Co mtnd. and witbla a jhortUoaa 
coniulsriog the KTlooaii«» of tnj caK. I vat esUrel* 
cored br i5l! miv^elAia rtmrdT I tbul oeTcr be wlif 

of laviDf to; life. It u worth tc6 wtlrbt 10 sold." Mfc 

Tboa Haoir&bao. l« C Si- . Booib Bi«loo, tAuT • 

I bad a very ie»fre atuck of the Ortppe vhtett 

cidarentronbteaomecockb. 1 iri«d m»or rcii.rdi<«biii<»ufd notnl 

'arordof Dr. Bulla Coufcb Svrtjp. I porcbaaed a bottle aod alreadr ui« 

,73°°° ""?; aoo,™" lie relrf r. aod a 2ia boiile cured me. it l> certaiolr a graod teoiedr toe 

VCrtpKe.ooid«aod cougba- Wid. Hildebrand.CtuatDin f. o.. Cauwba Co.W C ' 

I)r. Bttll'aCoagh Sn ip w.ll core yoor long trouble. It will do it wilhont faD. KootkeC 
i^w^AVLTk'^ eqoal.^ it ia caratife-qBaUties, aod for this ruaoa joa cannot afford (• 
•xportaeal with other remeJiea. 

AVOID SUBSTITUTES. "'^.r-^-^--^-» 

«»17 remedy which wiHisalj(>9fJiiPga,.Ull»UJrBggi8t«.2ic, 50c. and llA). 

No. 5. — An outrage upon the reader's sen- 
sibility. 

tions is to attract attention. Thus No. 6 is one of the 
most attractive advertisements in the current issue of 
our magazines. The smile is very contagious and the 
whole effect is so clear and so pleasing that I can 
scarcely turn the page without stopping to look at it. 
As far as the attention value is concerned, equally 



146 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

good results may be secured by representations of sor- 
row. Thus in No. 7 sorrow is depicted in such a way 
that it succeeds in attracting the attention of the most 
casual reader of advertisements. 

Nos. 6 and 7 are reproductions of advertisements 







i I flo ?n!I be aciighl'.d if you , --os. r.t. him 

ConkHn's Self -Filling Pen. 

He knows it is the highest quality, most 
perfect fountain pen in tb" v/orld, a cea- 
tury ahead of the dropocr Clliii^ kjtids; 
the only fountain pen that c-.'.n be tilled 
autoraa'ticf Uy or that succcsbtuily feeds 
copyiHK lUE. 

Mrs. GroVer Cleveland Satfs: 

PriiicPtou, March 12th. 190.'V 
Tour pen:, would h<> pivtty -ev.r*- to 
Cfiv.i )artre sciIo-j hen.' IC tbt;^ were 
oii^e !■> ally kuowa. 

cm FREE HOOKS teive farther «>oriviacjn^ 
evKJonco. and Ufty ori>tmal i>aK'^rf>ttii>n« forcor 
rvctiCfj common errori U\ ha-ivdw niinijr. 



No. 



6. — A successful appeal to sympathy for 
pleasure. 



which represent the opposite sorts of feelings, and each 
awakens its appropriate kind of sympathy, and yet it 
is difficult to tell which advertisement has the greater 
attentive value. Personally, I enter into the pleasure 
of the smiling young man more fully than I enter into 
the sorrow of the grief-stricken one. 



APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 147 

These examples are sufficient to show that appeals to 
the sympathy, either for pleasure or for pain, may be 
used with great profit by the advertiser. We are not 
cold, logical machines, but we are all human beings, with 
hearts in our breasts and blood in our veins, and we 




Pelmaa System of Memor^Training 






^.J£i^TStH:7£' 






The Pelman School of Memory Training, ^ 

1661 Masonic Templi. CHICAPO, 



No. 7.-^A successful appeal to sympathy for 
sorrow. 

enjoy the depictions of real life with all its joys and 
sorrows. Whether the dark or the bright side of life 
offers the most material for the advertiser may be ques- 
tionable, but there is certainly no question as to the 
advisability of appeals to the sympathies. 

The time is coming, and indeed has come, when the 
advertising pages of our publications must be edited as 



148 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

carefully as the pages of the literary department. The 
advertising manager should not only refuse objection- 
able advertisers, but he should refuse all objectionable 
advertisements. It is quite possible that an advertise- 
ment which might be good for the individual advertiser 
would be injurious to the many who are occupying space 
in the same publication. 

The advertisement reproduced in No. 5 may be good 
for the firm placing it. It may be attractive to such 
persons as need the cough syrup, but it may be so dis- 
gusting to all other persons that it renders them an- 
tagonistic and unsympathetic to all the advertisements 
seen for minutes after they have looked at this one. It 
might be a very profitable advertisement for Dr. Bull, 
but the advertising manager, by accepting it, has reduced 
the value of all other advertising spaces. The effect 
which would be produced on adjoining spaces by such 
advertisements as are shown in Nos. 1, 3, and 7 might 
also be questionable. 

If you knew that one magazine carried advertise- 
ments which were pathetic in their illustrations and 
descriptions and that another magazine carried only 
bright and cheerful advertisements, which one would 
you pick up and look through? I believe that most per- 
sons would choose the magazine advertisements that 
present only the more cheerful aspects of life. If such 
is the case, it is the duty of advertising managers to 
see that the advertising pages of their publications are 
rendered attractive. 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 149 



XIII 
HUMAN INSTINCTS 

We are all accustomed to think of the actions of ani- 
mals as instinctive, but we are inclined to object to the 
application to human actions of anything which would 
obliterate the distinctions between human and animal 
actions, and we do not usually speak of the actions of 
man as being instinctive. 

No one can carefully observe the actions of animals 
without being impressed witli both the similarities and 
the differences between human and animal actions. In 
his native and ordinary environment the animal shows 
a cleverness of action which is hardly to be distinguished 
from that of a man. In a new environment and in the 
presence of unfamiliar objects, on the other hand, the 
animal displays a stupidity which is most astounding. 

The animal has but few instincts, and these few are 
sufficient for his ordinary environment, but in the pres- 
ence of environments unusual to his species he is at a loss 
as to his actions. Man possesses many more instincts 
than the animal and in addition has reason, which can 
control his instinctive actions and thus obliterate their 
instinctive appearance, although such actions are funda- 
mentally instinctive. 

An instinct is usually defined as the faculty of acting 
in such a way as to produce certain ends, without fore- 
sight of the ends, and without previous education in the 
performance. It is in this sense that the term is used 
throughout this discussion. 



150 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The following quotation from Professor James will 
undoubtedly prove of interest : 

^^NoWy why do the various animals do what seem to 
us such strange things^ in the presence of such out- 
landish stimuli? Why does the hen, for example, sub- 
mit herself to the tedium of incubating such a fearfully 
uninteresting set of objects as a nestful of eggs, unless 
she has some sort of a prophetic inkling of the results? 
We can only interpret the instincts of brutes by what we 
know of instincts in ourselves. Why do men always lie 
down, when they can, on soft beds rather than on hard 
floors? Why do they sit around the stove on a cold day? 
Why do they prefer saddle of mutton and champagne to 
hard- tack and ditch-water? Why does the maiden in- 
terest the youth so that everything about lier seems more 
important and significant than anytliing else in the 
world? Nothing more can be said than that these are 
human ways, and that every creature likes its own ways, 
and takes to following them as a' matter of course. 
Science may come and consider these ways, and find that 
most of them are useful. But it is not for the sake of 
their utility that they are followed but because at the 
moment of following them we feel that that is the only 
appropriate and natural thing to do. Not one man in 
a billion, when taking his dinner, ever thinks of utility. 
He eats because the food tastes good and makes him 
want more. If you ask him why he should want to eat 
more of what tastes like that, instead of revering you as 
a philosopher, he w^ould probably laugh at you as a fool. 
The connection between the savory sensation and the act 
it awakens is for him absolute and needs no proof but 
its own evidence. It takes, in short, what Berkeley calls 
a mind debauched by learning to carry the process of 
making the natural seem strange, so far as to ask for the 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 151 

why of any instinctive human act. To the metaphysician 
alone can occur such questions as: Why do we smile, 
pleased, and not scowl? Why are we unable to talk to 
a crowd as we talk to a single friend? Why does a par- 
ticular maiden turn our wits so upside-down? The 
common man can only say, ^Of course we smile, of course 
our heart palpitates at the sight of the crowd, of course 
we love the maiden, that beautiful soul clad in that 
perfect form, so palpably and flagrantly made from all 
eternity to be loved !■ 

"And so, probably, does each animal feel about the 
particular things it tends to do in the presence of par- 
ticular objects. To the lion it is the. lioness which is 
made to be loved; to the bear, the she-bear. To the 
broody hen the notion would probably seem monstrous 
that there should be a creature in the world to whom a 
nestful of eggs was not the utterly fascinating and 
precious and never-to-be-too-much-sat-upon object which 
it is to her. 

"Thus we may be sure that, however mysterious some 
animals' instincts may appear to us, our instincts will 
appear no less mysterious to them. And we may con- 
clude that, to the animal which obeys it, every impulse 
and every step of every instinct shines with its own 
sufficient light, and seems at the moment the only 
eternally right and proper thing to do. It is done for 
its own sake exclusively. '^ 

Every instinctive action is concrete and specific, and 
is the response of an individual directed toward some 
object. There is a great diversity in the methods of 
classifying instincts, and any method is justifiable if it 
is true and if it is helpful in making clear the nature 
of instincts, or is of service in any way. The classifica- 
tion we propose is justified in that it is true to the facts, 



152 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

and that it groups these actions in such a way that they 
may be better understood, and that the knowledge thus 
secured may be utilized. 

As was said above, every instinctive action is directed 
toward some object, but the effect of the action is to 
bring the object into a relation which will make it help- 
ful toward the preservation or furtherance of the inter- 
ests of the individual or of the species. Thus when an 
animal acts according to his ^'hunting instinct" he acts 
ioward his victim in such a way that he makes the victim 
serve his interests in providing food for himself and, 
perhaps, for others of his species. If instincts may be 
classified according as they tend toward the preserva- 
tion and furtherance of the interests of the individual, 
our classification will be based upon the interests of 
the individual, which are preserved and furthered, 
rather than upon the manner of the preservation and 
furtherance. 

The first interest of the individual which is instinc- 
tively preserved and furthered is his material posses- 
sions. The individual acts instinctively toward every 
material thing which he may call ^^my'^ or ^^mine/^ Of all 
the material things to which I apply the term my or 
mine, there is nothing to which the term seems so appli- 
cable as to my body. This is so intimately mine that the 
distinction between it and myself or me cannot be 
definitely drawn. I avoid extremes of temperature, not 
because I think that thus I can preserve and further 
the development of the body, but because it is pleasant 
for me to act that way. I do not refuse to drink stag- 
nant water and seek running water because I think it is 
best for my bodily health to do so, but because I like the 
taste of running water and not of stagnant water. I do 
not refuse grass, green fruit, and decayed vegetables and 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 153 

seek beefsteak, ripe fruit, and fresh vegetables merely 
or principally because the former are injurious and the 
latter beneficial to my bodily health. I decide on what 
I shall eat and drink according as it pleases or displeases 
me in the eating. The lower animals probably never 
do anything for the sake of the preservation and further- 
ance of their bodies, but their instincts guide them so 
accurately that it seems to us they must do some of 
these things with that in view. They choose the right 
food, the right drink, the right companions, etc., etc., 
because these things seem pleasant to them. 

Herbert Spencer was of the opinion that mankind 
could follow instinct in the choice of food, drink, rest, 
exercise, temperature, etc., and that under normal con- 
ditions the choice would be such as would most cer- 
tainly conduce the highest preservation and development 
of the body. He believed that our instincts are so strong 
and so true that, when not perverted, they will act wisely 
in the presence of the appropriate stimuli, and that the 
bodily interests will best be furthered by passively fol- 
lowing such instincts. He would hold that if that which 
is good for the body be presented in the proper light, 
we shall, of necessity, choose it and make the appro- 
priate effort to secure it. 

If I think anything would taste good, I cannot keep 
from desiring it. I do not stop to consider whether 
it would be good for me or not. If it tastes good, that 
is sufficient. Nature has provided me with an instinc- 
tive desire to eat any and every thing that tastes good, 
and, in general, such an instinct works wholly good. I 
am a reasoning creature, and it might be supposed that 
I would select from the different foods those which were 
best for my health, irrespective of their tastes. I find 
that my instinct is stronger than my reason in choosing 



154 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

what I shall eat. In the advertisement of Karo (No. 1) 
is this sentence : '^ . . it makes you eat," and also 
this: ". . . gives a relish you can't resist.'' I should 
buy Karo at once if I believed it would be so enticing 
that it would make me go contrary to my reason and 
eat it even if my better judgment told me I should not. 
If I had been afflicted for years with indigestion I might 
do otherwise, but most persons have not yet been thus 
afflicted, and I feel confident that food advertisements 
have greatly improved during recent years, for they are 



A Breakfast Treat 
That Makes You Eat 

iIUfo'Xa«ii"Sy>Bpris-ihfTmrc;»tbIden asitnccitAr con | 
with all the nutritive elements so chanunrn'^tif of.tbir 
cnrrgy.producing, Mrenph-piving crrcal rctaincd.fj.If j 
flavor IS so good, delicious, so djffercnt. it mairs you ca« 
Adds zest to Ihepnddle rakes and gives a relish yot# 
can't resist/no maner how poor thc.^appentc n»ay Tie, 
MakdB vihe^mommgVmca! mating** It's l/iergrrn» 
tpnad for daih breaa^^StM in au-light. Irtuoi^si^iiai 



CORN SYRUP 

«« PSOOUCTS CO.. 

• yon ■«« CMuo- 



No. 1. — An appeal to the instinct of 
bodily preservation. 



emphasizing more and more the taste of the food, and 
are making health qualities secondary, while price is 
being emphasized less. 

The senses (the organs of sight, sound, taste, smell, 
temperature, and touch) are the guardians of the body, 
and whatever appears good to these sentinels is in- 
stantly desired, and ordinarily such things tend to the 
preservation and furtherance of the welfare of the body, 
but we choose them simply because they appear pleasing 
and not for ulterior ends. 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 155 

My clothes are in a special sense mine. We come to 
think of them almost as of our very bodies. How a small 
child will cry if his hat blows off or is taken! In our 
modern forms of civilization this instinct is weakened 
by the fact that we have so many clothes and change 
them so often that we hardly have time to become at- 
tached to any article of raiment before it is discarded. 
The close personal attachment which we have for our 
clothing is beautifully brought out by Professor James : 
"We so appropriate our clothes and identify ourselves 
with them that there are few of us who, if asked to 
choose between having a beautiful body clad in raiment 
perpetually shabby and having an ugly form always 
spotlessly attired, would not hesitate a moment." 

We are all greatly attracted by the protection and 
ornamentation supplied by clothing. The amount of 
time which most women and some men spend on the 
subject of dress might seem absurd to a critic, but 
such are our human ways, and they seem good to us. 
Magazines devoted to fashions, shop-windows decorated 
with beautiful garments, advertisements of clothing — 
all these have an unending attraction for us. Clothing 
advertisements are read with avidity, and it has been 
discovered that all forms of clothing can be advertised 
with profit by means of the printed page. 

The most careful observers of the actions of bees 
assure us that the little industrious bee gathers and 
stores away the honey simply because she enjoys the 
process, and not because she foresees the necessity for 
the honey which will come upon her during the wintry 
months. To say that the young bee has a prophetic 
insight of the coming winter is to attribute to it wisdom 
which is far above human wisdom. 

Likewise the squirrel is said to collect nuts and store 



156 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

them away simply because that is the very action which 
is in itself more delightful than any other possible 
action. The squirrel does not store the nuts so that he 
will have them to eat during the winter, but when the 
winter comes on and nothing better is at hand of course 
he will eat them. If he had not stored them he would 
have starved during the winter, but he did not store 
them in order that he might not be reduced to starva- 
tion. As far as the individual squirrel is concerned, it 
was purely accidental that his storing the nuts provided 
against starvation. 

There are many species of animals which thus collect 
and store away articles, and in some cases — in an un- 
usual environment — the results are very peculiar. Pro- 
fessor Silliman thus describes the hoardings of a wood- 
rat in California made in an empty stove of an unoccu- 
pied house : 

"I found the outside to be composed entirely of spikes, 
all laid with symmetry, so as to present the points of the 
nails outward. In the center of this mass was the nest, 
composed of finely divided fibers of hemp-packing. In- 
terlaced with the spikes were the following : About two 
dozen knives, forks, and spoons ; all the butcher's knives, 
three in number ; a large carving knife, fork and steel ; 
several large plugs of tobacco; an old purse containing 
some silver, matches, and tobacco; nearly all the tools 
from the tool-closets, with several large augers, all of 
which must have been transported some distance, as 
they were originally stored in different parts of the 
house. The outside casing of a silver watch was dis- 
posed of in one part of the pile, the glass of the same 
watch in another, and the works in still another.^ 

There are very few persons who at some time in their 
lives have not made a collection of some sort. The little 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 157 

girls who make collections of buttons become exceedingly 
enthusiastic in their endeavors to make large collections, 
and, of course, if possible, to secure the most beautiful. 
If all the girls of the neighborhood are making collec- 
tions too, the interest is greatly heightened. It is rather 
remarkable how all the children of a neighborhood may 
become interested in collecting such things as cancelled 
postage-stamps. Such a thing would hardly be possible 
if the children did not have an instinctive desire to 
make collections. 

Making collections and hoarding is not confined to 
children, but is common to all adults. Occasionally 
some individual becomes absorbed in the process more 
than others and the results seem to us to be ludicrous, 
but they are instructive rather than ludicrous. The fol- 
lowing is a description of the hoardings of a miser's den 
which was emptied by the Boston City Board of Health : 

^^He gathered old newspapers, wrapping-paper, in- 
capacitated umbrellas, canes, pieces of common wire, 
cast-off clothing, empty barrels, pieces of iron, old bones, 
battered tinware, fractured pots, and bushels of such 
miscellany as is to be found only at the city ^dump.' 
The empty barrels were filled, shelves were filled, every 
hole and corner was filled, and in order to make more 
storage-room, ^the hermit' covered his store-room with a 
network of ropes, and hung the ropes as full as they 
could hold of his curious collections. There was noth- 
ing one could think of that wasn't in that room. As a 
wood-sawyer, the old man had never thrown away a 
saw-blade or a woodbuck. The bucks were rheumatic 
and couldn't stand up, and the saw-blades were worn 
down to almost nothing in the middle. Some had been 
actually worn in two, but the ends were carefully saved 
and stored away. As a coal-heaver, the old man had 



158 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

never cast off a worn-out basket, and there were dozens 
of the remains of the old things, patched up with canvas 
and rope-yarns in the store-room. There were at least 
two dozen old hats, fur, cloth, silk and straw, etc/' 

The man who could make such a collection as this is a 
miser, and he is despised for being such. He had too 
great a zeal for collecting and hoarding, and he allowed 
his zeal to obliterate the other possible interests of life. 
We all seem inclined to keep bits of useless finery and 
pieces of useless apparatus. The desire is often not 
yielded to, and the objects are thrown away because their 
presence becomes a nuisance. We all like to collect 
money, and the fact that it is useful and that others 
are making collections too merely tends to increase the 
instinctive desire to collect. The octogenarian continues 
to collect money with unabated zeal, although he may be 
childless and the chief dread of his life is that his 
despised relatives may secure his money when he is gone. 
He does not desire that which money will secure, but 
the obtaining and holding the money is sufficient stimu- 
lus to him, even if every acquired dollar makes his 
difficulties greater by adding new responsibilities. No 
miser is aware of the fact that he collects for the pleasure 
he gets out of the collecting and the keeping. He imag- 
ines that he collects these things because of their useful- 
ness. He may think that each thing he collects will come 
handy in some emergency ; but that is not the ground of 
his collecting, although it may increase the tendency, 
and also make it seem reasonable to himself. It might be 
insulting to' a business man to tell him that he was labor- 
ing for money merely because of the pleasure he receives 
in the gathering and keeping of it. Indeed, such a state- 
ment would ordinarily be but partially true, for, 
although the proprietary instinct may play a part, it cer- 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 159 

tainly is not a complete explanation. All persons every- 
where are tempted by a possibility of gain. 

Our proprietary instincts may be made use of by the 
advertiser in many ways. The irresponsible advertiser 
has been able to play upon this instinct of the public 
by offering something for nothing, as is so frequently 
done in the cheaper forms of advertising media. The 
remarkable thing about this is that the public should 
be deluded by such a pretense. The desire to gain seems 
to overcome the better judgment of the more ignorant 
public and they become the victims of all sorts of treach- 
ery. The reputable advertiser should not disregard this 
instinct, and might often make it possible to minister 
to it with great profit, both to himself and to the public, 
which he might thus interest in what he has to offer. 
The following advertisement of the American Reserve 
Bond Co. (No. 2) is an attempt to appeal to this instinct. 

Why will a man endure hardship for days, endanger 
his life, and incur great expense, merely for the chance 
of a shot at a poor inoffensive deer? It certainly is not 
because of the value of the venison or of the hide. It is 
not uncommon for a sportsman to give away his game 
as soon as he has killed it. What he wanted was t-he 
pleasure of killing the game. Why will a man wade in 
streams from morning till night, or hold a baited hook 
for hours in the burning sun? It certainly is not be- 
cause fish are valuable ; neither does he do it because he 
believes that it is good for his health. While engaged in 
the act he is perfectly indifferent to his health, and such 
a thought would be incongruous to the whole situation. 
We like to hunt and to fish because we have inherited 
the hunting instinct from remote ancestors. For the 
civilized man such an instinct is often worthless, but to 
our ancestors it was necessary for the preservation of 
life. 



160 THE PSYCHOLOOY OF ADVERTISING 

The charm which a gun or a fishing tackle has for 
a civilized man is a most remarkable thing. The an- 
nual sale of rifles, revolvers, fishing tackle, fishing boats, 



A $10 Nest Egg 
Starts You Saving 
and Making Money 

If you have a $10.00 "nest eggr"and want to see your money 
grow rapidly, draw large semi-annual dividends, and earn a hand- 
some Surplus, our plan will interest you. 
> This i3 a great clearing house for savings-profits. 
We have taught over 200,000 people how to make savings ^rtw 
and yield la>ge dlVld^nds. 

.. Already we have distributed over three and one halt millicms ot 
dollars to the money-savets of this countryl ' 

The earning power oF Boney is so' much greater than 3% a year, 
that a banker who has the 'use of savings for that paltry sum, soon 
grows rich from the profits mat pile up on top of the amount given you 
iot your share. 

He turns it over and over, and it grows with every turn; 
— Because he has inside knowledge of its earning power, and ho 
•uses that knowledge for'his own private gain. 

<By our plan, you get your lull share of dividends, 5% guaranteed, 
you get all of the principal and a share of the Surplus earnings of the 
company. 

\Va have assets of over three and a half milhons of dollars, with 
the largest State Deposits of any Bond 
Company in the World. 

We are guided by the experience of 
over fourteen years in the handling of 
savings investments. Our business is 
under the direct coutrol of various stale 
laws and subject to periodical official 
examinations. 



Pottal 
Card 

Brings 

This 

Book 

FREE 



bcllars 



^^-^^ 



U you honestly want to save, we 
stand ready to start you on the right 
road to financial independence. 

Write us and full information 
ill be furnished by return 
mail. Drop a postal today 
for free boot "MORE 
DOLLARS." 

, American Reserve Bone 

Dept 14 Chamber of Commerce; 

Ue and Wtuhington %\».^ Chic«^ 



No. 2. — A snccessful appeal to the hoarding instinct. 




etc., is beyond anything which could be attributed to 
their practical need. The hunting instinct shows itself 
in our fiendish desire for conflict. The more ferocious 
the animal and the "gamier'^ the fish, the greater is our 
delight. The conflict may be with a man, and then 
the fiercer the struggle the better we like it. A street- 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 161 

brawl never fails to attract a crowd. The prize-fighter 
is always accompanied by the admiring glances of the 
populace. The accounts of atrocious crimes are read by 
those who are ashamed to confess it. 

The advertiser of guns, revolvers, fishing tackle, etc., 
meets with a ready response from the youth because he 
appeals directly to his powerful instincts. The follow- 
ing advertisement of Stevens Rifles (No. 3) is a good 
illustration of an appeal to the hunting instinct : 




-A successful appeal to 



The constructive instinct shows itself in a well-known 
manner in the bee and the beaver. The sam« instinct is 
common to man, but the results are not so uniform. We 
all like to construct things; if they are already con- 
structed, then we want to remodel or improve them. 
There is hardly a man who at least once has not been 
.conscious of a strong desire to build a house. If he 
purchases one already constructed, then he is not content 
till he has remodeled it in some way. Indeed, if he has 
built it himself he may make improvements upon it an- 
nually. If it is not so that he can make more changes 
the home loses interest, and is likely to be abandoned. 
As soon as the possibility of improving a liome has passed 



162 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

it seems that both the host and hostess seek excuses for 
going north or south or traveling abroad. 

In our urban civilization the men are deprived of 
one of the great pleasures of life. We are shut in as 
children, and are not allowed to "make a muss'' by our 
attempts at construction, and in our maturity the in- 




No. 4. — A successful appeal to the 
constructing instinct. 



stinct is held in check by lack of exercise. If we had 
some opportunity to make things with our hands we 
should secure the best possible form of recreation and 
diversion from the anxieties of business life. The women 
have all sorts of fancy-work with which they may amuse 
themselves. Manual-training and domestic science are 
offering an opportunity to school -children to use their 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 163 

hands and give expression to this instinctive desire to 
construct things. 

The advertiser can appeal in many ways to this in- 
stinct, and is sure to find ready attention and a willing- 
ness to pay for the opportunity to exercise this much- 
neglected instinct. The preceding advertisement of 
Golden Fleece yarn is such that it makes a woman's 
fingers tingle with a desire to knit. 

One of the most striking instincts in the entire animal 
kingdom is that of maternal love. The mother of one 
of the higher animals or of the human infant is willing 
to sacrifice all for her infant. The description which a 
German by the name of Schneider wrote of this instinct 
is clearly German, but is an excellent description of the 
facts : 

^'As soon as a wife becomes a mother her whole 
thought and feeling, her whole being, is altered. Until 
then she had only thought of her own well-being, of the 
satisfaction of her vanity; the whole world appeared 
made only for her; everything that went on about her 
was only noticed so far as it had personal reference to 
her ; she asked of every one that he should appear inter- 
ested in her, pay her the requisite attention, and as far 
as possible fulfil her wishes. Now, however, the center 
of the world is no longer herself, but her child. She 
does not think of her own hunger; she must first be 
sure that the child is fed. It is nothing to her that she 
herself is tired and needs rest, so long as she sees that 
the child's sleep is not disturbed ; the moment it stirs she 
awakes, though far stronger noises fail to arouse her 
now. She has, in one word, transformed her entire 
egotism to the child, and lives only in it. Thus, at least, 
it is in all unspoiled, naturally bred mothers, and thus 
it is with all the higher animal mothers. 



164 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

"She does not herself know why she is so happy, and 
why the look of the child and the care of it are so agree- 
able, any more than the young man can give an account 
of why he loves the maiden, and is so happy when she 
is near. Few mothers, in caring for their children, 
think of the proper purpose of maternal love for the 
preservation of the species. Such a thought may arise 
in the father's mind ; seldom in that of the mother. The 
latter feels only that it is an everlasting delight to hold 
the being which she has brought forth protectingly in 
her arms, to dress it, to wash it, to rock it to sleep, 
or to still its hunger." (Condensed from James's "Psy- 
chology.") 

Anything that will administer to the needs of the child 
is a necessity in the eyes of the mother. The matter of 
expense has to be considered by many mothers, but as 
men think lightly of expense when satisfying their hunt- 
ing instincts, so the mothers look upon expense as of 
secondary importance when supplying the needs of their 
children. An article which in any way administers to 
the appearance or comfort of children needs but to be 
brought to the attention of mothers and it is sure to be 
desired by them with a desire which is much more than 
a passing fancy, for it is enforced by the maternal 
instinct as inherited from countless generations. Adver- 
tisers are very successful in appealing to this instinct. 
The advertisement of Cream of Wheat (No. 5) is but 
one of many advertisements which thus appeal most 
forcibly to all mothers. 

No one chooses solitude for a long period of time. 
We prefer the best of companionship, but in the absence 
of the best we accept the best available. Robinson 
Crusoe took great comfort in the companionship of his 
man Friday. Solitary confinement is a severer form 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 



165 



of punishment than any other employed by civilized 
nations. We are gregarious and want to be able to 
see other human beings. Not only do we want to see 
others, but we want to be seen and noticed by them. 




No. 5. — A successful attempt to appeal to the parental 
instinct. 

Why should I care for myself as I appear in the minds 
of other people? It is not necessary for me to explain 
the origin of such a regard for the opinion of others, but 
it would hardly have been possible for the race to have 
developed without such a preference. Indeed, if an in- 



166 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

dividual should become wholly oblivious to the opinion 
of others, it is doubtful whether he would be able to 
survive for any considerable period of time. 

The young man seems compelled to attempt to be at 
his best before the young lady, but he does not know 
why. The young boy always tries to "show off" in the 
presence of young girls. It is often ridiculous that he 
should do so, and he does not know why he is doing it. 
When he comes into the presence of the young girl he 
seems compelled to undertake something bizarre which 
is sure to attract her attention. We are all afflicted 
as the young man and the boy. We consult not only 
our preference but also the opinion of others in purchas- 
ing our clothes and our homes, and in choosing our 
friends and our professions. We seem compelled to 
strive for those things which will make us rise in the 
estimation of others, and in purchasing and choosing we 
select those things which are approved by those whose 
esteem we most covet. If a particular style of clothing 
is preferred by the class of society whose esteem we 
court, that is a great argument in favor of such goods. 
It is possible for the advertiser of all classes of clothing 
to take advantage of this characteristic of human nature 
and to present his garments as if they were being worn 
by this preferred set. Indeed, at the present time, 
there are many classes of goods which are being pre- 
sented as the preferred of the "veritable swells.'' When, 
on the contrary, an advertiser represents his goods as 
that preferred by a despised class of individuals, the 
effect produced is distinctly harmful. 

The reproduced advertisement of Gage Millinery ( No. 
6) makes us believe that by selecting a Gage hat we 
should be brought, in the eyes of our acquaintances, into 
the class of persons here represented. 




No. 6. — T feel that by buying a Gage hat I should be brought into 
the social class of such ladies as the one here shown. 



168 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The advertisements of Regal Shoes (No. 7) and of 
White Star Coffee (No. 8) make us avoid them, for we 
do not want to be considered as in the class with frogs 
and peasants. The coffee and shoes may be all right, 
but if, by using them, I am to be thought less of by my 
acquaintances, I will have none of them. 



r^-IT* 




:gal 

' F'-oi-JA Oi-\e Storo to 



rC«RRA-'tldC HAPPY If! C0UL6 OKI* Gtf aRit:/! 



No. 7. — I refuse to admire the Regal 
shoe, for it will bring me into the 
class with this fellQW. 



Our limbs would be useless unless with them we in- 
herited a desire to exercise them. We do not exercise 
our limbs in order that we may develop them ; but, never- 
theless, the chief value of such exercise may be the devel- 
opment of the limbs. With every" organ we inherit a 
desire to exercise it in a way which makes for its 
development. The child^s mind is but a potential affair. 
It must be exercised in order that it may develop. If 
the child exercised only when it realized that such exer- 
cise was necessary for the development of the body, it is 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 



169 



quite certain that there would never be a fully developed 
adult again. 

Along with our bodies we have inherited a psychical 
nature with all its diversified possibilities. The psy- 
chical nature is, however, but little more than a possi- 
bility which needs vigorous exercise for its realization. 

We have a moral nature, which, in the beginning, is 
in the crudest possible form, but we have an inherited 
liking for the consideration of moral questions. This 
consideration may be of the actions of the hero in a story, 
of the nation's leaders, of a seller of merchandise, or of 




No. 8. — A poor advertisement. What 
would my acquaintances think of me 
if I preferred the same brand of coffee 
as that which delights the frogs? 



a personal friend. Such consideration of actions of 
others is most beneficial in the development of the moral 
sense, and when moral questions are presented in a true 
light, they are intensely interesting to all classes of 
persons. . 

Socrates believed that all persons would prefer the 
right whenever they saw it, and that all evil actions were 
from ignorance. Such a view is evidently an exaggera- 
tion, but we certainly do prefer what we regard to be 
the right, and reject what we regard to be the wrong. 



170 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

This is especially true in regard to the actions of others. 
We are disgusted and repulsed by what we regard as 
wrong in others. If an advertiser's argument, illustra- 
tion, and condition of purchase are such that they offend 
the moral sense of the reader, the advertisement is of 
little or no value. It may be difficult to appeal espe- 
cially to the moral judgment of the possible customer in 
presenting most goods, but any offense to such a moral 
judgment must be scrupulously avoided. In the adver- 
tisements of books, periodicals, and schools, the moral 
judgment can safely be counted on. Whether the re- 
ligious nature be developed from the moral or not, it 
certainly is true that the two are very closely connected, 
and that they must both be regarded with care by the 
advertiser, whether they be appealed to directly by the 
advertisement or not. The avidity with which we seek 
things which appeal to our religious nature is illustrated 
by a circumstance related in the September, 1904, issue 
of the Atlantic Monthly. A book was offered to the pub- 
lic with the title, "The Wonders of Nature," but the sales 
were disappointing. The title was changed to "The 
Wonders of Nature, the Architecture of God," and the 
sales were immediately increased and a second edition 
was necessary. 

We have even as children an embryonic, esthetic na- 
ture. Things beautiful have a fascinating effect upon 
the unperverted individual. We need but to have 
objects of beauty brought to our attention and we desire 
them without being taught their desirability. 

Furthermore, the beautiful affects us without our 
knowledge of the fact. We stop and look at a beautiful 
advertisement, but may not be aware that it is the 
beauty that attracts us at all. The best works of art 
are such that the attention is drawn wholly to what 



HUMAN INSTINCTS 171 

is represented, and not to the manner of the representa- 
tion. *The advertisement which is most artistic may 
be one which never affects the public as being artistic 
at all, but it is the one which will be most effective in 
impressing the possible customer. One reason why so 
much attention is given to the advertising pages of our 
magazines is that they are so artistic. 

We have an intellectual nature, but in the case of the 
child the intellect is little more than a spark which, how- 
ever, is sufficient to indicate the presence of that which 
may be 'developed into a great light. The child is 
prompted by curiosity to examine everything that comes 
into its environment. It tears its toys to pieces that it 
may learn of their construction. At a later age the 
youth takes delight in the acquisition of knowledge inde- 
pendent of the utility of such knowledge. The curiosity 
of the human race is the salvation of its intellect, and at 
the same time makes a convenient point of attack for 
the advertiser. The public wants to know what is offered 
for sale. It wants to hear the story which the advertiser 
has to tell. There are other stories to hear, and the 
advertiser must not have the most uninteresting one if 
he expects to take advantage of this instinctive desire 
of the individual to become acquainted with all novel 
objects and to learn all he can concerning new aspects 
of familiar ones. 

Occasionally this characteristic of curiosity may be 
made use of by the advertiser in what might seem to be 
an absurd manner, and yet the results be good. As 
an illustration, observe the reproduced advertisement of 
"What did the woggle bug say?'' (No. 9). This adver- 
tisement seems to be extremely absurd, and yet, in some 
way, it has been able to arouse the curiosity of many 
readers, and it is quite possible that it has been a success- 
ful advertisement. 



172 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

We have seen above that we have instinctive responses 
to act for the preservation and furtherance of (1) our 
bodies, clothes, homes, personal property, and family 
(also the hunting and constructing instincts which are 
more complex than others of this class) ; (2) ourselves 
as we exist in the minds of others ; (3) our mental facul- 
ties. We have seen that to secure action along these 
lines it is not necessarv to show the value of such action 




No. 9. — An advertising freak 
designed to arouse curiosity. 



or the necessity of it, but merely to present the proper 
stimulus, and the action is forthcoming immediately. 
The advertiser should study human nature to discover 
these hidden springs of action. He desires to produce 
the maximum of action along a certain line with the 
minimum of effort and expense to himself. If he can 
find a method whereby his efforts are seconded by some 
of the most powerful of the human instincts, his task will 
be simplified to the extreme. The discovery of such a 
method is a task for the leaders of the profession of 
advertising. 



SUGGESTION 173 

XIV 
SUGGESTION 

The mental process known as '^Suggestion" is in bad 
repute because, in the popular mind, it has too often 
been associated on the one hand with hypnotism and on 
the other with indelicacy and vulgarity. Hypnotism in 
the hands of the scientist or of the fakir is well known 
to be a form of suggestion. A story which does not 
specifically depart from that which conforms to the 
standards of propriety but which is so constructed that 
it leads the hearers to conceptions that are "off color'' 
is said to be suggestive. In this way it has come to pass 
that the whole subject of suggestion has been passed by 
with less consideration than is due it. 

There is no uniformity in the meanings that are at- 
tached to the term suggestion even among the most care- 
ful writers. If I were sitting in my office and consider- 
ing the advisability of beginning a certain enterprise, I 
might say that one idea "suggested" a second and this 
second a third, etc. A scientific definition would not 
allow this use of the term but would substitute the ex- 
pression "called up" for "suggested." Thus I should 
say that one idea "called up" the second, etc. Sugges- 
tion must he brought about by a second person or an 
object. In my musings and deliberations I should not 
say that one idea suggested another, but if the same idea 
were called forth at the instigation of a second person 
or upon the presentation of an object, I should then call 
it suggestion — if it met the second essential condition of 
suggestion. This second condition is that the resulting 



174 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

conception^ conclusion^ or action must follow with less 
than the normal amount of deliberation. Suggestion is 
thus a relative term, and in many instances it might be 
difficult to say whether or not a particular act was sug- 
gestion. If the act followed a normal amount of con- 
sideration after a normal time for deliberation it would 
not be suggestion, while if the same act followed too 
abruptly or with too little consideration it might be a 
true case of suggestion. 

Every normal individual is subject to the influence of 
suggestion. Every idea of which we think is all too 
liable to be held for truth, and every thought of an action 
which enters our minds is likely to result in such action. 
I do not think first of walking and then make up my 
mind to walk. The very thought of walking will inevi- 
tably lead to the act unless I stop the process by the 
thought of standing still. If I think of an object to the 
east of me my whole body sways slightly in that direc- 
tion. Such action is so slight that we ordinarily do not 
discover it without the aid of accurate recording instru- 
ments. Almost all so-called mind-reading exhibitions 
are nothing but demonstrations of the fact that every 
thought which we think expresses itself in some out- 
ward action. Thought is dynamic in its very nature and 
every idea of an action tends to produce that action. 

The most perfect working of suggestion is to be seen 
under hypnosis and in crowds. In hypnosis the subject 
holds every idea presented as true, and every idea sug:: 
gested is acted out with no hesitation whatever. Here 
the mind is so narrowed by the artificial sleep that no 
contradictory or inhibiting idea arises, and hence no 
idea can seem absurd and no action seems out of place. 
There is no possible criticism or deliberation and so we 
have the extreme case of susceptibility to suggestion. 



SUGGESTION 175 

The effect of a crowd upon an individual approaches 
that of the hypnotizer. The individual is affected by 
every member of the crowd and the influence becomes 
so overpowering that it can hardly be resisted. If the 
crowd is a ^'lynching party" the whole atmosphere is 
one of revenge, and everywhere is suggested the idea 
of ^^lynch the culprit." This idea is presented on all 
sides. It can be read from the faces and actions of the 
individuals and is heard in their cries. No other idea 
has a chance to arise in consciousness and hence this one 
idea, being dynamic, leads to its natural consequences. 

It was once supposed that suggestion was something 
abnormal and that reason was the common attribute of 
men. To-day we are finding that suggestion is of uni- 
versal application to all persons, while reason is a 
process which is exceptional, even among the wisest. We 
reason rarely, but act under suggestion constantly. 

There was a great agitation some years ago among 
advertisers for "reason why" copy. This agitation has 
had some value, but it is easily overemphasized. Occa- 
sionally customers are persuaded and convinced, but 
more frequently they make their purchases because the 
act is suggested at the psychological moment. Suggestion 
and persuasion are not antagonistic ; both should be kept 
in mind. However, in advertising, suggestion should 
not be subordinated to persuasion l)ut should be sup- 
plemented by it. The actual effect of modern advertis- 
ing is not so much to convince as to suggest. The individ- 
ual swallowed up by a crowd is not aware of the fact 
that he is not exercising a normal amount of delibera- 
tion. His actions appear to him to be the result of 
reason, although the idea, as presented, is not criticised 
at all and no contradictory or inhibiting idea has any 
possibility of arising in his mind. In the same way we 



176 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

think that we are performing a deliberate act when we 
purchase an advertised commodity, while in fact we may 
never have deliberated upon the subject at all. The idea 
is suggested by the advertisement, and the impulsiveness 
of human nature enforces the suggested idea, hence the 
desired result follows in a way unknown to the pur- 
chaser. 

Some time ago a tailor in Chicago was conducting a 
vigorous advertising campaign. I did not suppose that 
his advertising was having any influence upon me. 
Some months after the advertising had begun I went 
into the tailor's shop and ordered a suit. While in the 
shop I happened to fall into conversation with the pro- 
prietor and he asked me if a friend had recommended 
him to me. I replied that such was the case. Thereupon 
I tried to recall who the friend was and finally came to 
the conclusion that this shop had never been recom- 
mended to me at all. I had seen his advertisements for 
months and from them had formed an idea of the shop. 
Later, I forgot where I had received my information and 
assumed that I had received it from a friend who pat- 
ronized the shop. I discovered that all I knew of the 
shop I had learned from advertisements and I doubt 
very much whether I ever read any of the advertisements 
further than the display type. Doubtless many other 
customers would have given the same reply even though, 
as in my case, no friend had spoken to them concerning 
the shop. 

Ideas which have the greatest suggestive power are 
those presented to us by the actions of other persons. 
The second most effective class is probably the ideas 
suggested by the words of our companions. Advertise- 
ments that are seen frequently are difficult to distinguish 
in their force from ideas which are secured from the 



SUGGESTION 177 

words of our friends. Advertising thus becomes a great 
social illusion. We attribute to our social environment 
that which in reality has been secured from the adver- 
tisements which we have seen so often that we forget 
the source of the information. Street railway advertis- 
ing is especially effective at this point because the sug- 
gestion is presented so frequently that we soon forget 
the source of the suggestions and end by attributing it 
to the advice of friends. 

In advertising some commodities argumentation is of 
more importance than suggestion, and for such things 
booklets and other similar forms of advertising are the 
most effective. Such commodities are, however, the ex- 
ception and not the rule. In the most successful adver- 
tising argumentation and forms of reasoning are not 
disregarded, but the emphasis is put upon suggestion. 
Inasmuch as more of our actions are induced by sugges- 
tion than by argumentation, advertising conforms, in 
this particular, to the psychological situation. It puts 
the emphasis where the most can be accomplished and 
subordinates those mental processes which hold a second 
place in determining our actions. 

As stated above, those suggestions are the most power- 
ful which we receive from the actions and words of other 
persons. The successful advertiser seems to have worked 
upon this hypothesis in constructing many advertise- 
ments. He has also taken advantage of the fact that we 
soon forget the person who originally suggested the idea 
and become subject to illusions upon the matter. Thus, 
in the reproduced advertisements of Jap-a-lac (No. 1), 
as I see this young lady using Jap-a-lac the suggestion 
to do the same thing is overpowering. Many a woman 
who has looked at these pictures has been immediately 
overcome by a desire to do the same thing- and has put 



178 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 




3-. 



^ ""^ £■? --= 

Kc * i^-^ l-'-'i: 'JU 



C^ 



< 









'^ § 2 1 ' ■iii 

< 4< 50- 







No. 1. — The actions of this young lady are compelling in their 
suggestive power. 



SUGGESTION 179 

her desire into execution. If I had seen these and simi- 
lar cards for a few months, even though I had never 
seen any one actually using the paint, I should assume 
that "every one is using Jap-a-lac." The suggestion 
would thereupon be in an extreme form and be liable to 
cause me to imitate what I assumed every one else was 
doing. As a matter of fact I was affected in just this 
manner. When occasion arose to purchase some paint 
for household use I called for Jap-a-lac under the as- 
sumption that I had seen it used frequently. The can 
looked familiar, and it seemed to me that I was running 
no risks, for Jap-a-lac had been a household commodity 
for years. Soon after the purchase I began to write this 
chapter and I am unable to recall any instance of having 
seen Jap-a-lac in use. I had seen pictures of the Jap-a- 
lac paint can and had seen pictures of persons using the 
paint, but I know of no other source of information con- 
cerning this paint, although at the time of the purchase 
of the paint my knowledge of it seemed to me perfectly 

«Rub your finger 
on white lead paint Several mdnths qU. 
It comes off— lii<e chalk. It is CrumbllVlg 
tfway. 
LUCAS TINTED GLOSS PAINT wonT 
chalk — won't crumble. It develops s 
hard glossy surfafe. 
Moisture or heat won't affect It It lasts yeai» 
longer than other paint. Be sure you get it. 

No. 2. — A suggestion to rub your finger. 

adequate. Apparently I had never heard an argument 
in favor of the paint but had acted upon mere sugges- 
tion. Women are, in general, more susceptible to sugges- 
tion than men, and I feel sure that many women are con- 
vinced of the adequacy of this paint by these same adver- 
tisements, reproduced above, even though nothing more 
than the display and the picture is noticed. 



180 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

It seems that no form of action can be suggested by an 
advertisement that does not successfully challenge the 
reader to do what is proposed. The suggested idea 
haunts one, and even though the action may be absurd, 
it is difficult to resist. The four following reproduced 



SOLVE THIS 




and well oencl you one of our 
Superior Pound CaKes 



Answer to last month's 



t 



puzzk-'t^rtainlyndn" | j Wednesday Special Safe 



Don't miss our 



WESTERFELIKS 



No. 3. — A suggestion to solve this. 



advertisements depend upon suggestion and are said to 
be extremely successful. Many persons doubtless feel 
the suggestion to be irresistible to rub the end of the first 
finger when looking at this advertisement of Lucas 




A SISTERSVILLE GIRL 



GUESS WHO? 

To the first Successful Gucsscr we wl 
$ive One Dozen of our $5.00 Piioto& 



Eastman Kodaks and 
Everything for Uie Photo^apher. 

KERR'5 STUDIOS 

SUteriville, New Martliuville and SmittanclA. 

No. 4. — The action suggested by this adver- 
tisement makes it effective. 



Tinted Gloss Paint. What could be more absurd than- 
Westerf eld's advertisement? The fact that this adver- 
tisement was highly successful is sufficient justification 
for its use. Kerr's studio was flooded with answers to 
the suggestion of "Guess who?" The Yucatan sign 
language does not affect me, but I cannot look at the 
beautiful girl saying "Yu"-"ca"-"tan" without a pro- 



SUGGESTION 



181 






Yu- 




"ca- 



* tan/ 



YUGMNgdmPIEASES 



No. 5. 



-The movements of her lips literally force me to repeat the word 

'*Yu-ca-tan." 



182 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

nounced tendency to imitate her. The suggestions in 
these four advertisements lead the readers to desire to 
act in the ways suggested, and that of necessity leads to 
an interest in the goods advertised. 

As stated above, the words of our friends have strong 
suggestive power. We are not cold, logical machines, 
who take data in and then, by a logical process, come to 
a reasonable conclusion. On the contrary, we are so 
highly susceptible to suggestion that the words of our 
companions are ordinarily held for true and the actions 
proposed by them are hastily carried out. The sugges- 
tiveness of the words of companions is a force available 
to the advertiser. He places before the public a state- 




.Arrow 

COLL A ';"'■: 

PONT SHP.iiMK 



-J 



No. 6. — The washerwoman seems lu r«tom- 
mend Arrow collars. 



ment and then, to give greater suggestive power, he 
shows the likeness of a person whose face indicates the 
possession of a judgment we should be willing to take. 
The advertiser does not state that the words are those of 
the person depicted, but this relationship seems to be* 
suggested and it adds greatly to the value of the ad- 
vertisement. Thus in the reproduced advertisement of 
Postum Food Coffee the picture of the venerable doctor 
becomes associated in our minds with the statement, 
"If coffee don't agree, use Postum Food Coffee." Later 
these words seem to have issued from a responsible 



SUGGESTION 



183 



person and come to have undue weight with us all. 
Likewise in the reproduced advertisement of Arrow 
collars the genial washerwoman seems to assure us that 
" Arrow Collars don't shrink in the wash." In the case 
of the Calox advertisement I am convinced when this 




i^^mm 



Vhe "OXYGEN" 


Tooth P^osvder 


1 herncw- 


scif'n 


tiftc 


'lentifricc 


that 


V. ill. 


»^hit^,'J^ you'' 1 


. th. 


ItJ^. 'yXYGK^ 




S IT 



No. 7. — The p^jrtr^at : 

power of this advertisement. 



beautiful girl points lier finger at me and seems to say, 
" Yes, you ought to use Calox.'' As I happen to need 
more tooth powder just now, I don't wait for further 
evidence but accept uncritically the words which she is 



HAND SAPOLIO 

by ^a^ method of its own cleans the 
pores, aids the natural changes of the 
skin, and imparts new vigor and life. 
C, Don't argue, Don't infer. Try it! 
CIt's a lightning change from office 
to parlor with Hand Sapolio. 
SHOULD BE ON EVERY WASHSTAND 



No. 8. — A good advertisement in which sug- 
gestion is subordinated to argumentation. 

represented as using. When we stop to think of it, it 
is absurd to place credence in these words of the ad- 
vertiser simply because of the presence of an appropriate 
picture, but the absurdity of the situation does not de- 
tract from the practical value of such forms of sug- 
gestion. 




nvat/s tlie 
( /iff AccebtabL 



«# 



^ijn^Jhsss* 



y^OU have been entertained by a gracious 
hostess — a little dinner party perhaps to 
which you have been invited by a business friend. 
A gift of flowers next day will express the appre- 
ciation you feel. The girl you danced with, who 
was good to you in finding other partners — a 
gift of flowers next day is the tribute you owe. 

For every occasion when some thoughtful atten- 
tion on your part is hard to express in words — 
" Say it with Flowers," the gift acceptable. 

Your local flonst, withtn a few hours, can 
deliver fresh f overs in any city or town 
in the United States and Canada through 
the Florists' Telegraph Delivery Service. 

The florist displaying the sign " Say it with 
Flowers " is a member of the Society of American 
Florists, which enables liim to serve you better 
when you buy flowers. 



QOhose^Birthaau 
comes in 




No. 9. 



'Say it with Flowers" is one of the cleverest sug- 
gestions in current advertising. 



SUGGESTION 185 

The reproduced advertisement of the Society of Ameri- 
can Florists (No. 9) is one in which suggestion is used 
successfully. The picture tends to beget imitation. 
" Say it with Flowers " is one of the cleverest phrases 
in current advertising. The reminder of occasions de- 
manding a gift of flowers becomes an irresistible sug- 
gestion. 

Many forms of suggestion, in addition to those pre- 
sented above, are available to^the advertiser. There* is 
also no necessary divorce between suggestion and the 
presentation of arguments. Indeed, the application of 
the two in the same advertisement often increases the 
value of each. Thus in the reproduced advertisement 
of Hand Sapolio (No. 8) the direct suggestion, 
" Hand Sapolio should be on every washstand," is 
strengthened by the " reasons why,'' and the reasons why 
are strengthened by this suggestion. 

These reproduced advertisements are presented as 
mere illustrations of a few of the many ways in which 
suggestion may be used by the advertiser. We have but 
to consider the millions of persons who at least glance 
at advertisements, to be impressed by the possibilities 
opened to the man who can present his advertisement 
in a form that suggests powerfully the purchase or use 
of his commodity. 



186 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

XV 

THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 

During all the waking hours of the day there is some- 
thing about which we are thinking; we have a particular 
tone of feeling^ and there is something for which we are 
striving. We know something, we feel somehow, and 
we strive for something not yet attained. Knowing, 
feeling, and willing are the three universal aspects of 
all our mental activities. As I sit in my chair I am 
conscious of the furniture in the room, the line of 
thought which I am carrying out, and the necessity of 
completing my task in a given time ; I feel pleased with 
the comfort of the situation and the excitement of com- 
position ; I am putting forth activity of w ill in striving 
to accomplish a certain end and to express myself on a 
typewriter. Sometimes our condition is one of intense 
feeling, at another it is primarily intellectual grasp of a 
situation, and at other times it is especially a putting 
forth the will in attempting to accomplish some end or 
to reach some conclusion. Although each of the three 
aspects of consciousness may for a time predominate, yet 
it is probable that all three activities are present at all 
moments of our conscious existence. 

Under the will may be included all the active proc- 
esses of the mind. This activity may express itself 
either in bodily movements or in some such mental proc- 
esses as attention or volition. Under the bodily activi- 
ties are such as impulsive, instinctive, and voluntary 
actions. At this time it will be well to confine our atten- 
tion to but a part of these activities of the will, viz., 
voluntary actions. 



THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 187 

A definition of volition would not make the subject 
any clearer to us, but here the term is used in an un- 
technical sense and includes such -things as decision, 
choice, voluntary actions, and all actions performed 
after consideration. It includes a mental procesl and 
the resultant, bodily activity. 

It is probably true that a majority of our actions are 
performed without such consideration, but it is because 
of the existence of voluntary action that the advertiser 
finds it necessary to proceed logically and to appeal to 
the reason of his customer. 

A careful consideration of the elemental processes 
involved in such actions is of great advantage in enabling 
the advertiser to bring about the decision desired. 

Voluntary actions may be analyzed into (a) an idea 
of two or more attainable ends, ( & ) an idea of the means 
to attain these ends, ( c ) a feeling of the value of worthi- 
ness of the different ends, {d) sl comparison of the values 
of the different ends and of the difficulties of the means, 
and, finally, (e) a choosing of one of the ends and striv- 
ing to attain it. 

These ^ye processes in a voluntary action may be 
illustrated as follows : (a) I think of a suit that I might 
buy, the trip that I might take, and of the debt that I 
might pay; (6) I think of the trouble of going to the 
tailor shop, the inconvenience of waiting for the train, 
and the distance to be covered to reach the creditor; (c) 
I feel in imagination the pleasure of possessing the new 
suit, the delights connected with the trip, and the satis- 
faction of having the debt paid; (d) I compare the diffi- 
culties of possessing each and the pleasures derivable 
from the possession; {e) I decide to take the trip and 
start for the ticket office. 

If this is a correct analysis of voluntary action the 



188 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

question which naturally arises in the mind of the adver- 
tiser is this: What can be done to cause the largest 
number of persons to decide in favor of my particular 
goods? Suppose that the article of merchandise under 
consideration be a piano : now how may the advertiser 
proceed in accordance with the analysis presented above? 
(a) The piano must be brought before the public in such 
a manner that the idea of it will be clear and distinct 
in the minds of the potential purchasers, (h) The pub- 
lic must be informed exactly what is necessary to secure 
the piano, (c) The piano must be presented in such a 
manner that its value seems great. (d) The value 
of the piano must be presented in such a way that, 
when compared with other forms of action, the 
purchase of the piano seems the most desirable. The 
means of securing the piano must be made to appear 
easy, (e) Pressure must be brought to bear to cause 
immediate decision and action on the part of the public 
in favor of the particular piano. 

Elaborations of each of these five points will sug- 
gest themselves to any thoughtful advertiser. That the 
idea of the piano may be clear and distinct (a) illus- 
trations may be used to advantage; the language used 
should conform to the mode of thinking of the public 
appealed to; the type used should be easily read; the 
description should be as brief as is possible for com- 
pleteness of presentation of essential features. In order 
that the public may know exactly how to secure the 
piano (h) the exact cost must be presented; the method 
of sending the money, the delivery and setting up in the 
home might well be included in the statement of the ad- 
vertisement. The feeling of value may be awakened for 
the piano (c) by advertising it in the highest class of 
media, by having a beautiful advertisement, by empha- 



THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 189 

sizing the elegance of the instrument and the perfection 
of the tone, by indicating what a joy it is in a home, and 
by any other means which would tend to associate the 
piano with feelings of pleasure. It is assumed that 
other pianos will be considered by the possible purchas- ' 
ers and that when others are considered they will suffer 
by comparison (d). That this may be true it will be 
necessary to describe the strong points of the piano in 
such a way that the value of the piano seems great, and 
the cost of it and the means of securing it seem less 
burdensome than those connected with competing pianos. 
That the choice may be made at once and effort put 
forth to secure the piano (e) reasons for avoiding delay 
might be presented or the suggestion to action might be 
so strong that the tendency to procrastinate would be 
overcome. 

Although every customer who is induced to select any 
particular line of goods after consideration must inevi- 
tably perform the five processes as described, and al- 
though an ideal advertisement would be so constructed 
that it would assist the customer in completing each of 
the five processes, yet it is not to be assumed that each 
advertisement should be constructed so that it would be 
well adapted to promote each of the five processes. 

On the other hand, it is quite true that many adver- 
tisements are ineffective because the writer has not paid 
attention to these fundamental psychological processes 
of voluntary actions". 

In the reproduced advertisement of Triscuit (No. 1) 
the first step of the act of volition (a) is emphasized. 
'This advertisement gives the reader a clear and vivid 
idea of the product advertised. No one can read the ad- 
vertisement without knowing what the product is made 
of, how it looks, how it is manufactured, and what it is 
good for. 



190 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The reproduced advertisement of Holbrookes Sauce 
(No. 2) occupied the cover page in a British magazine 
which is about twelve by sixteen inches in size. In all 
this space nothing is shown or said which gives us an 
idea of the real nature of the product advertised. After 
examining this advertisement carefully I am still at a 



)€Utr 



A PERFECT FOOD 

.T ^" 



Con i.^ud 
Cl', C-l 


' Pa'' 


lolo IVheat. n 






,.i^^: 


^^ 






.-©islita.- 














rhe Nc 


tural Food Co. 1 






V^,«=^l^— 1^ 


.^=»»iJ 



No. 1. — Adequate description of goods, 
but inadequate as to method of secur- 
ing them. 



loss to know the real nature of the product. Such a 
use of space can be justified only on the assumption 
that the public is already familiar with the sauce, or 
that this is to be but a single link in the chain and that 
later or preceding advertisements supply what is de- 
ficient in this single advertisement. 

Many an otherwise good advertisement is weakened 
because it gives no adequate idea of the means necessary 



THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 



191 



for securing the goods advertised. The advertiser is so 
familiar with his goods and the means of securing them 
that he forgets that others know nothing of them. It 
is needless to reproduce any particular advertisement to 
illustrate this point. A large proportion of goods that 



l^^^^'^r^##^'" 



HQLBROOK'S 
SAUCE 



•'arjpj jjinrn -vp-oncEswa-i^jittiiimE: 




f : :ii 



"c/// ifffuee fhem. 



No. 2. — Inadequate description of the 
goods and of the method of securing 
them. 



are widely distributed are advertised on the assumption 
that everybody knows that they are to be secured at all 
dealers. It is not wise to assume any such knowledge 
on the part of the general public. In the advertisement 
of Triscuit no mention is made of the fact that it can 
be secured from all first-class grocers, and many persons 
assume that Triscuit can be had only at the address 
given at the foot of the advertisement. In the adver- 



192 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

tisement of Holbrook's Sauce (No. 2) no address is given 
and nothing is said of the place where it can be secured. 
The writers of the advertisements have assumed that the 
public knows more of these goods than the facts warrant. 
The reproduced advertisement of Jap-a-lac (No. 3) 




REG, us. PAT OFF. 



A STAIN ANJ^ VARMSH COMBINED 




No. 3. — Adequate description of the method of 
securing the goods. 



leaves no doubt in the mind of the public as to the means 
of securing the paint. "For sale by painty hardware and 
drug dealers. All sizes from 15c to $2.50.'^ This state- 
ment is sufficient for most persons, but not for all, and 
we find this statement in addition : "If your dealer does 
not keep Jap-a-lac, send us his name and 10c and we will 



THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 193 

send free sample/' This advertisement gives us a clear 
idea of the means necessary for securing the advertised 
goods and hence facilitates the second process in a volun- 
tary action and increases the chances of securing the 
desired action. No advertisement should ever appear 
which leaves any doubt in the minds of possible custom- 
ers as to where and how the goods advertised can be 
secured. The absence of such information is very com- 
mon and impresses the writer as one of the weakest 
points in modern advertising. 

The third process in our analysis of voluntary action 
is the feeling of worthiness or value (c) . It is not suffi- 
cient to have a clear idea of an end and a definite idea 
of the means of securing it unless there is an accompany- 
ing feeling of value. The advertiser is thus compelled 
to make his commodity appear valuable. This fact is 
accomplished by most advertisers but not by all. The 
reproduced advertisement of Nabisco (No. 4) presents 
the product as particularly worthy. The advertisement 
is intrinsicall}^ beautiful. The cut and the copy harmo- 
nize completely. The young girl depicted could be 
described as "a fairy," and "airy lightness and exquisite 
composition'' is characteristic of the entire cut. The 
copy appeals to our instinctive desires for savory viands 
in a most enticing manner, and also appeals to the femi- 
nine social instinct by the following words : ". . . to 
afford the hostess opportunity for many original con- 
ceptions in the serving of desserts." The greatest feel- 
ing of worth attaches itself to those things which are the 
objects of our most fundamental instinctive desires. A 
feeling of worth inevitably attaches itself to every savory 
viand, to every beautiful object, and to every agency 
which furthers our social instincts. 

The fourth process in our analysis (d) is the com- 



194 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

parison of competing ends as to value and means of 
acquisition. When an advertiser realizes that the pub- 
lic to which he is appealing will compare his goods with 
those of his competitor, he is tempted to resort to the 
questionable method of showing the weak points of his 
competitor's merchandise or method of sales. There 



^ 
% 




cinpiacioii i 



NABISCO 



Ik^ 



No. 4. — This advertisement arouses a 
feeling of appreciation. 

may be instances in which this method is justifiable and 
even necessary, but ordinarily it is self-destructive. The* 
act of comparison {d) is a process in volition that the ad- 
vertiser should not seek to encourage. It is a hindrance 
to the advertiser and his function is to minimize it. If 
I, as an advertiser, am offering goods in competition 
with other goods, I know that my goods will be compared 
with the others, and it is my place to give the reader such 



THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 195 

a clear and vivid idea of my goods (a) and to make the 
means of securing them so plain (&) that my goods will 
not suffer by comparison. My purpose is best served by 
holding my goods up to the attention of the potential pur- 
chaser and not by emphasizing the weaknesses of those 
of my competitor. I must emphasize the strong points 
of my merchandise and especially those points in which 
my goods are superior to competing goods, and in this 
way I get attention to those points at which my goods 
will gain by comparison. 

The last point in the analysis of the process of volition 
(e) is that of choosing one of the ends and striving to 
attain it. All the other stages of the process are but 
subsidiary to this. What can the advertiser do to secure 
or to facilitate this part of the process? It is a well- 
known psychological fact that at the moment of final 
decision all competing ideas are usually banished from 
the mind and attention is centered on the idea (the mer- 
chandise) which is chosen. At the moment of final 
choice we do not hold competing lines of action before 
us and then choose the one that seems the best. The 
process is one of elimination preceding the choice. We 
compare different lines of action and eliminate one after 
another till but one is left. This one has seemed better 
than the others and it is held to and acted upon. The 
acting upon it is often a part of the choice. The one 
line of action is before us and the very act of attending 
to the one idea results in the appropriate action. There 
may have been no conscious choice preceding the action, 
but now that the action has commenced the competing 
ideas are kept from the mind and the action gets put 
into fulfillment. There are therefore two distinct 
things which the advertiser can do to facilitate this final 
step. In the first place he fills the mind of his potential 



196 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

customers with thoughts of his own particular goods, 
and in the second place he suggests immediate action. 
The mind of the customer is filled by the processes de- 
scribed in (a), (h), and (c). Immediate action is sug- 
gested by ( & ) and by some such device as the return cou- 
pon, the direct command, etc. ( For a fuller discussion of 
this point see chapters V and VI of "The Theory of Ad- 
vertising.") The advertiser who fails to state the method 
of securing his goods fail^ to give one of the strongest 
possible suggestions to action. 

If it were even possible that every reader of the adver- 
tisement of Jap-a-lac already knew the price of it and 
where it could be secured, still the advertisement is 
strengthened by giving these details in that it gives the 
suggestion to action as nothing else could do. The sug- 
gestion to action might be strengthened by additional 
details but not by substituting for them. 



THE AVILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 197 



XVI 
THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 

In the preceding chapter an analysis of a typical ac- 
tion was given without reference to the fact that actions 
are not ordinarily typical. No two acts are exactly 
alike. Individuals are different and employ divers 
methods in performing their acts. In the case of a 
single individual the most diverse methods are employed 
at different times and under diffe^^ent circumstances. 
The personal differences in methoa^ of deciding ques- 
tions and resultant actions have been so beautifully ex- 
pressed by Prof. William James that it seems useless 
to attempt any improvement upon his presentation of 
the five methods of deciding or choosing : 

^'The first method may be called the reasonable type. 
It is that of those cases in which the arguments for and 
against a given course seem gradually and almost in- 
sensibly to settle themselves in the mind and to end 
by leaving a clear balance in favor of one alternative, 
which alternative we then adopt without effort or con- 
straint. . . . The conclusive reason for the decision in 
these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the 
case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act 
unhesitatingly in a certain stereotyped way. . . . The 
moment we hit upon a conception which lets us apply 
some principle of action which is a fixed and stable part 
of our Ego, our state of doubt is at an end. Persons 
of authority, who have to make many decisions in the 
day, carry with them a set of heads of classification. 



198 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

each bearing its volitional consequence, and under these 
they seek as far as possible to range each new emer- 
gency as it occurs. It is where the emergency belongs to 
a species without precedent, to which consequently 
no cut-and-dried maxim will apply, that we feel most 
at a loss, and are distressed at the indeterminateness 
of our task. As soon, however, as we see our way to 
a familiar classification, w^e are at ease again. . . . The 
concrete dilemmas do not come to us with labels gummed 
on their backs. We may name them by many names. 
The wise man is he who succeeds in finding the name 
which suits the needs of the particular occasion best. 

"A ^reasonable' character is one who has a store of 
stable and worthy ends, and who does not decide about 
an action till he has calmly ascertained whether it be 
ministerial or detrimental to any one of these. In the 
next two types of decision, the final fiat occurs before the 
evidence is all ^in.' It often happens that no paramount 
and authoritative reason for either course will come. 
Either seems good, and there is no umpire to decide 
which should' yield its place to the other. We grow 
tired of long hesitation and inconclusiveness, and the 
hour may come when we feel that even a bad decision 
is better than no decision at all. Under these condi- 
tions it will often happen that some accidental circum- 
stance, supervening at a particular moment upon our 
mental weariness, will upset the balance in the direction 
of one of the alternatives, to which we then feel our- 
selves committed, although an opposite accident at the 
same time might have produced the opposite result. 

"In the second type our feeling is to a great extent 
that of letting ourselves drift with a certain indifferent 
acquiescence in a direction accidentally determined from 
without, with the conviction that, after all, we might as 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 199 

well stand by this course as by the other, and that things 
are in any event sure to turn out sufficiently right. 

^^In the third type the determination seems equally 
accidental, but it comes from within, and not from with- 
out. It often happens, when the absence of imperative 
principles is perplexing and suspense distracting, that 
we find ourselves acting, as it were, automatically, and 
as if by a spontaneous discharge of our nerves, in the 
direction of one of the horns of the dilemma. But so 
exciting is this sense of motion after our intolerable 
pent-up state that we eagerly throw ourselves into it. 
^Forward now!' we inwardly cry, 'though the heavens 
fall.' 

"There is a fourth form of decision, which often ends 
deliberation as suddenly as the third form does. It 
comes when, in consequence of some outer experience 
or some inexplicable inward change, we suddenly pass 
from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous 
moody or possibly the other way. The whole scale of 
values of our motives and impulses then undergoes a 
change like that which a change of the observer's level 
produces on a view. The most sobering possible agents 
are objects of grief and fear. When one of these affects 
us, all ^light fantastic' notions lose their motive power, 
all solemn ones find theirs multiplied many fold. The 
consequence is an instant abandonment of the more 
trivial projects with which we had been dallying, and an 
instant practical acceptance of the more grim and 
earnest alternative which till then could not extort our 
mind's consent. All those ^changes of heart,' ^awaken- 
ings of conscience,' etc., which make new men of so 
many of us may be classed under this head. The char- 
acter abruptly rises to another 'level,' and deliberation 
^omes to an immediate end 



200 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

^^In the fifth and final type of decision, the feeling that 
the evidence is all in, and that reason has balanced the 
books, may be either present or absent. But in either 
case we feel, in deciding, as if we ourselves by our own 
wilful act inclined the beam: in the former case by 
adding our living effort to the weight of the logical rea- 
son which, taken alone, seems powerless to make the 
act discharge; in the latter by a kind of creative con- 
tribution of something instead of a reason which does 
a reason's work. The slow dead heave of the will that 
is felt in these instances makes a class of them alto- 
gether different subjectively from all the four preceding 
classes. If examined closely, its chief difference from 
the former cases appears to be that in these cases the 
mind at the moment of deciding on the triumphant 
alternative dropped the other one wholly or nearly out 
of sight, whereas here both alternatives are steadily held 
in view, and in the very act of murdering the van- 
quished possibility the chooser realizes how much in 
that instant he is making himself lose." 

These five methods of deciding are methods which we 
all use to a greater or less extent. Every one has prob- 
ably experienced each of them at some time, yet some 
people habitually decide by one method and others by 
another. The man who habitually waits in deciding 
till all the reasons for and against a line of action are 
before him belongs to the first class. The man who 
"flips a copper" whenever anything is to be decided 
belongs to the second class. The man who is impulsive 
and who acts "intuitively," but who does not know 
w^hy he acts so, belongs to the third class. These three 
classes are known to us all. There is probably no one 
who decides questions habitually after the manner de- 
scribed in Professor James' fourth and fifth classes. 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 201 

Of these five methods of decision some are of little 
significance to the advertiser although of primal sig- 
nificance to the psychologist. The fifth, then, is of no 
significance to the advertiser except that it is the form 
which he seeks to obviate. He tries to get the public to 
dismiss all thought of competing articles. To accom- 
plish this he makes no mention of competitors, but con- 
fines his argument to his own commodity. 

In the fourth of Professor James' divisions the per- 
son, in deciding, passes from the easy and careless to 
the sober and strenuous mood. This accounts for the 
fact that certain advertisements may be seen and read 
frequently with no effect for years, then suddenly this 
same advertisement becomes all-powerful. This is true 
in advertising such things as life insurance, homes, good 
books, and other forms of merchandise which appeal to 
the higher nature of man. The reproduced advertise- 
ment of Modern Eloquence (No. 1) might not appeal 
powerfully to readers while they are in a careless and 
easy mood, but when the mood is changed the same 
advertisement might be most effective. 

In the third type, which is mainly a form of sug- 
gestion, the decision is dependent upon a sudden spon- 
taneity of an emotional nature and leaves but little for 
the advertiser to do. Women decide after this fashion 
more frequently than men. Here the advertiser can 
do most by appealing to the artistic and sentimental 
natures of the possible customers. The appearance of 
the advertisement, of the store, or of the salesman is 
not recognized by the woman as the deciding element, 
although in reality it is. If a lady were debating the 
question as to which goods she should order, an appeal 
to the artistic and sentimental might awaken her emo- 
tional nature sufficiently to cause her to decide, and 



202 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

that which awakens the emotion would be likely to 
be chosen. 

The second method of decision is not strictly a reason- 




t 



ircaler iipporiuiruieSs 








No. 1. — The effect of this advertise- 
ment depends upon the mood of 
the reader. 



ing type, but is one which approaches action upon sug- 
gestion and hence anything which the advertiser can do 
to suggest action aids in securing the results which come 
under this class. This class of persons will not, at the 
critical moment, search through the back files of maga- 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 



203 



zines to find an advertisement, neither will tliey exert 
themselves to find a store not centrally located if a more 
convenient one is passed at the critical moment of de- 
cision. If I belong to this second of Professor James' 
classes, and if I am trying to decide which watch I shall 




No. 2. — A poor advertisement, but one which 
under certain circumstances mi^ht be fairly 
successful. 



buy, I will purchase the one which presents itself to me 
at the psychological moment, whether the presentation 
be by advertisement, salesman, or store. An extensive 
advertiser recently said that any kind of advertising 
would succeed if the advertisements were large and if 
they appeared frequently enough. This statement is 



204 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

certainly not true but it does find some justification 
based on the decisions of such persons as are assigned 
to eJames^ second type. The reproduced advertisement 
of Pears' Soap (No. 2) is so exceedingly poor that it 
would be defended by but few. If a man were debating 
which sort of soap he shoulc^ purchase and if at the 
critical moment he should see this advertisement it might 
possibly induce him to order Pears'. The reproduced 
advertisement of Cook's Flaked Rice (No. 3) is similar 
to that of Pears' Soap. If these two advertisements (and 
others equally poor) were given extensive publicity they 
would undoubtedl}^ increase the sale of the goods ad- 
vertised simply because so many persons decide accord- 
ing to Professor James' second class and because so many 
unimportant questions are decided by us all according 
to this method. This is no justification of poor adver- 
tising, but it helps to explain why poor advertisements 
are sometimes successful. 

Professor James' first method of decision is of the 
greatest significance to advertisers of all sorts of mer- 
chandise, but especially to those who offer goods of a 
high price and of such a nature that the same person 
purchases but once or a few times during his life. 
Among such goods would be included pianos, life in- 
surance, automobiles, and many other advertised arti- 
cles. Furthermore, the persons who frequently use 
this first method of deciding are so numerous that it is 
essential to appeal to the " reason " of the public in ex- 
ploiting any kind of merchandise. 

The great diversity in individuals and the numer- 
ous motives which influence the same individual, added 
to the apparent complete freedom of the human will, 
would seem, combined, to make an insuperable obstacle 
to reasoning with groups of people by any such means as 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 



205 



the printed page. Human choice has always been as- 
sumed to be unknown, to be the one indeterminable 
factor in the universe. In spite of all this we have 
come to see that human action is governed by known 
laws and that by carefully studying the nature of so- 




No. 3. — A poor advertisement, but one which 
under certain circumstances might be fairly 
successful. 



ciety and the influences at work prophecies may be 
made within certain limits which are sufficiently ac- 
curate for all practical purposes. Under given po- 
litical, social, and industrial conditions the number and 
character of crimes remain constant. The suicides 
distribute themselves in a most remarkable manner, 
even as to the age, occupation, and sex of the person 



206 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

and the manner of committing tlie crime. The num- 
ber of marriages each year is more regular than the 
number of deaths. Famine increases the number of 
crimes against property and decreases the number of 
marriages. The wise merchant knows to a certainty 
from the political, social, and industrial condition of 
the country that there will be increased or decreased 
demand for individual lines of goods. Despite all the 
uncertainty of human choice he knows that there are 
certain conditions which determine the number who 
will choose his commodity and take the^ains to secure 
it. 

The advertiser is the diplomat of the commercial 
and industrial world. It is his duty to know the com- 
modity to be exploited and the public to be reached. 
Even though the commodity to be sold may seem very 
simple, in reality it is not so. The essential thing in 
every object is the relations which it has and the func- 
tions which it fulfills. The presentation of these rela- 
tionships and functions in a way that will cause the 
possible purchaser to respond is a task that is not likely 
to be overestimated. 

The same goods may be presented in a score of dif- 
ferent ways. The goods remain the same, but the manner 
of presentation meets with marked differences in the re- 
sponse of the public. One presentation may invite sus- 
picion and another confidence. Suspicion is nothing but 
an exaggerated tendency to call up possible evil con- 
sequences, and confidence is an unusual absence of the 
same tendency. The text and illustration of the adver- 
tisement, the make-up, and the reputation of the medium, 
etc., all unite to increase or decrease this tendency to 
hesitate and call up possible evil consequences. The ad- 
vertiser cannot be too careful in scrutinizing every- 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 207 

thing that goes to make up an advertisement to see 
that nothing is present which would increase the tend- 
ency to recall from the past experience evil consequences 
which have accompanied other actions. The advertising 
manager of a publication should refuse not only all dis- 
honest advertisements, but also all those which would 
tend to make readers suspicious, even if such suspicions 
were ungrounded. A publication which has been taken 
in the home for years, which has become trusted because 
of long years of reliable service, is inestimable in its 
value to the advertiser. 

We frequently hesitate to allow time for the sugges- 
tion of possible evil consequences, but if such conse- 
quences do not suggest themselves in too great a number 
and with too great vividness, action may follow. Thus 
persons often respond to advertisements long after they 
first read them. They could not be induced to respond 
at once but at a later time they do respond, although 
there has been no additional ground given for such 
action. We are all a little suspicious of hasty actions, 
and the older we grow the more suspicious we become. 
It is frequently wise not to attempt to secure immediate 
response, for it requires more effort than it would if the 
public were given a longer time in which to allay their 
suspicions. Advertisers are frequently surprised by the 
few responses which they receive at first from their 
advertisements and by the great response which they 
secure at a later time, although the first advertisement 
was in every way as good as the second. There are per- 
sons who will answer an advertisement the first time they 
see it, but there are many others who will not do so. 
There are some who will answer the first advertise- 
ment but will wait a week or so to answer, others will 
wait till they see the second or third of the series and 



208 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

then answer. The first time they saw the advertise- 
ment there was a personal desire for the goods adver- 
tised, but the fear of hasty action was enough to re- 
strain action. At a later time such fear is diminished, 
and the mere fact that the advertisement had begotten 
a desire upon its first appearance serves to increase the 
desire upon the second reading of the same or a similar 
advertisement. Continuous consecutive advertising 
ineets the method of response both of those suggestible 
creatures who act without hesitation and also of those 
who are too cautious to respond till after sufficient 
time has elapsed for all the evil consequences to pre- 
sent themselves. 

It was pointed out above that deliberation often oc- 
curs because the presentation of one line of action 
suggests to our minds another similar and incompatible 
action. This sort of deliberate action, as also that result- 
ing from a suggestion of evil consequences, is common 
in actions where large interests are at stake. In pur- 
chasing an article that costs some hundreds of dollars 
most persons would deliberate and consider other goods 
of the same class. Thus in purchasing a piano or an 
automobile it is to be expected that no one would be satis- 
fied with the presentation of one make, but would con- 
sider each make in relation to others. Although this is 
true, yet it is the function of the advertiser to get the 
public to think of one particular article, and the ad- 
vertiser should in general make no references to com- 
peting goods. The buyer may, indeed, think of such 
goods as might be purchased, instead of those presented 
in the advertisement, but the advertiser cannot afford 
to occupy space in furthering this tendency. If the 
advertisement can be so constructed that it holds the 
reader's attention to the goods advertised and does not 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 209 

suggest competing goods, it has done much to shorten 
the period of deliberation and secure decision in favor 
of the goods advertised. Every slur and every remark 
intended to weaken the opponent's argument serves to 
call attention to the goods criticised and thus to divide 
the reader's attention and so keep the advertisement 
from having its due weight. 

It is possible to hold two lines of action before us 
and, with both thus attended to, to decide for the one 
and against the other. Such a decision is made with 
conscious effort, is unpleasing and is not common. We 
may debate between two courses of action and hold 
both clearly in mind for some time, but at the moment 
of decision one course has usually occupied the mind 
completely and the other, by dropping from the at- 
tention, loses the contest, and action in favor of the 
object occupying the mind is commenced. What the 
advertiser must do, therefore, is to help the reader to 
get rid of the necessity of decision by effort, and he can 
do this by so presenting his goods that they occupy the 
attention completely. Under such circumstances de- 
cision becomes easy and prompt. 

The parts of an advertisement may weaken instead 
of strengthen each other. One part of the advertise- 
ment may offer a substitute which causes us to hesi- 
tate about acting upon another part. It is possible to 
present two articles which seem equally desirable be- 
cause too little description is given of the articles ad- 
vertised. In such a case the reader is unable to make 
up his mind, and hesitation and procrastination follow 
until the initial desire for the goods has vanished. 
" He who hesitates is lost " is a frequent quotation, 
but it would be more applicable if we should change 
it to, "The possible customer who is caused to hesitate 



210 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

is lost.^' A single advertisement should not present 
competing goods unless sufficient argument is given 
to make it possible for the reader to make up his mind 
and to act at once. 

Not only must the advertiser avoid presenting sug- 
gestions of evil consequences and possible substitutes 
for his own commodity, but he must use the greatest 
skill to discover the conception which in any particular 
case will lead to action. In Professor James' five 
methods presented above, the most significant thing 
in the discussion is the following: ^'The conclusive 
reason for the decision in these cases usually is the 
discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which 
we are accustomed to act unhesitatingly in a stereotyped 
way. The moment we hit upon a conception which 
allows us to apply a principle of action which is a fixed 
and stable part of our Ego, our state of doubt is at an 
end." 

Recently an attempt was made to discover the con- 
ceptions which actually are effective in leading persons 
to answer advertisements and to purchase advertised 
goods. Upon this point the statements of several 
thousand perso'ns were examined. The result was most 
interesting and instructive. Among the effective motives 
or conceptions the following were prominent : 

1. Reliability of the goods or the firm. 

2. The goods supply a present need. 

3. Money considerations, e.g., cheapness, investment, 
chance to win. 

4. Labor-saving, convenient, or useful. 

5. Healthful. 

6. Stylish. 

7. An attractive and frequently repeated advertise- 
ment. 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 211 

Of these seven reasons it will be observed that the 
second and last should not be included in the reasoning 
type. In the second the goods were suggested at the 
time they were needed and the purchase followed with- 
out further consideration. In the seventh the pur- 







^1 piLOPLK w\v, tare (n 
It!' ■'^^toikt take gre.ii satisiat,.;- :. ... ^,,_,., .;,.„a,-- 
P i , ■■ niitl. Fine, «moo!l; texture arte deligJilful to the skin, 
Jj'!;' . .'-'Soap nmf, iost;iTit(y, leaving a clean absence o| 



JkA^^S^i 



No. 4. — Purity as the controlling conception. 



chaser was influenced by the constant suggestion which 
was offered by the frequently recifrrent attractive ad- 
vertisement. 

If the right conception is presented at the right time, 
the desired action will follow. In the reproduced ad- 
vertisement of Ivory Soap (No. 4) it is assumed that 
women purchase the soap and that for many of them, 
including such as the one shown in the cut, the 



212 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

purity and reliability of the article is the quality of 
greatest concern. Hence the conception of Ivory Soap as 




No. 5. — A furnace con- 
ceived as a good invest- 
ment. 



pure and reliable is the one conception above all others 
which will sell it. 

With very many persons it was found that a good 
investment is the conception which leads to immediate 
action. Therefore if radiators are presented satisfac- 
torily as a good investment, the question is settled at 



THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 



213 



once and the radiators are purchased. The reproduced 
advertisement of the American Radiator Company (No. 
5 ) , appearing in women's magazines, was evidently con- 
structed on this principle. 

Very many goods are advertised, and with great 
success, as being labor-saving, convenient, or useful. 




SCHOOL TEACHER 

PuUed Down fUll. 

«l rtOed as coffM to aucb to luep nu ap, tuvtac pteo told lliu llvUk ••M 
•ttmalint,' that I hardly knew what to do when I foood il oaa raally pulliDg OM do«» 
bill. Uy tieep wa> badly broken at ni(hl and I wat all aotUna|, cxcMdin(lj oonoott 
•ad breakme down (a«t. My work U teaching acboot. 

-When it became evident tliit I trai in a very bad condition, I »u induced to lean 
oS coffee and try Pojlum Food Coffee. Mother made it Snt, but none of ua could ndura 
It, it wai so flat and laiteleea She proposed to throw the package away, but I aaid, 
■ Suepeod judgment until wa have made it ttrictly according to directions.' 11 teeau ahu 
had made the Poitum like the always made coffee, taking it off the stove as soon aa it began 
to boiL 1 got titter to make tba Pottum neat morning ttrictly accordia| to dIcMtloau, 
that is, allow it to boil full Sflaao minutes after the boiling begins. 
_ -We were all amaxed at the difference. Sitter taid il wat better ettf, Co bar taa«% 
than the old, and father, who it an elderly gentleman and had uaed nffea all his tife, 
appeared to relish the Postum as well aa my UtU* brother, who look lo it from lh« trat 
We were all greatly improved in health and m now strong advocatea ol Poelum Food 
Coffee. Please om.l my n.me from pobllcaUon." fUjle, CoL NUM CU b* |hf« b} 
Pottttm Ccrtal Co. Ltd., Bsiile Creek, Micb. 



No. 6. — This series of advertisements assumes 
the efiEectiveness of the conception, health. 



The reproduced advertisement of Postum Cereal (No. 
6) is open to severe criticism. It should be remembered, 
however, that there are many persons to whom the 
conception of health is all-powerful. For such this ad- 
vertisement might be irresistible. 

Clothing, diamonds, magazines, and hundreds of other 



214 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

things are successfully advertised by emphasis upon 
the stylishness of the goods: upon the social prestige 
enjoyed by their possessors. 

It is a wise advertiser that can select the concep- 
tions that will fit into the principles of action of the 
greatest number of possible customers. 



HABIT 215 



XYII 
HABIT 

The term "habit'' has been so frequently confined to 
a few questionable or bad habits that the broader sig- 
nificance of the term is ordinarily lost. We are all 
creatures of habit and have some good and some bad ones. 
It is an interesting study for any one to observe his own 
actions and thoughts and to see what he does habitually. 
I tried recently to make such a study of myself, but 
found that if I should be compelled to record all my 
liabitual actions and thoughts it would keep a ste- 
nographer busy all day and a camera would have to be 
directed toward me for every move I made. I found that 
I got out of bed in the morning in a way peculiar to my- 
self. I put on my clothes in a stereotyped order. I put 
my left shoe on first — I always do. I put my coat on 
by putting on my right sleeve first, and when I tried to 
reverse the order I found it very difficult. I picked up 
the morning paper and glanced over the first page ; then 
I turned to the last page and from there looked through 
the paper from the last to the first page and so ended 
where I had begun. This is my habitual method of 
reading the morning paper, although I had not observed 
the fact till that time. 

I put sugar on my breakfast food first and added 
cream later. The manner in which I rose from the 
table, put on my hat and left the house was peculiar 
to myself. My manner of walking was such that my 



216 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

friends, seeing me in the distance, knew me. I walked 
down town by the same street wiiich I had been going 
over for years, although there were several other streets 
equally good and convenient. I addressed my friends 
in such a manner that they recognized me even when 
they did not see me. I took up my work and went 
through it in a regular routine. 

The actions as described above were not reasoned 
out and followed because they were the most rational. 
I observed my brother's actions at all these points and 
found that at every point his habits were different from 
mine. His actions were as reasonable as mine but not 
more so. Throughout the day I found that the great 
majority of my actions and thoughts were merely 
habitual and were performed without conscious desire 
or deliberation. 

The fact of habit has been a matter of marvel and 
wonder for centuries, but an explanation of the phe- 
nomenon has been left to modern psychology. If I bend 
a piece of paper and crease it, the crease will remain, 
even if the paper is straightened out again. The paper 
is plastic, and plasticity means simply that the sub- 
stance offers some resistance to adopting a new form, 
but when the new form is once impressed upon it, it 
retains it. Some effort is required to overcome the 
plasticity of the paper and to form the crease, but 
when the crease is once formed the plasticity of the 
paper preserves the crease. 

There is a most intimate relation between our brains 
and our thoughts. Every time we think there is a 
slight change taking place in the delicate nerve cells 
which compose a large part of the brain. Every ac- 
tion among these cells leaves its indelible mark, or 
" crease," for the nerve substance is plastic. It is easy 



HABIT 217 

for the paper to bend where it has been creased and 
it is likewise easy for action to take place in the brain 
where it has taken place before. That is why it is so 
easy to think our old habitual thoughts and why it 
is so hard to think new thoughts or to perform new 
movements. When a thought has been thought or 
an action performed many times, the crease becomes 
so well established that thinking and acting along that 
crease are easier than other thoughts or actions, and so 
these easier ones are said to have become habitual. In 
a very real sense the thoughts and the actions form the 
brain, and then when the brain is formed its plasticity 
is so great that it determines our future thinking and 
acting. 

This is well shown in the case of language. It is 
ordinarily true that no one ever learns a language after 
he is twenty-five years old so well that he can speak it 
without an accent. As far as language is concerned a 
person seems to be fixed or creased by the time he is 
twenty-five and he can never get rid of his former 
habits of speech. Few men ever learn to dress well 
unless they have acquired the art in their youth. We 
all know men who have acquired wealth in middle life 
and who have tried to be good dressers, but in vain. 
They go to the best tailors, but something about them 
betrays their former habits. In all these things we see 
that we first form our brains, and then when they are 
once formed (creased) they determine what we shall 
do and be. 

This relationship of the mind to the brain in the 
formation of habits may be illustrated by the paths in 
a forest. In the densest forest there are still some 
paths where you can walk with ease. Some person or 
some animal walks along in a particular direction and 



218 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

breaks down some of the weeds and briars. Some one 
else follows, and every time that any one walks in this 
path it becomes easier. Here the weeds and briars are 
trampled on and kept out of the way. In all the other 
places the briars have grown up and made it almost 
impossible to walk through them. 

Every thought we think forms a pathway through 
our brains and makes it easier for every other similar 
thought. We think along certain lines and that is the 
same as saying that we have formed certain pathways 
of thought through our brains. It is easy now to think 
these habitual thoughts, but to think a new thought is 
like beating a new path through a forest, while to think 
along the old lines is like following the old paths where 
advance is easy. A habit in the brain is like a path in 
a forest. We know how easy it is to take the old path 
and how hard it is to form a new one. We see how easy 
it is to think the old thoughts and to do the old things 
and how difficult the new ones are. 

As habits play such a large part in all of our think- 
ing and acting it is important that the advertiser should 
understand what habits are and how he can make the 
most of the situation. He should observe the working 
of the laws of habit in his own life. If he could realize 
that everything he does leaves on his brain an im- 
pression which is to be a determining factor in all his 
future, he would, be extremely careful as to what he 
thinks and what he does, even in private. The success 
of the advertiser depends to an exceptionally great 
degree upon the confidence of the public. If we know 
that a man acts uniformly in an honest manner we have 
such confidence in him that we call him an honest man 
and we believe that he will not break his habit of honesty 
in the future and we are therefore willing to trust him. 



HABIT 219 

Thus, whether we think of single actions as determining 
our future characters or whether we think of them 
as determining the estimation in which we shall be held 
by others, there are no incentives to right actions com- 
parable with the inflexible laws of habit when these laws 
are fully appreciated. 

The advertiser is likely to " get into a rut " in his line 
of thinking and consequently in his presentation of his 
commodity before the public. He should see to it that 
he does not allow his habits gradually but surely to make 
impossible to him new forms of expression and new lines 
of thinking and writing. It takes great and determined 
effort to overcome an old habit or to form a new one, but 
the advertiser should in many cases make the necessary 
effort ; otherwise he is doomed to become an " old fogy.'' 

The public which the advertiser addresses, is sub- 
ject to the same laws of habit as the advertiser. Each 
of the potential customers has formed a rut in his think- 
ing and thinks along that particular line or lines. The 
advertiser must know his customers. He must know 
their habits of thought, for it is too difficult to attempt 
to get them to think along new lines. He must present 
his commodity in such a way that the readers can under- 
stand it without being compelled to think a new thought. 
The advertisement should conform to their habitual 
modes of thought, and then the customers can read it 
and understand it with ease. 

Habit gives regularity and persistence to our actions. 
Some people have formed the habit of looking at the 
last pages in magazines before they look at the others. 
Some people look more at the right page than at the left. 
Some glance first at the top of the page, and if that 
does not look interesting the page is passed by without 
a glance at the bottom or middle. The wise advertiser 



220 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

is always alert to detect these habits and to profit by 
his discovery. 

When game is plentiful and hunters few, any marks- 
man may be successful in bagging- game. As soon, 
however, as competition becomes keen only that marks- 
man is successful who understands the habits of the 
game sought and who plans his method of approach 
according to the habits of the game. When adver- 
tising was more primitive than it is to-day and when 
competition was less keen, any printer or reporter 
might have been successful in advertising, but to-day 
no man can be successful who does not plan his cam- 
paign according to the habits of the public which he 
must reach. 

The action of habit gives great value to advertising 
by making the effect of the advertisement to be not 
merely transient but permanent. If an advertisement 
can get persons started to purchasing a particular brand 
of goods it has done much more than sell the goods in 
the immediate present ; for when people do a thing once 
it is easier to get them to do it again, and habits are 
formed by just such repetitions. In the first instance 
the purchaser may have been induced to act only after 
much hesitation, but after a few repetitions the act 
becomes almost automatic and requires little or no de- 
liberation. Habitual acts are always performed without 
deliberation, and there is a uniformity and a certainty 
about them which differentiates them from other forms 
of actions. 

One great aim of the advertiser is to induce the public 
to get the habit of using his particular line of goods. 
When the habit is once formed it ^cts as a great drive- 
wheel and makes further action easy in the same direc- 
tion. It often takes extensive advertising to get the 



HABIT 221 

public into the habit, and the amount of sales may not 
warrant the expense during the first year, but since a 
habit formed is a positive asset such campaigns may 
be profitable. 

The advertiser of Pears' Soap quoted a great truth 
when he put this at the head of his advertisement, "How 
use doth breed a habit.'' If he could by advertising get 
persons to using Pears' Soap he would get them into 
the habit of using it, and so the advertisement would 
be an active agent in inducing the customers to continue 
to buy the soap even long years after the advertisement 
had ceased to appear. 

Many advertisers work on the theory that as soon as 
they have got the public into the habit of using their 
goods they can stop their advertising and the sales will 
go right on. There is much truth in this but also a 
great error. It takes so much effort to form the habit 
that when it is once formed it should be made the most 
of. This can best be done by continuing the advertising, 
thus taking advantage of the habit by securing prompt 
responses and at the same time taking care to preserve 
the habit. 



222 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



XVIII 

THE HABIT OF BEADING ADVEB- 
TISEMENTS 

As was shown in the preceding chapter, we are all 
creatures of habit. One of the habits which most of us 
have acquired is that of reading advertisements. The 
fact that this has become habitual gives it a permanence 
and regularity similar to that of our other habits. Like 
other habits, too, we are frequently not conscious of it. 
I had formed a fixed habit of putting on my right sleeve 
before the left one, and yet for years I did not know 
it — would have denied it. People have told me that 
they never look at the advertising pages of a magazine, 
when, in fact, they scarcely ever take up a magazine 
without "glancing" at the advertisements. 

One lady told me that she was sure she never paid any 
attention to advertisements, and yet within an hour after 
making such a statement she was engaged in a conver- 
sation about articles which she knew only from state- 
ments appearing in the advertising columns of her 
periodicals. I observed her reading magazines and 
found that she seldom slighted the advertisements. 
Thousands of magazine readers read advertisements 
more than they are aware. 

I asked several professional advertising men as to 
the number of persons who read advertisements and the 
time which people in general devote to them. Some of 
these men assured me that all persons who pick up a 
magazine look at the advertisements, and that they put 



READING ADVERTISEMENTS 223 

in as much time in reading them as they do in reading 
the body of the magazine. I felt convinced that the ad- 
vertising men were as wide of the mark as the group first 
mentioned. It is not possible to find out how much other 
people read advertisements by observing one's self, by 
asking personal friends, or by asking those engaged 
in the business of advertising. To know whether people 
in general read the advertisements or not it is necessary 
to watch a large number of persons who are reading 
magazines, to keep an accurate account of the number 
who are reading the advertisements and of those who 
are reading the articles in the body of the maga- 
zine. The observation should be made on different 
classes of persons, in homes, clubs, libraries, on trains — 
wherever and under whatever conditions people are in 
the habit of reading publications whkh contain adver- 
tisements. 

Some months ago I visited the reading-room of the 
Chicago Public Library. ^ In this room several hundred 
men are constantly reading newspapers and maga- 
zines — principally magazines. At almost any hour of 
the day one hundred men may be found there reading 
magazines. There is a very large number of magazines 
to choose from, the chairs are comfortable and the light 
is good. In front of some of the chairs are tables on 
which the magazine may be rested. There are no con- 
veniences for answering a mail-order advertisement at 
once, but that might not detract from the reading of 
such advertisements. Some of the men who read there 
have but a few minutes to stay, while others are there 
to spend the day. As I looked over the room to see how 
many were reading advertisements, it seemed to me that 
a large part of them were thus engaged. 

To know just how many are reading at any particular 



224 THE PSYCHOLOGY . OF ADVERTISING 

moment, the following plan of investigation was fol- 
lowed. I began at the first table and, unobserved by the 
readers, turned my attention to the first man. If he w^as 
reading from the body of the magazine, I took what 
data I wanted from him, jotted them down in my note- 
book and then turned to his neighbor and took the data 
from him, etc. A man was reported as reading the ad- 
vertisements if he was reading them the very first 
moment I turned my attention to him„ In every case 
this first observation determined the points in question. 
Thus, if I turned my attention to a man who was looking 
at the last page of the advertisements, and if the very 
next moment he turned to the reading matter, he was 
still reported as reading advertisements. On the other 
hand, tf at my first observation he was just finishing his 
story in the body ©f the magazine and if during the next 
few minutes he was engaged in reading advertisements, 
he was still reported as not reading advertisements. By 
this system the same results are secured as we should 
get by taking a snap-shot of the room. We get the exact 
number who are reading advertisements at any moment 
of time. Where there was a single column of advertise- 
ments next to a single column of reading matter at 
which the subject was looking, it was sometimes impos- 
sible to tell what he was reading. In all cases of doubt 
the man was not counted at all. There were, however, 
but few such cases. 

I made six visits to the library, going on different 
days of the week, different seasons of the year, and dif- 
ferent hours of the day. At each visit I made observa- 
tions on one hundred men w^ho were reading magazines. 
Of the first hundred observed, eighty-eight were reading 
from the body of the magazine and twelve were reading 
advertisements. Of the second hundred, six were read- 



READING ADVERTISEMENTS 225 

ing advertisements. Of the third hundred, fifteen were 
reading advertisements. Of the fourth hundred, six- 
teen were reading advertisements. Of the fifth htindred, 
only five were reading advertisements. Of the sixth 
hundred, eleven were reading advertisements. Making 
a summary of the six hundred magazine readers, I found 
sixty-five reading advertisements and four hundred and 
thirty-five reading from the body of the magazine. That 
is to say, 10% per cent, of all the men observed were 
reading advertisements. 

At my request a gentleman made similar tests at the 
same library, and his final results were in remarkable 
harmony with those given above. Of all the men he ob- 
served, exactly ten per cent, were reading advertise- 
ments. 

The fact that only ten per cent, of the men were read- 
ing advertisements at any one point of time is not at all 
equivalent to saying that only one-tenth of them read — 
or glanced at — the advertisements. A large part of 
them turned over the advertising pages, but they turned 
them hastily and did not stop to read them unless in 
some way they were particularly interesting. Some of 
the men were looking at the pictures in the advertising 
pages; some of them were glancing at the display and 
reading nothing which was not particularly prominent ; 
others were reading the complete argument of the adver- 
tisement. As far as I could tell, most of those who were 
looking through the advertisements were not engaged 
in any serious attempt to understand the argument, and 
were reading in a hasty and indifferent manner. In- 
deed, it was the exception rather than the rule that any 
advertisement was read from beginning to end. 

It is quite certain that the data thus far secured are 
not sufficient for any generalization as to the exact time 



226 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

or proportion of time which the general public devotes 
to the advertising columns of periodicals. It is quite 
generally believed that women read advertisements more 
than men, but in all the tests referred to above, the data 
were secured only from men. In the second place, it is 
true that the regular subscribers to periodicals read 
them more nearly from cover to cover than readers who 
drop into a library to read. Magazine readers on a train 
frequently have but a single copy of a magazine at hand, 
and as trips are usually somewhat prolonged, the trav- 
eler frequently not only reads the text matter, but reads 
many of the advertisements completely. Another ele- 
ment which enters into the question, as here investi- 
gated, is found in the fact that among such abundance 
of periodicals the reader becomes somewhat bewildered, 
tries to glance through many papers and does not read 
so carefully as he would ordinarily do under other cir- 
cumstances. Under these circumstances the data at 
hand cannot show more than certain general tendencies 
and certain specific facts as to how one class of readers 
is in the habit of reading the advertisements in maga- 
zines under the conditions mentioned above. 

The tendency to rush through the advertising jDages of 
magazines, which was so clearly present in the Chicago 
Public Library, is, I believe, a general tendencj^ Many 
people turn every page of the advertising columns of a 
magazine and read none of the advertisements through. 
It would not be fair to assume from the data on hand 
that the average magazine reader spends tenfold as much 
time on the text as he does on tlie advertisements, but it 
is quite certain that lie spends a comparatively short 
time on the advertisements. If the readers in libraries 
spend anything like tenfold as much time on the text as 
on the advertisements, and if there is a general tendency 



READING ADVERTISEMENTS 



227 



with most readers to rush through or glance at the ad- 
vertisements, it behooves the advertiser to recognize the 
actual conditions and to construct his advertisements 
according to the habits of magazine readers. 

If the presentation of his goods is to be seen but a 
fraction of a second, that fraction must be made to 
count. The cut used should be not a mere picture, but 
an illustration. The cut should be made to speak for 



Wilson^s Outside Venetians :!r^5 



I used as'a blind or an awnln^ajr 
I be pulled up out of (Iglit ll_de- 
_ sired. Slats open and close. 1 Adml(~alir> 
#Idudr»an. ^ronie SupportlngTapes, non-corroding and most durable. Ordensboold » placed NOW fer J ' 

H'lLot-i llmdz hax( b,fi J„rnuh,.1 la !),,■)„„„„ cf Charity Lanur, J. P. Morpan. A.G. 
P'ar.dtrMi, Cii'fUt Ma, lay, i/'« C. H'hiln,,, ff M. FUghr, Mr,. R. Cambrtll, J. Sj 
Kinntdf, C. ttJ/arJ £U,r, Jam(t C-Cctiali^ O. Harriman, Jr, anijnan/ otktrt\ 




WoRTiii.iJiO PARTmovg f,r cHmfHfTiia Rfiioois'; nrncuB t.^^ nnT 

- ""f Hrii.i.i\os. « ARtHnt 8S3 .«* rr 

ARnKO(iis>iiji<!£jl.«CK>- 





Up J 
ROllIKO 8TE»t 8HrTtl!R3^ 

" -svtRiiioescRirnjjN, ' 




W.lioo'i Pijiia Blinds R«IIIa» Sl«il DW) 

J. 0. WILSON CO., 5 West 29th St., New York 

No. 1. — An illustration that illustrates. 



itself and to tell the story so distinctly that at a glance 
the gist of the advertisement is comprehended. Thus, 
in the advertisement of Wilson's Outside Venetians (No. 
1), reproduced herewith, the illustration shows just how 
the ware looks and what it is good for. Even in the most 
hasty glance the reader is enabled to get a good idea of 
the appearance and use of this commodity. If he is in- 
terested in such goods at all, this knowledge will often 
lead him to read the entire advertisement. If he passes 



228 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



the advertisement with a single glance he will still be 
affected by what he has seen. 

The advertisement of the Venus Drawing Pencil, 
reproduced herewith (No. 2), has a beautiful picture, 



|M| 


ilPJ^^f^M 


|r| 


17 O-.' ^ 


HRfl 


iVr; ' ^ 


|Kj^«MMi^ 





No. 2.- 



-This illustration tells nothing about 
the goods advertised. 



but it tells nothing about the goods advertised. I know 
nothing more about Venus Drawing Pencils after seeing 
this picture than I did before. Many people look at this 
picture as they turn the pages of the magazine, and yet 
they never discover that it has anything to do with pen- 
cils. They remember the picture, but do not take the 
trouble to notice what it is supposed to advertise. 

In the advertisement reproduced herewith, the type 
display, "Advertising Taught by Mail" (No. 3), gives 



Advertising 
Taught by 



Send today for free test blank «rbfcb enabfes us 
to advise you wbaC your prosp<^t3 are for success. 
This (3 the largest, most successful and most tnfluea' 
tiai institutioQ ti^acbai^tbe science, art andprac* 
tice of £ulvertisins. Successful stud'-nts every- 
where earning doame previous Incomes who 
learned at home by giving spare time OOly for 
from three to six months. 

CHICAGO COULTCe OF ADVERTISIMG 
eiO WmiMttm BuUdkag, • Chicago 

Owned auid condacted by 10 lead-, ^ 
ing Chicago Advertistng meh.' ^ 



No. 3. — The display type gives the gist of the business. 



BEADING ADVERTISEMENTS 229 

the gist of the whole matter. Every one who glances 
at the advertisement understands it. If he sees nothing 
more than the display of type, he has seen enough to 
understand what it is all about and to be influenced in 
favor of the idea there presented. The next time he 
turns over the pages of a magazine containing this ad- 
vertisement his attention will be attracted by this famil- 
iar display. Every time he sees this advertisement the 
suggestion in favor of it becomes stronger and yet the 
reader himself may not be conscious of such influence. 

Wanted — 
Good Neighbors 

Who Value Good Neighbors and a Good 
Neighborhood About Their Summer Homes. . 

J[ want a man— or rather three or four men with $3,000 to $4,000 
each, who care as much for a beautiful summer home as I do, td) 
fwrJte me and let me tell them of a property I am holdmg in the 
most beautiful part of Michigan, for myself and for them, I an» 
not a real estate agent. I am Just what I here profess to be. a 
keeker for a beautiful summer home for myself, with good neigh- 
lx)rs. ' It won't cost you anything to write to me and let me send: 
you some photographs and details. And write now, please, as I 
do not care to advertise this again. Ceorge Mills Rogers, 
ipoWashmgton St., Chicago, III. 

No. 4. — Lacking in indicativeness. 

In the advertisement reproduced herewith, the type 
display, "Wanted — Good Neighbors" (No. 4), does not 
indicate in any way that the. advertisement is one of real 
estate. A person coi^ld glance at this advertisement a 
score of times, but he would know no more about it when 
he had seen it the last time than he did after he had 
seen it the first time. It has nothing to say to the casual 
reader, and would be weakened rather than strength- 
ened by repetition. 

The type display should not be merely to attract at- 



230 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

tention, but must tell a story and tell it quickly. The 
display type and the picture which merely attract and 
do not instruct are in many cases worthless, for in at- 
tracting attention to themselves they divert the atten- 
tion from the thing advertised. The picture and the 
meaningless headline will interest some people so much 
that they will stop and read the advertisement through 
to try to figure out what it all' means. But the great 
majority of the readers will not stop at any particular 
advertisement, and unless they get something at a glance 
they get nothing at all. A large number of magazine 
readers see each advertisement, but only a few of them 
will stop to read it through. The advertiser must learn 
to make the best possible use of this casual glance of 
the multitude. Since many see the display and but few 
read the argument, an attempt should be made to con- 
struct a display that will not merely attract attention 
to itself, but be so constructed that it will beget interest 
in the goods advertised. 

Few peoi^le will admit that they are greatly influenced 
by advertising. I have discussed the question with 
many persons, and I have yet to find the first one who 
believes that he is materially influenced by magazine ad- 
vertising in the purchases which he makes. One great 
cause for this personal delusion is found in the habit 
which they have formed of glancing through the adver- 
tising pages. They turn the pages rapidly and the in- 
dividual advertisement makes so little impression that 
it is not remembered by them as having been seen at all. 

To say that the advertisement is forgotten is not 
equivalent to saying that it has not made a lasting im- 
pression. If I should glance at the same advertisement 
in different magazines for each month for a number of 
years, it is quite possible that these single glances would 



READING ADVERTISEMENTS 231 

be forgotten. I might not remember ever having seen 
an advertisement, and yet my familiarity with the goods 
advertised might seem so great that I should believe that 
some of my acquaintances had recommended them to me 
or that I had used the goods years before. 

The following instance, which was also referred to 
in the chapter on Suggestion, illustrates this point per- 
fectly. For years I have seen the advertisements of a 
certain tailor. Recently I entered his shop and ordered 
a suit of clothes. It so happened that the proprietor, who 
was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign, waited 
on me himself. As he took my order he asked me 
whether he had been recommended to me. I promptly 
replied that he had. I then began to try to recall who 
had recommended him, but found that I could not re- 
call any such recommendation. I had seen his adver- 
tisement so often that I had forgotten the particular ad- 
vertisements, but had retained the information which 
they had imparted. I had evidently confused the source 
of my information, for I fully believed that I had heard 
from some of my friends that this particular tailor was 
especially trustworthy. If he had asked me whether 
I had been influenced by his advertisements or not, I 
might have answered that they had had nothing to do 
with it, although in fact they were the only source of 
my information about him and evidently were entirely 
responsible for the sale. 

The oftener we see an advertisement, the fewer are 
the chances that we will remember where we saw it, but 
the greater becomes our feeling of familiarity with the 
goods advertised. As soon as we become familiar with 
the goods in this way and unmindful of the source of the 
familiarity, we are likely to be subject to this delusion 
of supposing that we have heard our friends recommend 



232 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the goods. Most people still are prejudiced against ad- 
vertisements, and would not purchase the goods if they 
realized that their only source of information about the 
firm and about the goods was the advertisement ; but as 
soon as they forget the source of the information they 
are perfectly willing to buy the goods, although they 
would repudiate the statement that they had been in- 
fluenced by the advertisements. If a merchant should 
ask his customers whether they had been influenced 
largely by his advertisements or not, he would certainly 
receive a very discouraging report, and would be in- 
clined to give up his advertisements as worthless, when, 
in fact, nothing but his advertisements had induced 
them to come to his store. 

The habit which the public has formed of reading ad- 
vertisements so hastily makes it difficult for the 
advertisement writer to construct his advertise- 
ments to meet the emergency of the case; it makes it 
difficult for the merchant to discover the direct results 
of his advertising campaign, and, on the other hand, it 
makes the right sort of advertising peculiarly effective, 
by making the reader more susceptible to confusion as 
to the source of his information. 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 233 



XIX 

THE DIEECT COMMAND 

^'SiMON says, ^Thumbs up !' '' used to be a favorite 
game with children. In this game one person is "it." He 
turns his thumbs up and calls out, "Simon says, ^Thumbs 
up !' " At this command all must obey and turn thumbs 
up. The one who is "it" next calls out, "Simon says, 
^Thumbs down !' " This is the signal for all to turn 
the thumbs down. If, however, the one who is "it" fails 
to say "Simon says," he must not be obeyed, and the 
one who does obey becomes "it" himself. "Simon says" 
is the reason for obedience, but obedience under any 
other condition is, in a mild way, punishable. Those 
of us who have played the game remember that it was 
impossible for us not to obey the command, even when 
the "Simon says" was left out. We were commanded 
to turn our thumbs up or down, as the case might be, 
and we obeyed before we thought whether the reason for 
obeying, namely, "Simon says," was given or not. 

When in our early "teens," my brother and I slept in 
a room which was not heated. One cold winter night 
my. brother went to bed first, succeeded in warming his 
side of the bed, and went to sleep. About an hour 
afterward, I went to bed and was appreciating the 
fact that the temperature of the room was below zero, 
when the thought struck me to play a trick on my 
brother. I merely said, "John, get over on the other 
side of the bed." He obeyed immediately and rolled over 
to the cold side of the bed. I began to laugh and John 



234 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

awoke. It is needless to say what liappened. He knew 
that he had obeyed me and had done what he did not 
want to do, and the very thought angered him. • 

When a person is being hypnotized and is told that 
he cannot and must not open his eyes, he frequently 
struggles against the suggestion, but at last succumbs 
to it. Certain persons are so refractory that they 
struggle till they '^aw^aken" themselves, unless they are 
well under the control of the hypnotist. All persons, 
in all stages of hypnosis, obey the commands of the 
hypnotist, or are compelled to struggle, to keep from it. 
The natural and easy thing for them to do is to obey; 
the unnatural and difficult thing is to keep from obeying. 

The schoolteacher commands a room full of mis- 
chievous children and they obey her, although she could 
not convince them with reason or compel them with 
force. They obey simply because they are commanded. 

The demagogue uses more than flattery, threats, and 
bribes; he commands his followers absolutely as to what 
they shall do and what they shall not do. He not only 
says, "Smith is your friend and Jones your enemy,'' 
but he gives the command, "Vote for Smith." 

When certain commands have been obeyed habitually, 
they attain such a power over our wills that we can 
scarcely keep from obeying. "There is a story," says 
Professor Huxley, "which is credible enough, though it 
may not be true, of a practical joker who, seeing a 
discharged veteran carrying home his dinner, suddenly 
called out, ^Attention!' whereupon the man instantly 
brought his hands down, and lost his mutton and pota- 
toes in the gutter." 

This soldier obeyed the command until obedience had 
become almost automatic. He obeyed immediately and 
without any consideration whatever. 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 235 

In the game alluded to ( "Simon says, ^Thumbs up !' " ) ? 
in sleep, in hypnotism, and in the cases of the teacher, 
the demagogue, and the soldier, we have extreme cases. 
Here the force of the command is so overpowering that 
obedience is involuntary. These illustrations are useful 
in indicating the real nature of a command, and in 
showing how effective it may be when not hindered by 
competing thoughts. Although commands do not ordi- 
narily secure involuntary obedience, there is a strong 
tendency in us all to obey them. We have probably 
all felt ashamed of ourselves for obeying and doing 
things merely because we w^ere commanded to do so. 
Stubbornness is the exception and obedience the rule. 

It often happens that those things which are appar- 
ently the most simple are, in fact, the most difficult to 
comprehend. What could be more simple than the 
raising of your hand or the turning of your head? If 
you attempt to analyze the process involved in the 
simplest movement you find that it is too difficult for 
your comprehension. We do know something of the 
psychology of movement, but much is yet to be found 
out about it. When I want to raise my hand, I do not 
say, "Hand, come up !" but I know of no way to express 
what goes on in my mind better than that. I do think 
of the movement and there is in the thought itself some- 
thing akin to a command. When I turn my thumbs up, 
I think of my thumbs turning up, and the thought is 
the command which I give to my thumbs and which 
they obey. If the thought is not hindered by a compet- 
ing thought, — ^if it is allowed to take its own course, — 
it will be effective in raising the thumbs. 

In a direct command one person originates the thought 
and suggests it to another person. Thus in "Simon 
says, ^Thumbs up !' " I suggest the thought of "thumbs 



236 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

up'' to another person. The thought of ^'thumbs up" 
enters his mind — is suggested to him, — and unless he 
hinders the action of the thought it will be obeyed, and 
up will come his thumbs. One advantage of the direct 
command is that it suggests a thought in such a way 
that it will bring forth the action suggested unless hin- 
dered by a previous suggestion or by an action originated 
by the person himself. It is, of course, true that many 
actions are suggested which are not carried out, be- 
cause the impelling power of the thought is not suf- 
ficiently strong. The impelling power of a thought is 
in direct proportion to the amount of attention which 
it secures; and so the impelling power of a command 
is also in direct proportion to the amount of attention 
which it receives. If a direct command could occupy 
the attention completely, it would be the best possible 
form of argumentation, because it puts the thought in 
such a shape that its impelling nature will secure the 
desired results. The command relieves the one com- 
manded from the trouble of making up his mind. It 
makes up his mind for him, and so makes action easy. 

A command is a direct suggestion, and as such has 
inherent value. It is the shortest and simplest form 
of language, and is the easiest to be understood. It 
bears with it authority and weight by expressing action 
explicitly and distinctly. It calls for immediate action 
and meets with ready response. Mankind as a whole 
is influenced more by commands than by logical proc- 
esses of thought, for, as previously stated, we are sug- 
gestible rather than reasonable. The command, if not 
obtrusive, is of such a nature that it has its legitimate 
uses in advertisements and should not be discarded, as 
has been frequently asserted. We are not only sug- 
gestible and obedient, but we are also obstreperous, 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 237 

obstinate, stubborn, and self-willed. We delight in 
following our own sweet wills and object to having any 
one dictate to us. There must, then, be certain limita- 
tions put on the use of commands. They must be used 
with such discretion that they do not arouse opposition ; 
otherwise we would refuse obedience, even if it were to 
our best interests to obey. 

Although we do obey commands, we are unwilling to 
admit it. We like to think of ourselves as independent 
beings, who act only because it is the reasonable thing 
to do and because we want to. It is very difficult for 
us to analyze our actions and to give the motives which 
have prompted us to do many of the things that we have 
done. We act from habit, imitation, insufficient reason, 
or because the idea of the action has been suggested. It 
is but rarely that the ordinary person weigh's all the evi- 
dence before he acts. After he has acted, he may think 
over the motives which anight have prompted him, and 
may even deceive himself into thinking that he acted 
because he had weighed the evidence, when, in fact, no 
such motives entered his mind at the time of action. 

I have frequently suggested to persons that they 
should do a certain thing. At the time they have re- 
fused to do it. The idea was, however, implanted in 
their minds. Later they have done exactly what I had 
previously suggested. They had forgotten who had 
suggested the idea, but the idea itself was retained, so 
they were perfectly honest in supposing that they had 
originated the thought, and that they had performed 
the deed independently. No one would be willing to 
admit that he had used Pears' Soap simply because he 
had read the command, "Use Pears' Soap." It is, how- 
ever, quite probable that many persons have used Pears' 
Soap for no other reason. The idea of using the soap was 



238 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

suggested to them in that form. They afterward forgot 
where they had received the thought, and believed they 
had originated it themselves. 

We are perfectly willing to obey as long as we are 
unconscious of the fact. But let any one see that he 
has been commanded and his attitude is changed; he 
becomes obstinate instead of pliant. Every wise leader 
of men recognizes this fact. He does not cease to com- 
mand, but he covers his commands in such a way that 
each one thinks that he is doing just what he wants 
to, and that he is not following commands at all. 

The correct wording of the command is a matter of 
importance, yet it is difticult to formulate any rules 
or principles to guide us here. Such an expression 
as "Use Pears' Soap" is not as suggestive as "Let the 
Gold Dust twins do your work." The first is a bald 
command and as such has a certain value, but the 
second has the added value of supplying, or implying, a 
reason for obedience. It is implied that the Gold Dust 
twins will save you labor, and so the command is sup- 
plemented by an appeal to a personal interest. 

Furthermore, this latter command is worded in such 
a way that it is hardly recognized as a command at 
all, and so would not beget opposition on the part of 
an;5C one. As a further proof of the importance, but 
difficulty, of clothing the command in the best possible 
form, take the "catch-lines" of four advertisements of 
advertising schools as they appear in the magazines, 
which are reproduced upon the following page. 

The first, "Be an ad-writer," is short, but rather bald 
and indefinite. The second, "Learn to be an ad writer," 
suggests that I should become something, and implies 
that, by a process of learning in connection with their 
school, this end could be attained. The third, "Learn 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 



239 



to write advertisements," suggests that I should learn 
to do something, and implies that I could learn this by 
a course of instruction at their school. Personally, 
learning to do seems more definite than learning to 
become^ but it is quite possible that it would impress 



[ Be an aa'Wi'iier \ 

Learn to be an Ad Writer 



LEARN TO WRITE 
ADVERTISEMENTS 



AflYertisingWritinflTauglii 



No. 1 



others differently. The fourth, "Advertising writing 
taught,'' is not a command, and seems to me to be much 
inferior to the preceding ones. It supplies me with cer- 
tain information, but does not help me to make up 
my mind to take the course at their school. It informs 
me of the fact that they teach advertising, but has 
nothing to say about action on my part. To have action 
in another person suggested is not so impressive as 
it is to have my own action, or action on my part, sug- 
gested. The direct personal element is lacking in the 
last, which is present in the first three. 

As the young man reads over these four displays his 
attention will certainly be drawn more forcibly by the 
first three than by the last one. It might be question- 



240 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

able, however, which one of the first three would appeal 
most to him. "Learn to write advertisements'' appeals 
to me most strongly, and would probably appeal to 
more persons than any of the others. 

The value of the form of expression in the headlines 
is clearly seen when we read over the commands which 
were used as display in American Magazine for April, 
1920. Some are good and some are poor, as will be 
recognized by every one who reads the list. Taking 
them in the order in which they appeared, they are the 
following : 

"Learn to talk convincingly." 

"Let me tell you." 

"Send no money." 

"Look for the red-and-white label." 

"Remember these three." 

"Take a tip from Robert Burns." 

"Your signature represents you. Do it in Carter's." 

"Visit your Dayton dealer." 

"Mail this coupon to-day." 

"Save the surface and you save all." 

"Use Kyanize." 

"Be financially independent." 

"Use this chest free." 

"Learn languages by listening." 

"Let sound investments guard your home." 

"Let your mirror tell." 

"Start the season right." 

"Make money writing." 

"Copy this sketch." 

"Send for these good books." 

"Don't rub it in." 

"Go to a legitimate dealer." 

"Keep the toilet spotless." 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 241 

"Plan for good roads now.'^ 

"Have cozy rooms for $17 a day." 

"Let me send you free proof." 

"Follow the arrow." 

"Be well." 

"Become a lawyer." 

"Learn how to write short stories." 

"Learn law." 

"Be a banker." 

"Enter a business." 

"Be a master of traffic manager." 

"Ride a bicycle to work." 

"Learn piano-tuning." 

"Avoid embarrassment." 

"Buy it by name." 

"Save on your new home." 

"Don't grope for words." 

"Dye old dress material." 

"Speak a foreign language." 

"Cultivate your beauty." 

"Become a nurse." 

"Don't say TTnderwear' — say 'Munsingwear.' " 

As we see from the examples given above, the value of 
a command is dependent upon the way in which it is 
expressed. 

Another factor of even greater importance than the 
verbal expression is the personality of the one giving 
the command. The spoken command is enforced by the 
personality of the speaker to an extent impossible in 
written commands. The difference is, however, not so 
great as might be supposed. Van Dyke expressed a 
truth when he said, "Help me to deal very honestly with 
words and people, for they are both alive." The person 
who can move men by spoken words can move them by 



241' THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

written words. This is so true that many have prophe- 
sied that the press would render the preacher and the 
orator useless. The printed page is a living force which 
is more appreciated to-day than ever before. There are 
men who are obeyed whether they speak or write, 
whether they are at the head of a regiment or in the 
privacy of their own homes, whether they are address- 
ing their employees in person or presenting certain lines 
of action to the public by means of printed advertise- 
ments. Certain persons can command us and we obey 
readily, but if the same commands were given by other 
persons, we should regard it as presumptuous and re- 
fuse obedience. A firm that is just beginning its first 
advertising campaign does not secure as much atten- 
tion to its advertisements as the older firms. Further- 
more, reliable firms which are well established and well 
known through advertising could give commands with 
impunity which would injure a new or unknown firm. 

Persons who are used to obeying take obedience as 
a matter of course and obey almost from second nature 
or instinct. Those who are not used to being commanded 
are more inclined to resent the attempt and so refuse 
to obey, even if the command is in accord with their 
interests, and if they had at first been at the very point 
of obeying. A form of expression which would prove 
highly successful with one class of society might fail 
with another class. Commands would have a greater 
efficiency in cheap than in higher-priced periodicals, 
because the poorer classes are more in the habit of obey- 
ing commands. They are more in the habit of doing 
things that are directly suggested to them. All classes 
of society are moved by a direct command if it is prop- 
erly worded, and if it appears in their favorite or most 
highly appreciated publication. 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 243 

The function of the direct command in advertisements 
is twofold — to attract attention and to beget immediate 
action. 

There is nothing which attracts the attention so much 
as movement or action. When we want to attract the 
attention of a friend, we wave to him instinctively. We 
know that he will see the wave of the hand or of the 
handkerchief when he would not notice us at all apart 
from such movements. Our eyes are so constructed that 
we can distinguish a movement of an object before we 
are able to distinguish the object itself. Movements 
please and attract us in whatever form they may be 
presented. A shop window that has in it a live animal 
or anything else that moves will attract the attention 
of the pedestrian as he passes by. A command ordi- 
narily calls for action. As we read a command we 
think of the action suggested and it attracts our atten- 
tion in much the same way that actual movements do. 
In the first case we see with the imagination what we 
see in the second case with the sense of sight. 

A command in good display type at the beginning of 
an advertisement may express in a few words the intent 
of the entire advertisement. It expresses it in such 
a living, moving manner that it attracts our attention 
and makes us feel in sympathy with it, so that we feel 
like doing what is suggested at once. This tendency 
to action on our part brings us into sympathetic, per- 
sonal relation with the advertisement, and so gets us 
interested enough in the advertisement to start us to 
reading it. The argument should be so constructed 
that it brings us into closer relationship with the prop- 
osition offered. It should take us into the confidence 
of the firm and make us feel that the firm back of the 
advertisement can be trusted. We then feel in sym- 



244 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

pathy with the offer made by the firm, our self-will is 
suspended, and we are in a condition to do w^hat is sug- 
gested. The argument may have been extensive, the 
illustrations may have been interesting and suggestive, 
but now what is wanted is immediate action. The 
advertisement should focus at this point. An attempt 
should be made to hold our attention to what is de- 
sired of us. The value of a direct command at this 
point should not be overlooked, as it expresses in a 
few w^ords and in living form all that the advertise- 
ment has desired to bring about. It sums up the entire 
argument and puts it before us in the form of a direct 
suggestion to action. 

Outdoor advertising must of necessity be very brief 
and very suggestive. There is no opportunity to present 
extensive arguments, yet something must be done to 
attract attention and to beget immediate action. Direct 
affirmation as to the value of the goods offered may, in 
general, be the most effective form of expression, but 
the direct command could be used with profit because 
of its superior value in attracting attention and in be- 
getting immediate action. 



The above chapter on '^The Direct Command" as a 
form of argumentation appeared in substantially the 
present form in Makings Magazine. Soon after its publi- 
cation the Editor received a letter from the Franklin 
Mills Company, saying that they were going "to try 
out the theory'' in their advertising. Some time later 
the following letter was received, stating the results 
of their experiment with the advertisement reproduced 
herewith (No. 2) : 



THE DIRECT COMMAND 



245 



We wish to say that our February advertisement, embodying 
"the direct command" advised by Professor Scott, is bringing 
far greater returns than any advertisement we have ever before 
published, and this is surprising in the face of the fact that 
the public are overloaded with free samples of hundreds of 




No. 2 



cereals, and are so confused thereby that they hardly know 
what they want. 

Another instance of the successful application of this 
principle appeared in a recent issue of Printers^ Ink. It 
is entitled, "A Story of Progress," and gives the history 
of the wonderful growth of the Delineator: 

Then advertising was used in dailies and magazines through- 
out the country. Billboards were also utilized for a brief 



246 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

period, cMefly to spread the well-known catch-phrase, "Just 
get the Delineators^ This phrase originated with Mr. Thayer, 
who, in speaking about it, said: 

"I had tried more than a year to hit upon a suitable phrase, 
but nothing would come to me. One day I read an article by 
Professor Scott in Mahin's Magazine, in which he showed that 
if the words 'Cut this coupon out and mail it to-day' were used 
instead of 'Use this coupon' there would be a larger number 
of replies. It is his theory that people will follow a definite 
direction of this sort, and the theory appealed to me. So I 
formulated my phrase in the belief that its suggestion would 
be followed, especially by women. Results have proved that it 
is an effective phrase. To my own personal knowledge the 
catch-line has tantalized even men until they bought copies to 
see the publication for themselves." 



VALUE OF THE KETURN COUPON 247 



XX 

THE PSYCHOLOGICAL VALUE OF THE 
RETUEN COUPON. 

The return coupon, which is the product of a long 
evolution in which necessity and practical experience 
were the prime moving factors, has of recent years been 
greatly improved by those who have been able to analyze 
it and to appreciate its possibilities. Before the days of 
the coupon, the advertiser met with great difficulty in 
trying to keep tab on the various publications in which 
he advertised. The "Please mention this magazine^' was 
frequently disregarded, and so the idea was conceived 
of having something returned to the advertiser which 
would indicate the publication in which the sender had 
seen the advertisement. At first it was the whole adver- 
tisement which was to be returned, and we find at the 
end of some of the old advertisements this statement, 
"Please cut this advertisement out," etc. Then it was 
conceived that it was not necessary to return the entire 
advertisement, but merely a blank for the name and 
address, and so the coupon was evolved. 

The return coupon was, then, in the beginning a keying 
device and was not intended to have any value as a 
means of securing replies. It was not to induce the 
reader to answer the advertisement, but was intended as 
an assistance to the advertiser in keeping tab on the 
various publications in which he advertised. Later it 
was discovered that the coupon had a greater value than 
had been supposed — that it was in itself a strong induce- 



248 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

ment to action and that its value was therefore psycho- 
logical. The coupon appeals directly to the reader and 
induces more to answer the advertisement than would 
do so if the coupon were not there. 

One psychological value of the return coupon is that 




No. 1 



it attracts attention. In their original form these 
coupons (No. 1) were something different from any- 
thing that had previously appeared in advertisements, 
and attracted attention by way of contrast to ordinary 
advertisements. They also attracted attention because 
the ruled blank lines and open spaces were in contrast 
with the rest of the advertisement. The coupon is so 
familiar now that it does not offer so strong a contrast 
to other advertisements as formerly, but is still in con- 
trast to the rest of the advertisement in which it is con- 



VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON 



249 



tained. To make this latter contrast stronger, the whole 
advertisement, as well as the coupon itself, has been 
greatly modified. The chief alteration was in the cou- 
pon, which was changed from the square or oblong to the 
triangle (No. 2). All the lines of reading matter are 
horizontal, but the little three-cornered coupon has one 
or more oblique lines, and the oblique lines run in a 



fThe accompanying cut is 


.A 


a reproduction of a coupon A \ 


attached to an advertise- A/ 




ment in the New York /'Z> 




Herald for Oct. 23, 1899. • /"U 




Mr. Ralph Tilton states /,// ^ 
that this was the first tri- //Y f ) 
angular coupon ever used.] Ay/ M 








/^ ©QDti 




/^ T11q3s 




/// (ScDOPmotP 




y/// df SBd mi irt <h. bi.nH 




/y// •"« m.ll » •<.-<».» to 




AZ^jim^ ^mrn^mm 




X/// Kkw YCmK' CITY. 




/,// youm.T..n<l m. lllo.lr.ted bookl.l 




, .^,hr,f:Xd'^T.?rVuSS-oVfhrbu;iS>'j;;'S 




_/^'// "* "" '" *"" '"'"'* 




jr^y MAn^ -..»..~~. 1..~. " 




y^^^i^i.-.'^ns « »ir m ts %m 




f 



No. 2 

different direction. This brings it into contrast with the 
rest of the advertisement. 

I asked a large group of persons to think of some 
number. Very many more of them thought of three 
than of any other number. I have asked other groups 
to think of some geometrical figure, and more think of 
a triangle than of any other figure. I have exposed, for 
a very short interval of time, various geometrical figures, 
and the triangle catches their attention more than any 
other figure. The number three and a figure with three 



250 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

sides possess a peculiar interest for us. It seems^ then, 
that the triangle is more attractive than a square, and 
oblong, or parallel lines, and so it attracts our atten- 
tion to itself and indirectly to the advertisement in 




No. 3 



which it is contained. The shape of the entire adver- 
tisement and particularly the shape of the border has 
been changed to make the contrast with the three-cor- 
nered coupon greater. By certain leading advertisers 
the border has been constructed of figured designs com- 
posed of broken curved lines, or of continuous curved 



VALUE or THE RETURN COUPON 251 

lines, or else the border has been discarded entirely (No. 
3). These changes make the bold, straight lines of the 
coupon stand out in marked contrast, and are almost 
sure to attract the attention as one turns over the page. 
The contrast between the coupon and the rest of the 
advertisement (not to mention the contrast with other 
advertisements) is not the only source of attention value 
of the coupon. A second attractive feature is found in 



One dollar is all! 

A single DoIUf (if you act at bntt) is all it will cost vou to 
secure possession of RIDPATH'S History of the World 



A great big set of 9 Royal Octavo volume* 

with 4 000 illustrations, and many 

maps and c6lor plates. 

The rest you pay 




F you'd like to 



of gra , ...^ ..„ 

10^7, using ihe coupon ia the comer. 

We've a pamphlet, prepared by the publishers of rtie history, which 
Idls just what ibe work is, how it came to be written, and the tort 
of readers it aims to entertain and interest. This pamphlet also 
conums specimens of the illustrations and feat pages, and ii 
fOuYe interested, and mail us the coupon, we'll send it to vottl 
btt of cost 

Reading that pamphlet will settle in your mind, < 
lor all, whether you need the history or not ; and you 
best settle it ^0W, for this is our last aitvertlM- 
neat of Ridpatb'* History M bait prUe. 

«'*»*»"W&namake; 



No. 4 



the direct command ordinarily placed between the body 
of the advertisement and the coupon. The expressions 
"Cut this corner off,'' "Cut along this line," etc., have a 
decided value in attracting attention. ( See chapter on 
"The Direct Command as a Form of Argumentation.'') 
Another source of attention value in this kind of ad- 
vertising is in the dotted line indicating the place at 
which the coupon should be cut off. This dotted line 



252 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

suggests action, and as such is interesting and attracts 
the attention. If the dotted lines could give the impres- 
sion of perforated paper, the results would be better. 
Where possible it would be well to have the paper per- 
forated along the line where the coupon is to be torn 
ofe. 

Another source of attention value in this kind of ad- 
vertising in its modified form is found in the devices 
employed (No. 4) to direct the attention to the dotted 
line or to the "Cut this corner off.'' The index fingers, 
all pointing to the same thing, give one the impression 
that there must be something very special at that point, 
and many persons look to see what the fingers are point- 
ing at, when otherwise they would pass the entire adver- 
tisement by without noticing it. 

In addition to its power in attracting attention, the 
return coupon has a further psychological value in that 
it gives the reader something definite mid specific to do. 

I have frequently observed in teaching that if pupils or 
students are given definite and specific tasks to perform, 
they perform them with alacrity. If, however, the tasks 
are made general and assigned as something which they 
might do sometime, no impression is made on their minds 
and nothing is done. A necessary characteristic of a 
teacher is the ability to make his students know just 
what he wants them to do. A prime requisite of an ad- 
vertisement, when direct evidence of attention is desired, 
is that it should give the reader something definite and 
specific to do at once, i.e.^ that the reader should open a 
correspondence with the firm. With our present knowl- 
edge there could probably be no better way of making 
that end clear than by the use of the return coupon. Its 
function is much like that of a sun-glass. The rays of 
the sun falling on a piece of paper will warm it, but will 



VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON 253 

not cause it to burn. If the rays are allowed to shine 
through the sun-glass and to focus at one point of the 
paper, the whole will soon be ignited. The argument 
in an advertisement may be good, it may even make the 
reader 'Varm'' with the desire to secure the goods, but 
his desire may not result in action. The heat was not 
focused at one point. The return coupon concentrates 
all this desire or ^'warmth" at one point; it overcomes 
procrastination and secures the necessary action. 

An additional psychological value of the return cou- 
pon is that it makes it easy to answer the advertise- 
ment. 

There are persons who will climb the Matterhorn 
because of the difficulty of the ascent. There are those 
who will spend hours and even days trying to solve 
difficult puzzles. These are but apparent exceptions 
to the universal rule that mankind as a class prefers 
the lipe of least resistance. We desire the best results, 
but we want to secure them with the least possible labor. 
We refuse to take two steps when one is sufficient. 
Business men recognize this fact and place their mer- 
chandise where it can easily be secured by the buyer. 
They choose a site for their stores where they will be 
the most accessible. They arrange their goods so that 
they may be most easily seen and secured by the public. 
They send out their representatives to display the goods 
and leave nothing to the purchaser but to indicate what 
he wants. In short, everything possible is done to make 
it easy for the customers. The traveling salesman made 
it so easy for the customer that he undoubtedly gave 
orders for goods which he would not have purchased if 
he had been obliged to go after them or even to write a 
letter for them. For a mail-order house, the return 
coupon supplements or takes the place of a traveling 



254 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

salesman. It presents itself to the possible customer, 
and all he has to do is to fill it out and return it, and the 
goods are forthcoming. Even for the experienced busi- 
ness man it is easier to fill out a blank than it is to dic- 
tate or write a letter. But all are not experienced busi- 
ness men. There are those who make good customers, 
but whose only formula for letter writing is, ^'I take 
my pen in hand to let you know that I am well and hope 
that this will find you the same.'' For such a person to 
compose a business letter is a task of no small impor- 
tance. He does not know whether to begin with ''Dear 
Sir" or with ''Gentlemen" ; he does not know whether he 
should close with "Yours truly" or "Affectionately 
yours." The betrayal of his ignorance and the effort of 
composition are hindrances of such magnitude that he is 
frequently deterred from securing the desired goods. To 
be relieved from this embarrassment and toil is for him a 
veritable boon. The return coupon makes answering 
easier for all, whether with or without experience in 
writing business letters. It makes ansAvering easy not 
only because it has the return letter already composed, 
but also because the composed letter is easily accessible. 
Some advertisers do not seem to appreciate this latter 
advantage and so allow the coupon to be placed near the 
middle of the page and on the inside of it — next to the 
binding. The following reduced reproduction is an 
example of such a blunder ( No. 5 ) . This makes it un- 
necessarily difficult to get at, and so places an obstacle 
in the way of every one who desires to answer. Many 
would surmount the difficulty, but some would not. It 
certainly is bad business policy to put such a needless 
obstruction in the path of every "would-be customer." 
The three-cornered coupon can be cut or torn off more 
easily than any other. If placed on one of the four outer 



VALUE OF THE EETURN COUPON 255 

corners of a publication it can be severed with a single 
cut of the scissors or torn off with a single tear. It is 
more accessible than it would be if in any other shape ; 
it makes the answering of the advertisement easy, and to 
that extent is the best possible shape for a return coupon. 



t5/)e History gf tKe World 









W A H 

HtKTATtTl im 
•oriol f 



.JfA 






No. 5 



The task recently devolved on me of purchasing a baby 
carriage. I had never been interested in them before 
and did not know where I had ever seen them in stores, 
and so did not know where I should go to secure one. 
I turned at once to the advertisements in the morning 
paper and saw baby carriages advertised at a certain 
down-town store. I went there at once and asked the 
floor-walker where they kept them, and he politely in- 
formed me that they did not handle them. I assured him 
that I had seen their advertisement in the paper that 
morning and that they must therefore have them. He 
made further inquiries and found that they did have 
them, and I secured my desired article. Having seen the 
advertisement in the paper, it was easy for me to find 
what I wanted. All advertisements make it easy for the 
purchaser to know where the class of goods is kept 
which he desires to secure. It will readily be seen that . 
one of the great functions of any advertisement is in this 



256 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

way to make it easy for the purchaser to find what he 
wants. The coupon has the additional value of being of 
such a nature that the purchaser can secure the goods 
desired without going out after them and even without 
the trouble of composing and writing a letter. Some 
of us are not so lazy as others, but we are all procrastina- 
tors. We often decide that we want a thing, but we put 
off the purchase till the desire has gone and so we never 
secure what we wanted. Procrastination is so easy that 
we put off till to-morrow what would cause us trouble 
to do to-day. With the coupon, the task of ordering 
the goods is so easy that there is almost no excuse for 
procrastination, even if we are somewhat lazy. An ad- 
vertisement should make it as easy as possible for the 
purchaser to secure the goods he desires and should 
take away every possible ground for hesitation. In 
these particulars the coupon is especially strong. 

We have now seen that the coupon attracts attention 
because of its novelty or contrast, because of its tri- 
angular shape, because of the direct command and the 
index finger which frequently accompanies the return 
coupon. We have seen that it is psychologically strong 
because it is specific and direct in its appeal. We have 
also seen its strength in that it makes answering the ad- 
vertisement easy and calls for immediate action. All 
these advantages are but supplementary and subsidiary 
to the great function of the return coupon. Its real 
value is to be found in the fact that it suggests to the 
reader that he should sign his name, tear out the coupon 
and send it to the address given. The prime value of 
the coupon is lost unless this is attained. The coupon 
does attract attention, but that is of value merely be- 
cause in attracting attention it brings the suggestion to 
the mind of the reader and keeps it there. It is specific 



VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON 257 

atid direct, but that is of value only because it holds 
before the mind the one specific suggestion which is 
desired. It makes action easy and that is good, because 



Check the edition of Price List you wish sent (will send bodi tf 
desired), also articles whfch you handje or use, so that we can 
send samples and special inforsaMon fr«n time to time. 



1 




n Hirdwarc Dealers* Edition 


1 

1 


-^ 


Steel RosfisCi 


Conductor Pipe, Gutter. Etc, 


! 


^ 


Stetl CeUiiig. 


n Roo6ng and Metal Paints 


i 


" 


Tin Plates 


~] Asbestos Paper. Mill Board. Btft 




3 


GalvaoiietL SmooU «« FUnliited Irpn ' 


Asbestos Pipe Covering, CfiBCSti CV 


i 


: 


Ridge RoU and Creating 


n Mineral Wool 


1 


: 


Skylights and Cornices 


^ Furnace Pipe aad Reg(«s», 


\\ 


D 


Sheet Zinc and Coppci 


Tinners Tools 


D Lumber D 

^ Building Papa*^ 


ealers' Edition 


Qlwo and Three Ply Rpogit 




[^-Llncotn tiooSjtQ 


"n Asphalt Roofing 




~ Portable Gravel Roofing 


"~j Roof Coatings 




^ Asb«ios rire-Prmtf Rooeng 


n Deadening Felts 




~~| Waterproof Papen 


^ Carpet Linings 




"n Tarred FetU 


"n Asphalt Metal Paintt 




n Pitch and Coal Ta» 


~] Roofing and Paring Asphalt 


• 


Kwu- 




n 


Tmm, 


Sf/ite 


Check here If ooi InMiwted In the >ibmt lines of goods and we wiU remove you» 




LJ aame from our mailing Ust. 








STAMPED ENVELOPE ENCLOSED FOR RETURN OF THIS FORM. 



No. 6 



then no barrier is placed in the way of the suggestion. 
It calls for immediate action and that is essential, be- 
cause unless the suggestion is acted upon at once it 
grows weaker and would fail of its purpose. 

In connection with direct commands and return cou- 



258 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

pons there should be some mention made of other sim- 
ilar devices for suggesting action. Among these latter 
are the return postal card, the money envelope, the 
money card, etc. There seems to be no end to the num- 
ber of such devices that skill and ingenuity may discover. 
They are used with great profit by their inventors, but 
when the novelty has worn off, they are less valuable, 
and other forms are then demanded. 



This chapter in substantially its present form ap- 
peared first in a magazine article. One of the readers 
of the magazine decided to make an experiment in apply- 
ing the principle to his own business. He noticed this 
sentence, ^They are used with great profit by their 
inventors, but when the novelty has worn off, they are 
less valuable, and other forms are then demanded." He 
tried to preserve the psychological value of the return 
coupon, but to present it in a new form and in such a 
way that it would be adapted to his demands. The re- 
sult of his labor is seen in No. 6. 

After the form had been in use a short time we re- 
ceived the following letter from the inventor of it : 

Chicago, April 2, 1903. 
Dr. Walter Dill Scott, 
Northwestern University, 
Evanston, 111.: 

Dear Sir, — I am sending you under separate cover copy of the 
"Ballot" advertisement, which we got out recently along the 
lines suggested by your articles in Mahin's Magazine, and are 
pleased to report that the returns are very satisfactory. Over 
50 per cent, of the sheets were returned, making a very valuable 
mailing list, but we do not consider this as important as the 
psychological value of having the retail dealers make a special 
request for our monthly price list. 



VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON 259 

As a test case, we mailed thirty of these sheets to dealers to 
whom we had been sending our catalogues and other advertis- 
ing material regularly for a number of years, but had never re- 
ceived any returns. Of these seventeen were returned, three 
containing special requests for prices, one of which resulted in 
an immediate order. 

I find the knowledge of the psychological principles of adver- 
tising very helpful in planning my advertising work, and will 
be pleased to give you any further data in regard to the results 
obtained that you may wish. 

Yours truly, 

J. C. WOODLEY. 

At the time this chapter was prepared for publication 
in magazine form (May, 1902) there were but few 
return coupons appearing in the current magazines, 
and those appearing were placed with but little regard 
to position. Thus in Miinsey's Magazine for May, 1902, 
there were but three return coupons, and one of them 
was so placed that it came next to the binding and would 
be hard to detach. In McCliire's for the same month 
there appeared four return coupons and one of them was 
next to the binding. In the Century Magazine for the 
same month there appeared but a single return coupon. 
Since that date the number of return coupons has in- 
creased enormously. Very often a hundred return cou- 
pons appear in a single issue. 



260 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



XXI 

ATTENTION 

What does the advertiser seek to accomplish by his 
advertisements? The answers to this question differ 
merely as to form of expression or point of view. One 
says, "The aim of advertising is to attract attention 
and to sell goods." Another statement would be that 
the purpose of advertising is to attract attention to 
the goods and to create such a favorable impression 
for them that the reader will desire to possess them. 
Whatever the statement may be, this seems certain — one 
aim of every advertisement is to attract attention. 
Therefore, the entire problem of attention is one of im- 
portance to the advertiser, and an understanding of 
it is necessary for its wisest application as well as for 
a correct understanding of advertising. 

When we turn to the question of attention, the first 
thing that impresses us is that our attention is narrow, 
that we are unable to attend to many things at once. 
Out of all the multitude of things competing for place 
in our attention, the great majority is entirely disre- 
garded. At the present time you are receiving impres- 
sions of pressure from your chair and from your cloth- 
ing, impressions of smell from flowers and from smoke, 
impressions of sound from passing vehicles and from 
your own breathing, impressions of sight from your 
hand that holds this book and from the table on which 
the book rests. As I mention them they are noticed 
one after the other, Before T mentioned them you were 



ATTENTION 261 

totally oblivious of them. You cannot say how many 
distinct things you can attend to at once. This was 
formerly a question of frequent debate. Some asserted 
that we could attend to but one thing at a time, but 
others, with equal vehemence, insisted that a score of 
things could be attended to at once. The question has 
been removed from the realm of mere probability, for 
it has been investigated according to scientific methods 
in the psychological laboratories, and definite results 
have been obtained. Ordinary observers under favorable 
conditions can attend to about four visual objects at 
once. ^^Object" here is used to indicate anything that 
may be regarded as a single thing. About four letters, 
four simple pictures, four geometrical figures or easy 
words are as much as we can see or attend to at once. 

As you look at this page the light is reflected to your 
eyes from each individual word, so one might say that 
you receive an impression from each of the words on 
the page, but if you look at the page closely you will 
find that you can attend to but about four words at 
once. 

If, then, there are multitudes of things to be at- 
tended to and we are unable to attend to more than 
four at once, why do we attend to certain things and 
disregard all the rest? What characteristics must any- 
thing have that it may force itself into our attention? 
Since advertisements are part of the things which may 
or may not be attended to, we may be more specific 
and put the question in this form: What must be the 
characteristics of an advertisement to force it into the 
attention of the possible customer? 

If I am interested in guns, take up a magazine, look 
for the advertisements of guns and read them through, 
my attention is voluntary. If, while looking for guns, 



262 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

something else catches my eye for a moment and I think 
"that is an advertisement for clothing/' then my at- 
tention is involuntary. In the first case I sought out 
the advertisement with a conscious purpose. In the 
second there was no such conscious purpose, but the 
advertisement thrust itself upon my attention. 

Psychology is the newest of the experimental sciences 
and the investigations of involuntary attention are as 
yet far from satisfactory. The complete analysis of it 
as applied to advertising has to my knowledge never 
been made. With its complete analysis the following six 
principles will appear: 

The first principle is that the power of any object to 
force itself into our attention depends on the absence 
of counter attractions. 

Other things being equal, the probabilities that any 
particular thing will catch our attention are in pro- 
portion to the absence of competing attractions. This 
may be demonstrated in a specific case as follows : I had 
a card of convenient size and on it were four letters. 
This card was exposed to view for one twenty-fifth of 
a second, and in that time all the four letters were read 
by the observers. I then added four other letters and 
exposed the card one twenty-fifth of a second as before. 
The observers could read but four letters as in the pre- 
vious trial; but in this exposure there was no certainty 
that any particular letter would be read. I then added 
four more letters to the card and exposed it as in the 
previous trials. The observers were still able to read 
but four letters. That is to say, up to a certain point 
all could be seen; when the number of objects {i.e., 
letters) was doubled, the chances that any particular 
object would be seen were reduced to fifty per cent. 
When the number of objects was increased threefold, 



ATTENTION 263 

the chance of any particular object being seen was re- 
duced to thirty-three per cent. If I should place any 
four particular letters on the right-hand page of any 
magazine, and also the same four letters on the oppo- 
site page, and have nothing else on these pages, it is 
safe to say that the letters would be seen, with more 
or less attention, in one or both cases by every one 
who turns over the pages of the magazine. This follows, 
because at the ordinary reading distance the field of 
even comparatively distinct vision is smaller than a 
single page of ordinary magazine size, and as one turns 
the pages the attention is not wider than the page and 
therefore the letters have no rivals and would of neces- 
sity fill or occupy the attention for an instant of time, 
or until the page was turned over. If one hundred of 
these letters were placed on each of the pages, the 
chances that any particular letter would be seen are 
greatly reduced. 

This seems to indicate that, other things being equal, 
the full-page advertisement is the "sure-to-be-seen^' ad- 
vertisement, and that the size of an advertisement de- 
termines the number of chances it has of being seen. 

This principle, which holds for the parts of a page, 
might not hold for adjoining pages. Thus it might 
not be to the advantage of an advertisement to be the 
only advertisement or the only one of a certain class 
of goods in any periodical. If there were eight adver- 
tisements of automobiles on a single page, the casual 
reader would probably see but one or two of them. If 
there were eight full-page advertisements of automobiles 
on adjoining pages of the same magazine, even the 
casual reader would be likely to see them all. Whether 
each of these eight full -page advertisements would be 
as effective as one would be if it were the only one in 



2U THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the magazine is a question for further consideration 
and will be taken up at a later time. 

If on a single page there are but few words set in 
display type, and if these words stand out with no 
competitors for the attention of the reader, the chances 



Cool Off 
in Colorado 



If Kg hot where yon are and 70a want a change of air, 

if yon are tired and OTenrorked and need a little outing; go 

to Colorado. It is the one perfect summer epot in America. 

lie pore, dry, invigorating air, the glory of the mountain 

scenery, the quiet restf ulness of the place, the fine fishing and 

folf links, the comfortable hotete and boarding houses, all go to mato 

Colorado the ideal country for seekers after health and pleasure 

Send for our "Handbook of Colofadp." 
A trip to Colorado costs but littla. Our handbook tells all about th» 
|>rices for board and the attractions at different places. ' Send for a copy 
TO-DAT. No charge. At the same time I will mail you a circular telling 
about the very cheap tickets we are selling to Colorado. Round trip fron» 
Chicago, $25 and $30; from St. Louis, $21 and $25, according to the data. 
It takes but one night on the road from either Chicago or St. Louis to Denver. 
jP. 8. EUSTIS. PaMenger Traffic Mwtagv C. B. & Q. R/. Co.. Chicago. 



BB 



No. 1 



are in favor of any particular person reading this much 
of the advertisement. Thus, in the advertisement of the 
Burlington Railroad reproduced herewith (No. 1), the 
words "Cool off in Colorado" stand out without having 
to compete with any counter attraction. If this idea 
causes the reader to stop but for a second he will next 



ATTENTION 



265 



see the display "Burlington Route'' and then "Send for 
our Handbook of Colorado." No one of these displays 
competes with the other, but each assists the other. 



Are Your LUNGS WEAK? 

/-, i.c ^°."" '"'"', "e^dw. Ttiraateixit wHh CoiuumpUoa, Iry thl> CcnpM^. PhKoMDhlul and SUCCESSFW. 
CURE. It m.jr SAVE VOUR, LIFE, «. It hM TbooMnd. rf «uWrt. It I.FRE8.-0R. SL' CUM. 

HERE IS HEALTH 




The CONSUMPTIVE Can Pe Cured 






Thcf* Pouf N«w preparatloM e 



piHiWoa raae»d«d bj m>*« b«'ctaltls. Asthma. Catarrh, Oencral Oc» 

> Md Ctychtaw Took br otUti. j Wlity. Anemia. Rundown Sy»tem. t» 

'^Sr.«'aiV^;oU^b:r.t -nedkio* rc^uc^l to an exact «»«,« 




I •rranccmcnt.all our read- 
nay be atllicled wni be tup- 
1 4U FiU« f«EE eEMEBIES. 
utcly fuarantoa this gencf 
When writint to Dr. Sl»- 



AND PRESBYTER. 



iTMEHWAU) 



Wrili for FOUR FREE S/mHiS 
s:t'^">ssSjr»Norieu7T':r"' 



No. 2 



In the advertisement of Dr. Slocum, as reproduced 
herewith (No. 2), there is so much put in display type 
and in so many styles of type that nothing stands out 
clearly and distinctly. Each individual display seems to 
screech at the reader as he turns the page. The result is 
that the ordinary reader feels confused, and turns away 



266 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

from such a page without any definite idea as to what it 
is all about. Each display is a counter attraction to 
each other one, and so the effect of all is weakened. 

The second principle is that the power of any object 
to attract our attention depends on the intensity of 
the sensation aroused. 

The bright headlight of the locomotive and the red 
lanterns which are used as signals of danger arouse 
such strong sensations that we simply must see them. 

Moving objects produce a stronger sensation than 
objects at rest. This accounts for the introduction of all 
sorts of movement in street advertising. 

Certain colors attract attention more than others. 
Prof. Harlow Gale has made some experiments to de- 
termine what the attention value of the different colors 
is. He has found that red is the color having the great- 
est attention value, green is the second, and black is 
the third. Black on a white background is more effective 
than white on a black background. 

Large and heavy types not only occupy a large 
amount of space and so force attention to themselves 
by excluding counter attractions, but, in addition to 
this, they affect the eye and give a strong sensation 
and thereby attract the attention. Experiments have 
been made to' find the attention value of the different- 
sized type. It has been found that, within the limits of 
the experiments, the attention value of display type 
increases in almost exact proportion to the increase of 
its size. 

The eye is like a photographer's camera. If it is 
focused for any particular object, all others appear 
through it to be blurred and indistinct. If I fix my 
eyes upon an object directly in front of me, all others 
are seen but dimly. My hand, held to the extreme right 



ATTENTION 267 

or left, is then seen so indistinctly that I cannot count 
the fingers. Objects that fall under the direct gaze 
of the eyes make stronger visual impressions than those 
which fall out of the focus. The former ordinarily attract 
the attention, the latter seldom do. As one turns over 
the pages of advertisements, those which fall directly 
within the focus of the eye have the best chance of 
attracting the attention. 

An important question for the advertiser is : Where 
does the ordinary reader direct his eyes as he turns the 
pages of a magazine? Does he begin at the front or at 
the back of the magazine? Does he turn his eyes first 
to the top or to the middle or to the bottom of the page? 
Are his eyes turned more to the right or more to the 
left of the page? These questions have been the sub- 
ject of frequent discussion, but they never have been 
subjected to sufficiently extensive investigation. 

The third principle is that the attention value of an 
object depends upon the contrast it forms to the object 
presented with it^ preceding or following it. 

The contrast produced by a flash of lightning on a 
dark night, or by the hooting of an owl at midnight, is 
so strong that the attention is absolutely forced, and 
there is no one who can disregard them. Novel things 
and sudden changes of any sort are noticed, while 
familiar things and gradual changes are hardly noticed 
at all. 

This is a matter of common experience, but has been 
strikingly illustrated with frogs. The following quo- 
tation is taken from a recent work of the director of 
the psychological laboratory at Yale University: "Al- 
though a frog jumps readily enough when put in warm 
water, yet a frog can be boiled without a movement if 
the water is heated slowly enough. In one experiment 



268 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the water was heated at the rate of .0036 of a degree 
Fahrenheit per second; the frog never moved and at 
the end of two and one-half hours was found dead. He 
had evidently been boiled without noticing it." 

My explanation of these results is that at any point 
of time the temperature of water was in such little 
contrast with the temperature a moment before that 
the attention of the frog was never attracted to the 
temperature of the water at all ; so the frog was actually 
boiled to death without becoming aware of the fact ! 

As we turn the pages of a magazine we do not see 
each page as an independent unit, but we see it in re- 
lation to what has gone before. If it is in marked con- 
trast to the preceding there is a sort of shock felt which 
is in reality the perception of the contrast. This ele- 
ment is a constant force in drawing the attention. 
What has been said of the full page is equally true of 
the parts of it. 

In the case of magazine or newspaper advertising, 
the responsibility for making effective contrasts is 
shared alike by the individual advertiser and by the 
"make-up." Contrasts may be so harmoniously formed 
that the things contrasted are mutually strengthened, 
just as is the case when red and green are placed in 
juxtaposition. The red looks redder and the green 
looks greener. But if the contrast is incongruous the 
value of each is impaired. Thus if two musical but 
mutually discordant tones are sounded together or one 
after the other, the beauty of each is lost. 

No one has been conscious of this principle of contrast 
to a greater extent than the advertiser. He has intro- 
duced all sorts of things into his advertisements merely 
to attract attention through contrast : He has inserted 
his advertisements upside down; he has had the lines 



ATTENTION 269 

of the reading matter run crosswise ; he has substituted 
black background for the ordinary wliite. The inherent 
skill of the American advertiser has been made manifest 
by this ingenuity in devising novel, ever-changing, and 
striking contrasts. Indeed, some have followed this 
principle too far and have produced novelties and con- 
trasts, but their work has not been successful, because 
they have violated other equally important principles. 

Thus the advertisement of the Burlington Route em- 
ploys the principle of contrast successfully. The ad- 
vertisement of Dr. Slocum makes use of the same prin- 
ciple, but the result is nothing short of a botch. 

The three principles as given above are important 
and are the three methods which the practical adver- 
tiser uses most to attract attention. The three which 
shall be given next are methods which are of almost 
equal importance, but which are frequently disregarded 
by the writers of advertisements. 

The fourth principle is that the power which any 
object has to attract our attention, or its attention 
value, depends on the ease with which we are able to 
comprehend it. 

This principle is one which is often neglected by 
the advertiser. A few illustrations will help to make 
it clear. A child in turning over the pages of a book 
or magazine does not have his attention attracted at 
all by the printed words. Even the pictures do not 
attract his attention unless they are in bright colors 
or represent something which he can understand. The 
same thing is true with adults. We will turn our at- 
tention to nothing unless it speaks to us in terms which 
we can interpret with comparative ease. It is difficult 
to comprehend an entirely new thing or function. From 
this it follows that a new article should be introduced 



270 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



as a modification of a familiar one, or as something 
performing a well-known function. The pedagogical 
maxim of always advancing from the known to the un- 
known is so well established that its violation must 
be regarded as more or less suicidal. 




No. 3 

Styles of lettering that are not easily read and cuts 
that are not easily interpreted are not so attractive as 
lettering and cuts that are more simple and transparent 
in their meaning. 

Cuts that in themselves are good and lettering that 
is distinct may be so united and so dimmed by the 



ATTENTION 271 

background that the whole is an indistinct blur. As an 
example of an advertisement that is good as to indi- 
vidual details but poor as to the entire effect, we have 
reproduced herewith (No. 3) an advertisement of the 
Purina Mills. The display of this advertisement is 



WHERE YOU CAN, AND 

WHERE YOU CANNOT, 

ECONOMIZE. 

A cheaper horse is simply LESS 
valuable: an ugly flower has no value 
at all. Cloth not so fine may not wear 
quite so long: an out-of-style bonnet is 
xinwearable. If you cannot afford 
mahogany, maple will do; but poor 
varnish is death to the beauty of 
anything. 

Murphy Varnish Co. 

FRANKLIN MURPHY. President 
Head Office : Newark, N J 
Qther Offices : Boston, Cleveland, St Louis, and Chicago. 

Factories Newark and Chicago. 

No. 4 

hard to read, and it is, therefore, not so attractive as 
it would otherwise be. 

The name or brand of goods often makes them difficult 
to advertise. Thus Orangeine does not suggest what the 
Orangeine Chemical Company would have it suggest. 
People do not know what it is, and so fail to be attracted 
by the advertisement simply because it is meaningless 
to them. 



272 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



Many advertisers have used certain forms of expres- 
sion and illustrations which bear no necessary rela- 
tion to the rest of the advertisement or to the goods 
advertised. They have been called "irrelevant words'' 




"Ws easy ^ 

to ask iot} 



White 

Star 

Coffee 



BujJng coffee in one 

and Iwo po'ind cml* 

makes it possible foi 

you tn obtain all M'O 

strentfih and hII 

the flaror Thi^ ia 

rffllly nrliAt \ou 

buy. foT (lie 

Kroimd" )ou tli»o» 

e»ay.^ A pouod •>! 

While 
Star Coflee 

will make mora 
cups ilian a pnuiirt 
i>f any o t li e f 
brand. be 
cause it is de 
velopfid more 
highJy. 



No. 5 

or "irrelevant cuts," as the case might be. Their func- 
tion is presumably that of attracting attention. As they 
stand, they are not easily comprehended, and actual 
experiment has shown that they do not attract the at- 
tention of one hastily looking at the page of the maga- 
zine as often as relevant words or relevant cuts. 



ATTENTION 273 

The advertisement of the Murphy Varnish Company, 
as reproduced on page 271 (No. 4), has made use of a 
form of display which we would call "irrelevant words." 
This display has nothing particular to do with varnish. 
It could be used equally well with almost any adver- 
tisement appearing in magazines to-day. It would, how- 
ever, be equally poor in any case. It does not increase 
the reader's knowledge concerning the proposition which 
the varnish company has to offer, and the ordinary 
reader would not be likely to be attracted by any such 
"catch-words" as these. 

The advertisers of the White Star Coffee (No. 5) 
have filled up one-half of their space with the picture 
of a slimy frog. When one is thinking of frogs he is 
not in condition to listen to the arguments in favor of 
any coffee. But, aside from such considerations, I be- 
lieve that there is no proof that such an open attempt to 
force the attention of the reader is advisable or suc- 
cessful. 

The advertisement of the American Lead Pencil Com- 
pany, as reproduced herewith (No. 6), has made use 
of cuts that illustrate. Such an illustration is called a 
relevant cut. The casual reader sees at a glance what 
this advertisement is all about, and such advertisements 
attract us instantly. 

The great majority of all advertisements appearing 
at the present time make use of words in display type 
which indicate in brief what the entire advertisement 
is about. Such headings are called relevant words. The 
picture which tells the story is more easily compre- 
hended than any possible expression in words. This is 
one reason why the picture is the most attractive form 
of advertising- 

The fifth principle is that the attention value of an 



274 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

object depends on the numher of times it comes before 
uSy or on repetition. 

It is no anomaly that children are attracted most by 
the oft-repeated tale. This is in but apparent contra- 



mm Tt £ook$ Like 




Uncondil 
Guaranteed one 
year. 



Relative size of 
points exaggerated 



Meoted la United States and Abroad. 



No. 6 



diction to the third principle. A thing which is in con- 
trast to all other things and yet frequently repeated 
meets both conditions. The psychological explanation 
of the value of repetition is somewhat involved, but 
the fact is seen by every careful observer. The ques- 
tions concerning repetition as applied to advertising 
are as yet unsettled. 



ATTENTION 275 

In the case of goods having an equal sale all the year, 
if a given advertisement is to appear one hundred times, 
is it best to insert it in one hundred different maga- 
zines once, so that the reader can see it in all his peri- 
odicals for a few days, or is it better to have the same 
advertisement appear in one hundred different issues 
of the same magazine? In other words, are repetitions 
more effective if they follow rapidly one after the other, 
or if they are separated by a longer period of time? 

Another question is this : How much of an advertise- 
ment should be repeated? Some advertisements have 
unchangeable characteristics which are always repeated 
and which serve to identify all the advertisements of 
a particular house. Others are completely changed 
as to all prominent features with every issue, and the 
casual observer would not notice that the two succes- 
sive advertisements were for the same goods — he cer- 
tainly would not notice that they were from the same 
house. Still other advertisements have certain promi- 
nent features which are constantly changing, but which 
are always recognizable as representing the same firm. 

The advertisement which is the same from year to 
year is lacking in contrast. It is not necessarily inef- 
fective, but it takes^ time to accomplish its results. The 
frog that was boiled without noticing it succumbed at 
last to the slowly rising temperature. The man who 
sees the same advertisement month after month will 
at last purchase the goods advertised without ever 
having paid any particular attention to the advertise- 
ment and would be unable to say why he purchased 
those particular goods. 

The advertisement which is changed completely with 
every issue is lacking in repetition value and would be 
good only when it is of such a nature that a large per 



276 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

cent, of the intended purchasers would read it thor- 
oughly enough to supply the missing links and to unite 
it to the others of the series. 

The advertisement with a constant recognizable fea- 
ture that varies in detail from time to time allows for 
both change and repetition, and is to that extent the 
best advertisement. 



I Print niy Own Cards 

Circulars, Newspaper. Press ^5. r,nrger size, 918. 
Money saver. lUg profits printing for others. 
Type setting easy, rules sent. Write for catalog* 
presses, type, paper, etc., to factory. 

THE PRESS CO., Meriden, Conn» 




No. 7 



This advertisement of a printing press company (No. 
7) has, so far as I know, never been changed. It is 
just the same in all publications in which the firm 
advertises, and is the same year in and year out. It 
has doubtless been more or less successful. Would it 
have been more effective if the copy had been changed? 

The two advertisements of the Franklin Mills (Nos. 
8 and 9) have nothing in common. No one but a care- 
ful reader would know that they were advertisements 
of the same firm. This same firm has been careful to 
have the wheat border in all advertisements of Wheatlet. 
The seal containing the 'portrait of Franklin is also 
often present in the advertisements of Wheatlet. Would 
it not be advisable to retain this wheat border or the 
seal in all advertisements issuing from this firm? If 
certain readers had become interested in the adver- 
tisements of Wheatlet, for instance, and had become 
familiar with the characteristic seal, they would be 
attracted by the other advertisements of this firm if they 
saw the seal down in the corner of the advertisement. 



ATTENTION 



277 



Very many firms are at the present time changing 
their copy frequently, but they retain some character- 
istic feature so that we can recognize the new adver- 
tisements as old friends in a new form. Thus the 
Cream of Wheat advertisements are identified by the 



sm 

(COMMISARI 



OVERALLOTHER(EREALS. 

For Uncle Sam's boys, the Government demand the 
best. Unsolicited, the Government's order for 

WHEATLET 

reaches us reprutarly. becausfe careful tesi proved 
Wheatlet the best cereal. 

Whether you lead a strenuous life or not. Wheatlet 
will do you more good than any breakfast food you 
can ent. Start the New Year right. 

Prove everything we say with full half pound sample 
mailed for grocer's name and 3 two cent stamps. 

l/^-,..^^ THE FRANKLIN MILLS COMPANY. 

"All the JJ'Jiratthafs Fit to Eat," 
f^Ixl *g,^70QSpringarden St.. LocKPORT. N Y. 
$200 is to be given Children. Write, us. 



No. 8 



genial colored chef. I have come to like that chef, and 
am attracted by every advertisement in which he ap- 
pears. If he were left out, I should not be so likely to 
notice the advertisement as I am with him in it. Each 
of their advertisements is in a sense new and in con- 
trast with all their other advertisements, but this col- 



278 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

ored chef offers just enough of repetition to make the 
advertisement attractive. 

The sixth and last principle is that the attention value 
of an object depends on the intensity of the feeling 
aroused. 



''Half a Loaf 

is better than no loaf '* 

is a good, true old saying; half a loaf is 
better than a whole loaf if that half loaf 
be made of 




Containing **all the wheat tliaVs fit to eat*** 

^Tbis is the trade-mark to be found on' 
every package and 
every barrel of the 
genuine Franklin 
Mills Flour. 

It is sold by first- 
class grocers gen- 
erally in original 
packages of from 
6>^ lbs. to full bar* 
rels of 196 lbs. 

Manufactured only by 

THE FBANEUN MILLS CO., Lockport, N. 1. 

WRITE THEM FOR FREE BOOKLET. 

No. 9 




Attention is not merely a process in which the mind 
grasps a certain fact, but it is also a process in which 
we feel. It is either a pleasurable or a painful feeling. 
That a thing may attract our attention it must not 
affect us indifferently, but must either please or dis- 



ATTENTION 279 

please us. At this point the work of the true artist 
becomes essential. In the ideal advertisement the emo- 
tions and sensibilities of the possible customers must 
be appealed to. 

In all advertisements the esthetic feelings may be 
aroused by at least the harmonious combinations of 
color and form. Curiosity, pride, sympathy, ambition, 
and many other feelings and emotions have been awak- 
ened by the skillful advertiser. With certain adver- 
tisers the desire seems to have been merely to attract 
attention regardless of the emotion awakened. They 
have been successful in attracting attention, but their 
advertisements are so obtrusive and repulsive that their 
value, as a means of selling goods, is inconsiderable. 

The man who confines himself to the simple state- 
ment of facts may not be subject to the mistakes that 
befall the man who attempts more difficult things. The 
photographer presents all the details of a scene, but 
he does not appeal to the emotions and the heart of the 
public as the artist does. The work of the photographer 
may be truer to the facts, but the work of the artist 
attracts our attention more readily. We do not under- 
stand the feelings and emotions of the human breast, 
and yet it is often advisable to run the risk of attempt- 
ing appeals to the emotions. 

There are scores of advertisers who attempt to appeal 
to the joyful emotions. It should be remembered that 
joy is but one of the emotions. The visitor to an art 
gallery is at once struck by the frequent appeal to the 
sadder emotions. It is not at all easy to find in our 
magazine advertising any appeal or any reference to the 
more pathetic aspects of life. The following is a repro- 
duction (No. 10) of an advertisement of the Prudential 
Insurance Company. This advertisement does not ap- 



280 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

-pear in recent magazines, yet it is certainly much better 
than many highly approved advertisements of insurance 
companies. The skillful advertiser should be able to 
appeal to more than one emotion and he should be able 



^ii^d 



^ 



ris hard enou^-h on a woman to be thrown on her own resootcft. The 
death of the husband and father is quite enoug;h by itself. If the burden of 
debt and want be added to it, the woman's life is hardly worth the living. 
Comparatively few men in America are able to accumulate any money. 
Perhaps not one in a hundred does it.- It is this that makes life insurance 
an imperative necessity. Nobody can take the insurance money away from 
tlie one to whom you make it payable. It will not assuag;e the grief, Jiut 
■t will increase the comfort of those who are living. It discharges, to some 
extent, the obligation every man incurs when he marries. 

Our two forms of life insurance, the "Industrial" (for policies of $tOOO 
or less, on weekly payments) and the "Ordinary" (for policies of $1(XX) 
and more, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual payments), are clearly ex- 
plained in our booklets — sent free on request. 

Prudential Insurance Co- 

of America 

rOHN F. DRYDEN, ProidtnL Homt OIBc NEWARK. N. J. 



No. 10 



to appeal to the one which brings the reader into the 
attitude of mind which is in keeping with the proposition 
offered. 

The designer of advertisements must be something 
more than a skilled artisan; he must be an artist and 
must be able to put soul into his work, so that his pro- 
duction will appeal to the sentiment as well as to the 



ATTENTION 281 

intellect of those who are to be influenced by it. The 
art demands the work of an artist. 

Such is in brief the discussion of the six fundamental 
principles underlying the psychology of involuntary at- 
tention in general, and the psychology of involuntary 
attention as applied to advertising in particular. The 
purpose of this chapter is to present in an introductory 
manner the psychology of a part of advertising, i.e.^ in- 
voluntary attention, and with special reference to maga- 
zine and newspaper advertising. 

Before the psychology of involuntary attention is 
complete, the following are among the questions that 
must be investigated : 

What is the comparative attention value of small and 
of large spaces, for instance, a quarter and a full page 
advertisement? 

What is the comparative attention value of advertise- 
ments next to reading matter and of advertisements 
segregated at the beginning and the end of magazines? 

What is the comparative attention value of space 
among classified advertisements and of space among un- 
classified advertisements, or advertisements of a different 
class of goods? 

Is the additional attention value secured by tinted 
paper, colored type, and colored cuts sufficient to war- 
rant their increased introduction? 

For any particular class of advertisements, what is 
the least possible space for a must-be-seen advertisement? 

What size and style of type is the most valuable for 
attracting attention? 

What part of a page and which pages are the most 
valuable for attention? 

What is the comparative attention value of novel and 
of conventional advertisements? 



282 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

How does repetition affect the attention value of an 
advertisement? How complete should the repetition 
be and how often and how rapidly should the advertise- 
ment be repeated to secure the best results? 

Is a small advertisement appearing one hundred times 
a year as good as one ten times as large and appearing 
ten times in a year? 

What are the respective attention values of relevant 
cuts, relevant words, irrelevant cuts, and irrelevant 
words? 

Is a line of display type extending entirely across a 
page as valuable as the same display in two lines ex- 
tending half across the page? 

What is the relative attention value of representations 
of the pathetic, humorous, pleasing, and displeasing? 

Such is a brief syllabus for future investigation upon 
involuntary attention as applied to advertising. These 
questions can probably all be answered, some easily and 
others only after difficult and extensive investigations. 
It is quite plain that investigation on these questions 
would be of the greatest practical value to the advertiser. 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 283 



XXII 

ATTENTION VALUE OF SMALL AND 
OF LAEGE SPACES 

There are certain things which seem to force them- 
selves upon us whether we will or not. We seem to be 
compelled to attend to them by some mysterious instinc- 
tive tendency of our nervous organization. Thus mov- 
ing objects, sudden contrasts, large objects, etc., seem 
to catch our attention with irresistible force. Again 
there are certain conditions which favor attention and 
others which hinder it. Among the conditions favoring 
attention the following is, for the advertiser, of special 
significance. The power of any object to compel atten- 
tion depends upon the absence of counter-attraction. In 
the preceding chapter appeared the following paragraph : 

^^Other things being equal, the probabilities that any 
particular thing will catch our attention are in propor- 
tion to the absence of competing attractions. This may 
be demonstrated in a specific case as follows : I had a 
card of convenient size and on it were four letters. This 
card was exposed to view for one twenty-fifth of a sec- 
ond, and in that time all the four letters were read by 
the observers. I then added four other letters and ex- 
posed the card one twenty-fifth of a second as before. 
The observers could read but four of the letters as in 
the previous trial, but in this exposure there was no 



284 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

certainty that any particular letter would be read. I 
then added four more letters to the card and exposed the 
letters as in the previous trials. The observers were 
still able to read but four letters. That is to say, up to a 
certain point all could be seen. When the number of 
objects (i.e.y letters) was doubled, the chances that any 
particular object would be seen were reduced fifty per 
cent. When the number of objects was increased three- 
fold, the chances of any particular object being seen 
were reduced to thirty-three per cent. If I should place 
any particular four letters on the right and also the same 
letters on the left hand page of any magazine and have 
nothing else on the page, it is safe to say that the letters 
would be seen, with more or less attention, in one or both 
cases by every one who turns over the pages of the maga- 
zine. This follows because at the ordinary reading 
distance the field of even comparatively distinct vision is 
smaller than a single page of ordinary magazine size, 
and as one turns the pages the attention is ordinarily 
not wider than the page, and therefore the letters have 
no rivals and would of necessity fill or occupy the atten- 
tion for an instant of time, or until the page was turned 
over. If one hundred of these letters are placed on 
each of the pages the chances that any particular letter 
will be seen are greatly reduced. This seems to indi- 
cate that, other things being equal, the full-page adver- 
tisement is the ^ sure-to-be-seen ' advertisement and that 
the size of an advertisement determines the number of 
chances it has of being seen." 

Even a casual reader of advertisements is aware of 
the fact that full-page advertisements attract atten- 
tion more than smaller advertisements. Every adver- 
tiser knows that if he should occupy full pages he would 
secure more attention than if he should occupy quarter 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 285 

pages, yet one of the most perplexing questions which 
any advertiser has to deal with is the adequate amount 
of space for any particular advertisement or for any 
particular advertising campaign. The question is not 
as to the superiority of full pages in comparison with 
smaller spaces. All- feel sure that any advertisement 
would be more valuable if it occupied a full page than 
if it occupied only half of it. But the real question is 
whether it is twice as valuable, for it costs practically 
twice as much. A quarter-page announcement is valu- 
able, but a half-page is worth more — ^is it worth twice as 
much? It is of course conceded that some advertise- 
ments are unprofitable regardless of the space occupied, 
and that others are profitable when filling various 
amounts of space. It is also conceded that certain ad- 
vertisements require a large space and that others are 
profitable as an inch advertisement but would be un- 
profitable if inflated to occupy a full page. 

There are exceptions and special cases, but the ques- 
tion can be intelligently stated as follows: Of all the 
advertisements being run in current advertising, which 
is the more profitable, in proportion to the space occu- 
pied, the large or the small advertisement? Since 
profitableness is a very broad term and depends upon 
many conditions, we will for the present confine our- 
selves to one of the characteristics of a profitable ad- 
vertisement, i.e.y its attention value. 

The quotation presented above was deduced from a 
theoretical study of attention, before opportunity had 
been offered to verify it by means of experiments with 
advertisements. To investigate the question the follow- 
ing tests were made : I handed each of the forty students 
in my class a copy of the current issue of the Century 
Magazine. I then asked them to take the magazines 



286 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

and look them through, just as they ordinarily do, but 
not to read any poetry or long articles. Some of them 
put in all their time reading advertisements ; some 
glanced through the advertisements, read over the table 
of contents and looked over the reading matter; a few 
failed even to look at the advertisements. At the end 
of ten minutes, I surprised them by asking them to 
lay aside the magazines and write down all they could 
remember about each of the advertisements they had 
seen. I sent the same magazines to other persons in 
other parts of the country and had them use the maga- 
zines in the same way in which I had used them. In 
this way tests were made with over five hundred per- 
sons mostly between the ages of ten and thirty. 

These results were carefully tabulated as to the exact 
number of persons who mentioned each individual ad- 
vertisement. We then got together all references to 
each particular advertisement and so could compare the 
different advertisements, not only as to the fact of bare 
remembrance, but also as to the amount of information 
which each had furnished, the desire it had created to 
secure the goods, etc. At the present time we shall con- 
sider all advertisements mainly from the standard of 
attracting attention sufficiently to be recalled by those 
who saw them. 

Out of the ninety-one full-page advertisements, sixty- 
four of them are advertisements of books and periodicals, 
while of the half-page, quarter-page, and small adver- 
tisements there is a total of about five pages devoted 
to books and periodicals. To compare the full-page ad- 
vertisements with the other advertisements in this par- 
ticular magazine would be to compare advertisements of 
books and periodicals with advertisements of other 
classes of goods. To obviate this difficulty, we shall di- 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 287 

vide all advertisements into two classes: (1) those of 
goods other than books and periodicals; (2) those of 
books and periodicals. 

The twenty-seven full-page advertisements of goods 
other than books or periodicals were remembered (men- 
tioned in the reports of the five hundred persons tested) 
five hundred and thirty times, which is an average of 
approximately twenty for each advertisement. The 
sixty-four full-page advertisements of books and peri- 
odicals were remembered six hundred and six times, 
which is an average of nine times for each advertisement. 

The thirty-nine half-page advertisements of goods 
other than books or periodicals were mentioned three 
hundred and fifty-eight times, which is an average of 
nine times for each advertisement. 

The sixty-seven quarter-page advertisements, other 
than those of books or periodicals, were mentioned two 
hundred and twenty-three times, which is an average of 
three for each advertisement. The three quarter-page 
advertisements of books and magazines were mentioned 
only twice, which is an average of less than one for each 
advertisement. 

As less than a single quarter-page of small adver- 
tisements was of books and periodicals, it is useless to 
consider such advertisements separately. There are 
ninety-eight small advertisements, and these were men- 
tioned but sixty-five times, which is an average of much 
less than one for each advertisement. 

The inefficiency of the small advertisement is made 
more striking when we consider that for all advertise- 
ments other than for those of books and periodicals a 
full page was mentioned approximately twenty times, 
a half -page nine times, a quarter-page three times, and a 
small advertisement less than a single time. As is shown 



288 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

in the following table of all advertisements other than 
those of books and periodicals, a quarter-page adver- 
tisement was mentioned thirty per cent, of tener than a 
quarter-page of small advertisements; a half-page ad- 
vertisement was mentioned eighty per cent, oftener than 
a half-page of small advertisements; and a full-page 
advertisement was mentioned ninety per cent, oftener 
than a full page of small advertisements. 

The tabulated results for all advertisements other than 
of books and periodicals are as f ollow^s : 



Size of Advertisement.' 



Number of advertisements 

Pages occupied 

Total number out of 500 persons 

who mentioned them 

Average number of mentions for 

each advertisement 

Average number of mentions for 

each page occupied 







cu 






bO 




, 


d 


1 

p. 




ft 

i 


1-H 


«(H 






a 


^ 


fe 


w 


<y . 


27 


39 


67 


27 


iH 


161 


530 


358 


^^8 


19H 


^tV 


3 


19H 


18M 


13 



98 
6 

65 



65 



10 



When we consider the advertisements for books and 
periodicals, the differences are enormous. A half-page 
advertisement was noticed fifty per cent, oftener than 
two quarter-page advertisements, and a full-page adver- 
tisement was mentioned two hundred and fifty per cent, 
oftener than four quarter-page advertisements. 

The tabulated results for advertisements of books and 
periodicals are as follows : 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 



289 



Size of Advertisement.*^ 


1 

P. 

1 




ft 


^ 


Number of advertisements 

Pages occupied 


64 
64 

606 

m 

9M 


8 
4 

16 

2 

4 


3 

f 

2 
§ 
2f 




Total number out of 500 persons 
v^^ho mentioned them 


csoa 


Average number of mentions for 
each, advertisement 




Average number of mentions for 
each page occupied 


"D tj * 2 W 







An advertisement was regarded as "remembered" if 
it was mentioned at all. In some instances the illus- 
tration alone was remembered and the person mention- 
ing it was unable to tell what advertisement the illustra- 
tion was used with. In a few instances the illustration 



KXT^oxrvv^. |E>JUjJtxyv/cl. ^cJk<ro-P 



VVXp.-A_, . V -3^ >^ a. 



.f^XkK^-^lLtjiJl, Orwu O>XXJLrirJt\^0rv\,' T'^'vJj^ 0-v\«, \,Kr-C»J>i 
^C«r^oL H-v^.f'^ ^o^UU^-i-l-Ju^^ -Lo-v-H. \o-rwdL «.Ar-^v<»Jt 



No. 1. 



-This report indicates the educational value 
of this advertisement. 



290 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

of one brand of goods was interpreted as an advertise- 
ment of the competing brand. On the other hand the 
results were frequently astounding in their revelation 
of the effectiveness of the advertisements in impart- 
ing the essential information and creating a desire for 
the goods. The cut (No. 1) is a reproduction of the 




No. 2. — ^A full-page advertisement pos- 
sessing great attention value. 



report of one of the pupils in Minneapolis, made after she 
had looked through the magazine for ten minutes with- 
out the knowledge that she would be called upon to 
report on what she had read. The advertisement de- 
scribed by this pupil was mentioned more than any other 
and is reproduced herewith as No. 2. 

Soon after the completion of the investigation de- 
scribed above a supplementary investigation was de- 



SMALL AND LAEGE SPACES 291 

vised to see whether similar results would be secured 
from a more diversified list of advertisements and from 
the class of persons for whom the advertisements were 
especially written. We took the binding wires out of 
a large number of magazines and thus were able to make 
a collection of advertising pages without tearing the 
margins of the leaves. We made use of magazines of 
different years and of different kinds, but all used were 
of uniform magazine size. From these leaves we chose 
one hundred pages of advertisements, being careful to 
choose as many different styles of advertisements as pos- 
sible. We had in these pages advertisements of almost 
everything which has been advertised in magazines of re- 
cent years. We had all the different styles of display, of 
type and illustration, of colored cuts and tinted paper, 
etc. We had these hundred pages bound up with the 
body of a current magazine, and the whole thing looked 
like any ordinary magazine. Indeed, no one suspected 
that it was "made up" as he looked at it. 

This specially prepared magazine was handed to 
fifty adults. A large number of them were heads of fam- 
ilies, readers of magazines, and purchasers of the goods 
advertised. Thirty-three of them were women and seven- 
teen men. Some of. them lived in a city and some in a 
country town. As we had tried to choose all the different 
kinds of advertisements possible, so we tried to get all 
kinds and conditions of people for subjects. With three * 
exceptions, the subjects knew nothing of the nature of 
the experiment. Some of them knew that it was for 
experimental purposes, but some of them merely took the 
magazine and looked it through, supposing that it was 
the latest magazine. Each one was requested to look 
through the magazine and, in every case tabulated, all the 
hundred pages of advertisements were turned. Some of 



292 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

the subjects turned the pages rapidly and got through in 
three minutes, others were thirty minutes in getting 
through. The average time for the fifty subjects was a 
little over ten minutes. 

As soon as each subject had completely looked through 
the magazine it was taken away from him and he was 
asked to "mention'^ all the advertisements which he 
'had seen, and to tell all about each of them. What he 
said was written down, and then the subject was given 
the magazine again and asked to look it through and 
indicate each advertisement which he recognized as one 
which he had seen but had forgotten to mention. 

There was very great diversity in individuals in their 
ability to mention the advertisements which they had 
just seen. Some of them mentioned as high as thirty 
different advertisements; one man was unable to men- 
tion a single advertisement which he had seen, although 
all the one hundred pages of advertisements had been 
before his eyes but a moment before. 

There was also great diversity in subjects in their 
ability to recognize the advertisements when they looked 
through the magazine the second time. Some of them 
recognized as high as one hundred advertisements when 
looking through the second time and were surprised 
that they had forgotten to mention them. Others, in 
looking through the second time, were surprised to see 
how unfamiliar the magazine looked. One subject, who 
mentioned but three advertisements, could recognize only 
three others. He had no recollection of having seen any 
of the others. This would seem to indicate that certain 
persons may turn over the advertising pages of a maga- 
zine and yet hardly see the advertisements at all. 

As in the previous investigations, we divided all ad- 
vertisements into two classes: (1) advertisements of 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 293 

goods other than books and periodicals and called, there- 
fore, miscellaneous advertisements; (2) advertisements 
of books and periodicals. 

The forty-three pages of full-page miscellaneous ad- 
vertisements were mentioned two hundred and eighty- 
one times .and recognized five hundred and forty-four 
times. That is, each of these advertisements was men- 
tioned on an average of 6|f times and recognized on 
an average of 12|| times in addition. 

The thirty-one full-page advertisements of books and 
periodicals were mentioned eighty-five times by the fifty 
subjects, which is an average of 2|| times for each 
advertisement. The thirty-one full pages were recog- 
nized (upon looking through the magazine a second 
time) two hundred and seventy-six times by the fifty 
subjects, in addition to the ^^mentions." Each of these 
advertisements was thus recognized on an average almost 
nine times. 

The fifteen half-page advertisements of miscellaneous 
advertisements were mentioned forty-one times, which is 
an average of 2^^ times for each. The fifteen adver- 
tisements were recognized one hundred and eighteen 
times in addition, which is an average of 7yf times 
for each one. 

There are but four half -page advertisements of books 
and periodicals, and only one of them was mentioned by 
any of the fifty, and that but once. That gives an 
average of one-fourth mention for each advertisement. 
They were recognized by twenty-four, which is an 
average of six for each advertisement. 

The thirty-six quarter-page miscellaneous advertise- 
ments were mentioned thirty-nine times, which is an 
average of 1^2^ times for each advertisement. They were 
recognized one hundred and twenty-two times, which 



294 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

is an average of 3f g^ times for each. There are six 
quarter-page advertisements of books and periodicals. 
These six were mentioned only three times, which is an 
average of one-half for each advertisement. 

The ninety-three small miscellaneous advertisements 
were mentioned fourteen times, which makes an average 
of fourteen ninety-thirds. They were recognized thirty- 
four times, which is an average of thirty-four ninety- 
thirds for each advertisement. Of the small advertise- 
ments, only seven were of books and periodicals; these 
seven were mentioned once, which is an average of one- 
seventh for each. The seven were recognized only twice, 
or on the average of two-sevenths. 

The following tabulations will make clear the results 
secured from fifty adults : 

Tabulated results for all miscellaneous advertisements 
secured from fifty adults as follows : 



Size of Advertisement. 



Number of advertisements 

Pages occupied 

Total number of mentions 

Average number of mentions for 
each advertisement 

Average number of mentions for 
each page occupied 

Total (additional) number of rec- 
ognitions 

Average number of recognitions 
for each advertisement 

Average number of recognitions 
for each page occupied 







CJ 






be 






a 


OJ 


Si^ 


Ck 


be 
a 


be 


i 




etH 


b 


3 


73 


■ 


^ 


W 


a 


43 


15 


36 


43 


7i 


9 


281 


41 


39 


6ff 


2H 


liV 


611 


5tV 


4* 


544 


118 


122 


1211 


7U 


3tV 


12|f 


15H 


131 



OQ 



93 
51 
14 



M' 



2t\ 
34 



34 



6A 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 



295 



Tabulated results for all advertisements of books and 
periodicals secured from fifty adults as follows: 



Size of Advertisements 



Number of advertisements 

Pages occupied 

Total number wlio mentioned them 

Average number of mentions for 
each advertisement 

Average number of mentions for 
each page occupied 

Total (additional) number of rec- 
ognitions 

Average number of recognitions 
for each advertisement ,. . 

AA-erage number of recognitions 
for each page occupied 













o 






bO 






OS 


o 


O) 


7:^ 




P. 




l-H 


«H 




f3 


rt 


?i 


P^ 


w 


G* 


31 


4 


6 


81 


2 


\\ 


85 


1 


3 


2|f 


\ 


\ 


2ff 


\ 


2 


276 


24 


11 


8fl 


6 


It 


8ff 


12 


1\ 



As is shown by the foregoing, for all kinds of ad- 
vertisements, with but one exception, a full-page ad- 
vertisement was mentioned oftener than two half-page 
advertisements, two half -page advertisements were men- 
tioned oftener than four quarter-page advertisements, 
and four quarter-page advertisements were mentioned 
oftener than a full page of small advertisements. The 
exception referred to is the half-page advertisements^ of 
books which fell below all other-sized advertisements, but 
as the number of "recognized'^ is very large, the apparent 
exception should not be emphasized. 

Although an advertisement had not impressed the 
reader sufficiently to enable him to mention it after he 
had closed the magazine, yet it may have made such an 



296 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

impression on him that he could recall it if a need or 
something else should arise to suggest it to his mind. 
Thus, to find out how many of the advertisements had 
made any appreciable impression, we had each subject 
see how many of the advertisements in the magazine he 
could recognize a few minutes after he had looked 
through it for the first time. The results given aJ)ove 
indicate that a quarter-page advertisement was recog- 
nized oftener than a quarter-page of small advertise- 
ments; that a half-page advertisement was recognized 
oftener than two quarter-page advertisements; but that 
the full-page advertisements in three instances were 
recognized less often proportionately than smaller ad- 
vertisements, i.e., half -page and quarter-page miscella- 
neous advertisements and half-page advertisements of 
books and periodicals. 

These three exceptional instances are of no significance 
inasmuch as the full-page advertisements had been pre- 
viously mentioned and therefore had been excluded from 
those that could be merely recognized. 

The report given by each subject was carefully an- 
alyzed to see how many times each advertisement im- 
pressed a subject sufficiently so that he would know at 
least what general class of goods the advertisement repre- 
sented. Upon comparing the reports upon the different 
advertisements at this point, it was found that the sub- 
ject knew what class of goods the full-page advertisement 
represented much better than what the half-page repre- 
sented; that the half -page was better than the quarter- 
page, and that the quarter-page was better than the 
small advertisement. 

Results were then compiled as to the comparative 
values of the different-sized advertisements in impress- 
ing upon the subjects the individual brand or name of 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 



297 



the goods advertised. It was found that this informa- 
tion was imparted much better by the larger advertise- 
ments. In a similar way, results were compiled as to 
the name and address of the firm, the price of the goods 
offered and the line of argument presented by the ad- 
vertiser. In all of these cases it was found that the 



r 




W;^^," 




'.th Ivory Soap a'i3 a 

•x^c are brivcd, tHs 

lun .3 Ktttr abit 

]' Mrain- 



'h cf ccJdi- 



No. 3. — This full-page advertisement 
attracts attention. Does it sell soap ? 



full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective 
as a half-page advertisement ; a half-page was more than 
twice as effective as a quarter-page, and a quarter-page 
was more effective than a quarter page of small adver- 
tisements. ^ 

The full-page advertisements, which were mentioned 
by the greatest number of subjects were Ivory Soap 
(mentioned twenty-four times and reproduced herewith 



298 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

as No. 3), In-er-Seal (mentioned twenty-three times), 
and Pears' Soap (mentioned twenty times, reproduced 
herewith as No. 4). Of the twenty-four persons who 
mentioned Ivory Soap (No. 3), but sixteen knew that 
it was an advertisement of soap at all, and only fourteen 




luusEcfEARS.sOAPiJ! 



4. — Full-page reproduction effective 
as mere display advertising. 



knew that it was an advertisement of Ivory Soap. Of 
the twenty- three persons who mentioned In-er-Seal, only 
sixteen knew that it referred to biscuits, while but nine 
knew that it was an advertisement of In-er-Seal goods. 
The advertisement in question is the familiar one of a boy 
in a raincoat putting packages of In-er-Seal in a cup- 
board. Of the twenty persons who mentioned Pears' 
Soap (No. 4), every one of them knew that it was an 
advertisement of Pears' Soap. Only five of the full-page 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 



299 



advertisements were mentioned by none of the fifty sub- 
jects. These five were of the New York Central Rail- 
road (No. 5), Egyptian Deities Cigarettes, Waltham 
Watches (No. 6), Equitable Life Assurance Society, 
and the Lyman D. Morse Advertising Agency. There 



I 

2 
3 



5=P0INTERS=5 



TThe New'YorV G^nfr.-il does not chim to be ih* only rail- 
toad in the world — "rhere jre others . ii is. however, 
the gre^t Four-trjck Trunk line of the United States. And. 
has earned the title given it by press and people on both 
'*5ides of ihe Atlantic, of "America's Greatest Railroad." 

" rt/ ^/rw K.r» Ctrnt-af «« i^A/r, all -rt^i, /^ /t,l trmfinti^e nCnTr/. 
J rom_»n Lditoriil m Hie.LOKT>ON TIMES. 

The New York Centr.il operates the fastest and most 

perten through train service in the world, reaching by its 

through cars the most impon.int commercial centres of 

the United Sutes and Can.ida. and the greatest of 

^.America's health and pleasure resorts. 



f tfrJ 'i"i!ilr-f\,niK ^rrtl-ti/>*f- ' 



5 



ttmaml -^ From an Ediiorul in th» NE* YORK. HERAU). 

The New York Central is the direA Line between the 
American metropolis and Ni.>g.?r.i F.ills. hy w.iu of Ihe 
historic Hudson River and through the beautiful Mohawk 
Valley. 

^ - ru-imut tfo^HAI ne*l T ri„r nil-unr^ vni ntt„c ikTM^aml, Vullrft 

d-t «r, «/ (../.•', W,r, „..l ,nf,^i,,. ..»f inin^t Ihal I SnW nlo-^g iht A'rK. 

eCfit'al ii'Oul.t have erkausu.i j/ /^.-cTv.-,"— tiiratl from scnaoo^oXJlevt 
. OcW.a Tmlmigc. on " Ihe f utesi Traio.in.lhc Worl^ 

'The New "York Central's metropolitan terminus is at 

Grand Central Station, Founh Avenue and Forty-second 

Street, in the very centre of the hotel, residence, and 

theatre seftion, this being the only Trunk Line whose 

- trains enter the City of New York. 



"The entire Main Line of theNew York Centr.ii, between 
New York and.BuflUIo and Niagara Falls, is proteifled by 
the most pet1fe<3Lsystem of block signals in the world." 



i 



No. 5. — Weak attention value in any size. 



were very many half-page, quarter-page, and small ad- 
vertisements which were mentioned and recognized by 
none of the fifty persons tested. 

The results indicated a very great difference between 
individual advertisements which filled the same space. 
Quality is more important than quantity. Certain styles 
of advertisements ( depending upon the goods advertised 



300 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

as well as on other things) are effective in any space, 
and others are comparatively worthless, even if filling a 
full page. An advertiser should certainly give more 
heed to the quality of his advertisement than to its size, 
yet the size is an important element. 

Nobody wants a poor watch. 
We all want a good one. The 
jimerican Waltbam Watch Company 
has made it possible for every- 
body to own a perfect watch at 
a moderate price. No one nee4 
go to Europe for %. watch 
nowadays. The best are made 
in Waltham, Mass., right here 
in America. The Company 
particularly recommends the 
movements engraved with the 
xx^A^-maixV:^' Riverside*^ or 
^^RoyaV* (made in various sizes), 
tvhich cost about one-third as' 
much as foreign movements of 
the same quality. All retail jew- 
elers have them or can get them; 
Do not be misled or persuaded 
into paying a larger price for. a 
Watch no better and probably not 
«o good as a iValtham^ 

No. 6. — An advertisement possessing 
but little attention value. 

In the case of these one hundred pages of typical ad- 
vertisements, the size of the advertisements affected their 
value materially. In the number of times the advertise- 
ment was mentioned from memory, in the number of 
times it was recognized when the magazine was looked 
at for the second time, and in the number of times that 
the advertisement conveyed definite information as to 



SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 301 

the general class of goods advertised, the specific name or 
brand of the goods, the name of the firm, the address 
of the firm, the price of the goods, and the argument pre- 
sented in favor of the goods — in all of these points (dis- 
regarding the exception mentioned above) the full-page 
advertisement was more than twice as effective as the 
half-page ; the half-page was more than twice as effective 
as the quarter-page ; the quarter-page was more effective 
than a quarter page of small advertisements. - In other 
words, at all points considered in the two investigations 
described above, the value of an advertisement increases 
as the size of the advertisement increases, and the "in- 
crease of value is greater than the increase in the amount 
of space filled. 



302 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



XXIII 
THE MOETALITY^ RATE OF ADVERTISERS 

In the preceding chapter it was shown that the larger 
advertisements attract the attention much more than the 
smaller ones. The larger ones also offer more opportu- 
nity for relevant text and appropriate illustrations. The 
larger advertisements are best for imparting the desired 
information and for making a lasting impression on the 
possible customers. Many business men, however, believe 
that the small advertisement is safer than the larger one 
and that the larger spaces are luxuries reserved for those 
who are able to incur losses without serious consequences. 

If the users of large spaces are reckless and the users 
of small spaces cautious and conservative, we should 
naturally suppose that the more conservative firms 
would be the ones which would stay in business longest 
and which might be looked for in each successive year 
in the advertising pages of certain magazines. There 
is a tradition that the users of advertising space are, as a 
whole, rather ephemeral, that they are in the magazines 
to-day, and to-morrow have ceased to exist. There are, 
on the other hand, persons with perfect faith in ad- 
vertising who believe that all a firm has to do is to 
advertise and its success is assured. 

This chapter presents the results of extensive investi- 
gations carried on to ascertain more definitely the 
stability of advertisers and to discover which sizes of 
advertisements seem to be the safest and most profitable. 

Data were secured from all firms located west of 



MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS 303 

Buffalo and advertising in the Ladies' Home Journal for 
a period of eight years. All firms were grouped together 
which had appeared in this magazine but one of these 
years, all which had appeared two of the years, all which 
had appeared three of the years, etc., up to and including 
all of the firms which had appeared the eight years under 
consideration. After a careful analysis had been m^de 
the following significant results were secured : 



Number of Years the Firms 


Average Number of Lines 


Continued to Advertise. 


Used 


Annually by Each Firm. 


1 year 




56 lines 


2 years 




116 lines 


3 years 




168 Hues 


4 years 




194 hnes 


6 years 




192 lines 


6 years 




262 lines 


7 years 




218 Unes 


8 years 




600 lines 



This would seem to indicate that in general if a firm 
uses fifty-six lines annually in the Ladies' Home Journal 
the results will be so unsatisfactory that it will not try 
it again. If it uses one hundred and sixteen lines 
annually it will be encouraged to attempt it the second 
year, but will then drop out. If, on the other hand, it 
uses six hundred lines annually the results will be so 
satisfactory that it will continue to use the same maga- 
ziiie indefinitely. (A very large number of the firms 
who continued in eight years continued in for a longer 
time. ) 

There were but 1,247 firms included in the data pre- 
sented above. Other data were secured from the entire 
number of firms advertising in the Ladies' Home Jour- 
nal, the Delineator^ Harper^s, and Scrihner^s for certain 
periods, but inasmuch as the data from all these merely 
confirm those presented above they are not added here. 



304 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Advertisers are in general wise business men and are 
usually able to tell whether their advertising pays or 
not. If it pays, they continue it ; if it does not pay, they 
cease to advertise. Every one can think of an occasional 
exception, but in general the statement is correct. That 
class of advertising which is the most successful is the 
class most likely to be continued. That class which is the 
least successful is the least likely to be continued. The 
survival of the fittest is as true in advertising as it is in 
organic nature. If large spaces are more valuable in 
proportion to their size than small spaces, we should 
expect to find the larger spaces surviving. If the smaller 
spaces are more valuable in proportion to their size we 
should expect to find the small spaces surviving. 

What has been the experience of advertisers — espe- 
cially of magazine advertisers — on this point? It is a 
debated question whether there is a growing tendency 
toward larger or smaller advertisements. In articles in 
magazines for business men the statement is often made 
that we are finding it unnecessary to use large spaces, 
but that small spaces well filled are the more profitable. 

To find out definitely what the tendency is in regard 
to the use of space, several investigations have been 
carried on. We shall, however, confine the discussion 
to the question as it manifests itself in the Century 
Magazine. We have chosen the Century because it is 
one of the best advertising mediums, because it has had 
one of the most consistent histories, and because all the 
files have been made available from the first issue of the 
magazine. We have conducted similar investigations, 
but in a less thorough manner, with several of the lead- 
ing advertising mediums in America. In each one of 
these investigations we have secured results similar to 
those presented below from the Century. The following 



MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS 305 

data, therefore, show a general tendency ; so the data and 
discussion are not to be interpreted as having any special 
reference to the Century Magazine. In preparing the 
tabulation, school announcements and announcements 
made by the publishers of the magazine were disre- 
garded. 

In the following table the first column indicates the 
year, the second column the total number of pages 
devoted to commercial advertising during that year in 
the Century Magazine, the third column the total num- 
ber of firms advertising in the magazine that year, the 
fourth the average number of lines used by each firm 
during the year, the fifth the average number of lines 
in each advertisement appearing in the magazine for 
that year, the sixth the average number of times each 
firm advertised in the Century for that year. 

Several things in this tabulation are worthy of careful 
consideration. The total number of pages devoted to 
advertising has been increasing very rapidly till now 
there are over one thousand pages devoted to advertising 
annually as compared with two hundred pages which 
was the approximate amount during the first ten years 
of the existence of the magazine. With the exception of 
the years of financial distress in the nineties almost 
every year has shown an increase over the preceding 
year. The growth has been so constant and has been 
sustained for so many years that it would seem to be 
nothing more than a normal growth. The increase is 
seen to be greatest in the years of prosperity, while dur- 
ing the years of depression there is usually a decrease. 

The second point to be considered in the tabulation is 
the number of firms which advertised in the magazine in 
the years from 1870 to 1907. It will be noticed that 
during the first ten years there were about two hundred 



306 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

firms advertising. From 1880 to 1890 the increase was 
extremely rapid. In 1880 there were but two hundred 
and ninety-three firms, while in 1890 there were nine 
hundred and ten firms advertising in the same magazine. 
From 1890 there has been a rapid falling off till in 1907 
there were but three hundred and sixty-four firms adver- 
tising in the magazine. During the year 1907 fewer 
firms were advertising in this magazine than for any 
year for a quarter of a century. Although the decrease 
has been but slight during the recent prosperous years, 
we can but wonder what will happen when a period of 
years comes which is less prosperous, such years, for 
instance, as those of the early nineties when the number 
of firms was so greatly reduced. 

The question naturally arises as to the possibility of 
nine hundred firms advertising successfully during a 
single year in the same magazine. Perhaps it is pos- 
sible, but it certainly has not been attained in 1890- 
1907; otherwise the firms would not have discontinued 
their contracts. Certain advertising managers have 
seen the difficulty of crowding so many advertisements 
into the two groups at the front and the end of the 
magazines and have sought to avoid the difficulty by 
scattering the advertisements through the reading mat- 
ter. In this way all advertisements are in some maga- 
zines placed "next to reading matter." The proof is not 
conclusive that this method of scattering the advertise- 
ments is of any great advantage. 

The point made clear by the fourth column of the 
table is that of the increase in the amount of space used 
annually by each advertiser. The fifth and sixth 
columns show that this increase is not due to the more 
frequent insertion of advertisements, but to the in- 
creased size of the individual advertisements. Until 



MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS 307 



Date. 


Total number of 
pages of com- 
mercial advertis- 
ing for each year 
in the Century 
Magazine. 


Total number of 
different firms ad- 
vertising during 
each year in the 
Century Maga- 
zine. 


Average number 
of lines used by 
each advertiser 
during the twelve 
months in the 
Century Maga- 
zine. 


Average number 
of lines in each 
advertisement 
appearing in the 
Century Maga- 
zine for the year 
indicated. 


Average nimiber 
of times each 
firm advertised 
during the year 
in the CerUury 
Magazine. 


1870 


33 


66 


112 






1871 


154 


186 


185 






1872 


183 


251 


163 


38 


4.22 


1873 


196 


300 


146 


32 


4.46 


1874 


189 


341 


124 


30 


4.68 


1875 


231 


318 


162 


31 


5.65 


1876 


162 


273 


132 


30 


4.41 


1877 


178 


230 


173 


38 


4.49 


1878 


202 


221 


205 


57 


3.56 


1879 


208 


224 


208 


63 


3.30 


1880 


244 


293 


186 


61 


3.04 


1881 


312 


299 


233 


66 


3.50 


1882 


355 


351 


226 


74 


3.53 


1883 


395 


463 


191 


59 


3.23 


1884 


427 


489 


195 


54 


3.60 


1885 


446 


662 


150 


43 


3.51 


1886 


634 


656 


214 


54 


3.91 


1887 


662 


• 731 


202 


51 


3.96 


1888 


873 


725 


269 


63 


4.24 


1889 


893 


779 


256 


60 


4.21 


1890 


1061 


910 


261 


50 


4.50 


1891 


1173 


900 


292 


60 


4.78 


1892 


1178 


840 


314 


61 


5.08 


1893 


1141 


770 


332 


64 


5.18 


1894 


919 


678 


304 


64 


4.84 


1895 


902 


638 


317 


61 


5.13 


1896 


831 


605 


308 


65 


4.72 


1897 


828 


539 


332 


68 


4.82 


1898 


782 


483 


363 


68 


4.68 


1899 


954 


473 


452 


77 


4.90 


1900 


946 


489 


433 


88 


4.90 


1901 


921 


437 


472 


98 


4.82 


1902 


988 


455 


486 


112 


4.34 


1903 


1135 


479 


531 


117 


4.54 


1904 


1064 


427 


558 


119 


4.69 


1905 


1198 


393 


683 


114 


5.09 


1906 


1174 


402 


654 


140 


4.67 


1907 


1056 


364 


650 


151 


4.30 


1908 


800 


296 


574 


131 


4.38 


1909 


888 


301 


661 


145 


4.56 


1910 


906 


287 


707 


159 


4.44 


1911 


790 


255 


694 


154 


4.50 


1912 


702 


221 


711 


157 


4.53 


1913 


652 


200 


730 


169 


4.32 


1914 


588 


208 


633 






1915 


570 


178 


964 






^1916 


655 


206 


713 






1917 


681 


212 


720 






1918 


549 


166 


740 






1919 


839 


253 


743 






1920 


1100 











308 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

1890 each firm used on the average approximately one 
page annually. About the year 1890 the real struggle 
for existence set in among advertisements, and that is 
the time to which we must look for the survival of the 
fittest. If the small advertisements had been the most 
profitable, then the users of small spaces would have 
survived and would have appeared in the following years. 
Such, however, is not the case. In that fierce struggle 
the small spaces proved to be incapable of competing 
with the larger spaces, and we find in the succeeding 
years that the users of small spaces grew gradually 
less. This is shown by the fact that although the num- 
ber of advertisers has decreased, the amount of space 
used has increased. This process is still continuing. 
The year 1907 was almost identical with the year 1890 
as to the total advertising space, but showed a decrease 
of sixty per cent, in the number of firms advertising, 
while the average amount of space used by each adver- 
tiser has increased one hundred and fifty per cent. This 
pronounced increase in space and decrease in the num- 
ber of advertisers is perhaps the most astounding fact 
observed in the development of advertising in America. 
It is not to be assumed that the size of a poor adver- 
tisement will keep it from failure any more than the 
age of a consumptive will be of supreme moment in 
determining his probable length of life. Neither is it 
to be assumed that all classes of merchandise can use 
full pages with profit and that no classes of business 
can be more successful when using small spaces than 
when using larger ones. The point which should be 
emphasized is that the size of an advertisement is one 
of the vital elements and that every advertising agent 
or manager should be an advertising expert and should 
be able to give advice as to the size of an advertisement 



MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS 309 

which would be the most profitable to present any par- 
ticular firm with any particular text and illustration. 

The advertising agents and managers should not only 
be experts, able to give such advice, but they should 
have such confidence in their own judgments that they 
would refuse to handle the business of any firm which 
insisted on using spaces which court failure. Every 
failure is an injury to the advertising medium, and the 
results of a failure should be looked upon as such a 
serious matter that periodicals which proved unprofit- 
able in a large proportion of cases would be avoided. 
Physicians are regarded as experts along a certain line, 
and if patients refuse to follow their advice they not in- 
frequently refuse to treat them further. The lawyer is 
an expert along another line and he assumes his client 
will take his advice, and is ordinarily correct in his as- 
sumption. There is no good reason why the advertising 
manager or agent should not be looked upon in the same 
way. If he is sincere in his judgments, and if he has 
taken account of the advertising experience of the many 
and not of the few, he should be able to assist the pro- 
spective advertiser in avoiding the pitfalls which have 
been the destruction of a very large proportion of all 
firms that have attempted to advertise. 

Advertising can no longer be said to be in its infancy. 
It has now reached mature years, and it is high time that 
the professional advertising men should awake to their 
responsibility and display the same wisdom that is dis- 
played by the physician and the lawyer. A physician 
prides himself not only in the number of his patients, 
but also in the low death-rate of his patients. I believe 
that the day is soon coming, and indeed is now here, 
when the advertising managers of our periodicals will 
pride themselves in the low mortality-rate of their adver- 



310 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

tisers rather than in the total number of advertising 
pages appearing monthly. , In the end the magazine 
which has the lowest mortality-rate will of course be the 
most profitable both to the buyer and to the seller of 
space. Because of the psychological effect produced by 
the larger spaces, and because of the comparative values 
of large and of small spaces as given above, it is evident 
that one of the duties of the advertising manager and 
agent is to insist on the use of adequate space and to be 
able to advise what is adequate space in any particular 
case. 



NEXT TO READING MATTER 311 



XXIV 

THE VALUE OF ADVERTISING SPACE 
NEXT TO READING MATTER 

One of the most perplexing and widely discussed 
problems in magazine advertising to-day is this : Is ad- 
vertising space segregated at the two ends of the maga- 
zine more valuable or less valuable than space next to 
reading matter? Among my friends who are advertisers 
or who are in advertising agencies there was neither 
a consensus of opinion nor sufficient data for reaching 
a satisfactory conclusion. For the purpose of securing 
more data, the following letter was sent to the leading 
advertisers and agencies using space in American maga- 
zines : 

Northwestern University, August 23. 

Dear Sir, — Certain influential manufacturers with national 
distribution are convinced that an advertisement placed next 
to reading matter (such as an interesting story) is placed in 
a preferred position. 

Other manufacturers prefer to have their advertisement 
located in the section of the publication set aside for advertise- 
ments. Their conviction is based on the theory that good read- 
ing matter and good advertising matter on the same page 
conflict. 

Both parties to the dispute seem to base their faith upon 
opinion rather than upon fact. The question is one of such 
great importance to the science of advertising that I feel justi- 
fied in asking for your co-operation in an attempt to secure the 
truth. 

1. Do you know of any evidence (facts and not opinions) that 
advertising next to reading matter is of greater value to the 
advertiser than advertising space massed at the two ends of 
the magazine? 



312 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

2. Have you any facts to show the contrary to be true? Or 

3. Have you data to prove that the matter of location in no 
way affects the power of the advertisement to influence the 
reader? 

If you have such evidence, and would entrust me with it, I 
assure you that it will be used in a manner entirely satisfac- 
tory to you. 

A letter similar to this is being sent to some of the leading 
advertisers in America. If you so desire I will report to you 
an analysis of the answers, so far as is consistent with the 
confidential nature of the replies. 

For your convenience a self-directed envelope is enclosed 
for reply. 

Walter Dill Scott. 

Eeplies were received from five hundred and eighty 
advertisers and from one hundred and ninety-six 
agencies. In some instances several members of the firm 
sent separate answers. Each of these is listed as an in- 
dependent reply. 

Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers, thirty -four, 
or almost six per cent., present facts to prove that ad- 
vertising space in the segregated advertising sections is 
of more value than space next to reading matter. 

Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers, sixty, or 
almost ten per cent., present facts to prove that space 
next to reading matter is more valuable than space in the 
segregated advertising sections. 

Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers, fifty-four, 
or a little less than ten per cent., present no facts, but 
express the opinion that space in the segregated adver- 
tising sections is more valuable than space next to read- 
ing matter. 

Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers, one hun- 
dred and thirty-one, or a little over twenty-two per cent., 
present no facts, but express the opinion that space next 



NEXT TO READING MATTER 313 

to reading matter is superior to that in segregated adver- 
tising sections. 

Of the five hundred and eighty firms, three hundred 
and one, or almost fifty-two per cent., assert that there is 
no difference in the value of space in the two classes of 
magazines ; that they are undecided in their opinion, or 
fail to include in their reply any facts or expression of 
opinion bearing on the topic. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-six advertising agency 
respondents, twelve, or a little over six per cent., present 
facts to prove that space in the segregated advertising 
sections is more valuable than space next to reading 
matter. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-six advertising agency 
respondents, twenty-seven, or a little less than fourteen 
per cent., present facts to prove that space next to read- 
ing matter is more valuable than space in the segregated 
advertising sections. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents, 
nine, or a little less than five per cent., present no facts, 
but express the opinion that space in the segregated ad- 
vertising sections is of more value than space next to 
reading matter. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents, 
fifty-four, or twenty-eight per cent., present no facts, but 
express the opinion that space next to reading matter is 
more valuable than space in segregated advertising 
sections. 

Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents, 
ninety-nine, or almost fifty-one per cent., present no 
facts, but express the opinion that there is no difference 
in value between space in segregated sections and that 
next to reading matter; that their evidence is not con- 
clusive; or they present neither facts nor opinions. 



Facts 

for 

standards. 


Facts 

for 
flats. 


Opinions 

for 
standards. 


Opinions 

for 

flats. 


Advertisers. .34 (6%) 

Agencies 12 (6%) 

Total 46 

Total per cent. 6% 


60 (10%) 
27 (14%) 
87 

11% 


54 (10%) 
9 ( 5%) 
63 

8% 


131 (22%) 
54 (28%) 
185 

24% 



314 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents, 
five present data from one group of clients indicating 
the superiority of segregated space, and from another 
group of clients indicating the superiority of space next 
to reading matter. These five firms are, of course, 
included in both the six per cent, and the fourteen per 
cent, as presented above. 



Undecided. Total. 

301 (52%) 580 

99 (51%) 201 

400 781 

52% 

The one hundred and ninetif-six advertisers are here tabulated as two hun- 
dred and one, as five presented data on toth sides of the debate. 

Extracts are presented herewith from typical examples 
of the thirty-four letters from advertisers who present 
facts to prove the superiority of space in segregated ad- 
vertising sections. 

Taking the magazines on our list in which it is customary 
to put the advertising matter next to reading matter, such as 
Leslie's, Literary Digest, and McClure's, and comparing the re- 
turns from these magazines with the ones in which the adver- 
tising pages are grouped in the back and front of the magazine, 
such as the World's Work, System, Review of Reviews, Cosmo- 
politan, Outlook, etc., I find that each sale from the magazines 
in which advertising appeared next to reading matter cost us 
9.7 per cent, more than in the other group. Also, that the cost 
per inquiry increased 57.4 per cent, in the next-to-reading maga- 
zines. I further find that the average number of inquiries re- 
ceived from magazines which group the advertising increased 
41.1 per cent, over the average number of inquiries received 
from magazines in which the advertising appears next to read- 
ing matter. 

In the magazines which figured in the above statistics we 
used the same series of advertisements, each advertisement ap- 
pearing once in each of the magazines, but not necessarily in 
the same month. The whole series was run in each of the 
mediums, though. (Insurance.) 



NEXT TO READING MATTER 315 

In the standard magazines which carry a large advertising 
section, such as Everybody's and System, we have found that 
our advertisements when massed with the advertisements of 
the business world in a definite advertising section, that is, not 
cut up with reading matter, have proved to be more effective 
and more powerful to get results. We have reason to believe 
that in the standard magazine size publications of this nature, 
the policy of massing the advertisements in a bunch is much 
better for both the reader and the advertiser. (Typewriters.) 

The only evidence on which we can base our opinion is that 
of the number of inquiries which we receive from advertise- 
ments. In the Post, for instance, in which our advertisement 
was placed next to reading matter, the inquiry cost was $7.50, 
and in the Literary Digest, in which the advertisement was 
placed next to reading matter, the cost was $3.50. In the 
Cosmopolitan the cost per inquiry was $3.41. In this magazine, 
as you know, the advertisements are all together. You will 
probably be interested in the attached summary covering our 
advertising for the fiscal year beginning July, 1914, and ending 
June, 1915. 

Cost Per 
Inquiry. 

Saturday Evening Post $7.40 

Literary Digest 3.50 

Harper's 5.87 

National Geographic 4.17 

Cosmopolitan 3.41 

Everybody's 6.23 

Century 6.59 

Scrihner's 7.69 

Review of Reviews 4.35 

Current Opinion 3.26 

Outlook 6.09 

World's Work 3.05 

Good Housekeeping 3.81 

C. L. in America 3.78 

House Beautiful 2.05 

Munsey's 6.50 

(Lighting Systems.) 



316 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The following extracts are from the sixty letters of 
advertisers presenting facts indicating the superiority 
of advertising space next to reading matter : 

Referring to your circular letter of the 23d, in answer to your 
question number one: We consider an advertisement placed 
next to reading matter has at least fifty per cent, more value 
than a similar advertisement buried in the midst of a heavy 
advertising section. , 

Second: Our records are in such shape that we cannot very 
well give you the data concerning this, but we have found in- 
variably that the replies from any given advertisement are 
much greater when situated as above than when buried in the 
advertising section. (Fountain Pen.) 

In 1914 we made up our list on an entirely different basis 
than in previous years. We used twenty-nine publications and 
we made effort to secure positions next to reading matter. Pub- 
lications such as the Cosmopolitan and Everybody's we had 
used for years, but we dropped them from our list on the theory 
that very few readers would take the trouble to wade through 
one hundred or more solid pages of advertising. 

We give preference to publications that run reading matter 
and advertising matter on the same page, although we used 
McClure's where the advertising was opposite reading matter. 
With a few exceptions, among them Harper's and World's 
Work, we stuck to our specifications. 

Eesults: We received many times the largest volume of in- 
quiries we had received in any one previous year and they came 
in over a longer period. Our direct sales to consumers in towns 
where we had no dealer distribution showed four thousand 
per cent, increase. (Underwear.) 

Our records of mail orders received show that the magazines 
running their advertisements next to reading matter produced 
mail orders at half the cost of the standard magazines. This 
was not only so in one case, but out of the three or four maga- 
zines we used running ads next to reading it held out in every 
case against about five different standard magazines we used. 

(Household Chemical.) 



NEXT TO READING MATTER 317 

The following extracts are from the fifty-four letters 
of advertisers expressing the opinion that space in the 
segregated advertising sections of magazines is superior 
to the space next to reading matter : 

Personally, I lean to the idea that advertising should all be 
placed in one section of the magazine, as when a man is reading 
a s'tory, he is not interested in advertising. I myself pick up 
a magazine and look over the advertisements with as much 
interest as I take in the reading matter, but I do not like it all 
mixed in together. (Furniture.) 

From my own personal standpoint, would state in my opinion, 
advertising is more effective when placed in the proper part of 
a paper or magazine, and not next to reading matter, for people 
who are reading are not looking for advertising matter, and 
persons looking for ads are not looking for reading matter. 

(Hardware.) 

Personally I have lost faith in advertising next to reading 
matter to quite an extent, especially where the advertisements 
appear alongside of the stories continued from forward part 
of magazine, for the reason that one is most generally too inter- 
ested in the story to stop to look or even notice the ads. 

(Automobile.) 

The following extracts are from the one hundred and 
thirty-one letters of advertisers expressing the opinion 
that space next to reading matter is more valuable than 
space in segregated advertising sections : 

My opinion is that advertising is always very much more ef- 
fective Avhen placed next to reading matter, and that its effi- 
ciency is very much decreased by its being in the middle of an 
advertising section of many pages. (Steel.) 

Sorry to have to advise you that I have no definite evidence 
to submit in this connection although I have a very definite 
opinion to the effect that an advertisement is much more valu- 
able when next to reading matter than when buried in the back 
pages in a magazine. (Trunks.) 



318 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The following extracts are from the three hundred 
and one letters of advertisers who present neither facts 
nor decided opinions : 

It has been our policy in the class of publications such as 
Country Life, House Beautiful, etc., to place our copy in the 
advertising section, inasmuch as it is our belief that the read- 
ers of this class of publications quite frequently gather their 
information from the advertising pages. 

On the other hand, in tlie popular women's publications, like 
the Ladies' Home Journal and Woman's Home Companion, we 
prefer space alongside of the reading matter. Perhaps this is 
due to the diversity of advertising matter in such popular pub- 
lications, and because a large number of readers are not inter- 
ested in one 'particular line, as are the readers of such publica- 
tions as Country Life. This practice of ours is based entirely 
upon our o^vn impressions and advertising counsel, and not 
upon data. (Chinaware.) 

To your circular letter dated August 23d, we do not know of 
any evidence that advertising next to reading matter is of 
greater value to the advertiser than the advertising space 
massed at the two ends of the magazine. Nor have we any 
facts to show the contrary to be true. 

It is our opinion that the matter of location does not affect 
the power of the advertisement to influence the reader. It is 
all in the ad and the medium. (Underwear.) 

The following are extracts from the twelve letters 
from agencies possessing facts indicating that space in 
the segregated advertising sections of magazines is more 
valuable than space next to reading matter : 

From our experience, particularly with keyed mail-order 
copy, we would say that advertising space massed at the two 
ends of a magazine is of greater value to the advertiser than 
advertising distributed through the reading pages. 

The publications which use the former arrangement gener- 
ally pay better for us. This may be due, however, to the intrin- 
sic value of the mediums rather than to the position of the 
advertising. 



NEXT TO READING MATTER 319 

It seems to us that the points you mention in your letter of 
August 23d could best be cleared up by taking the experience 
of manufacturers who expect direct results from their adver- 
tising, such as mail-order houses. 

It has been our experience in handling a number of such ac- 
counts that the question of position is one of the most impor- 
tant factors. 

The one magazine which has proved our biggest puller on a 
number of propositions happens to be standard size. 

In a textile account which received about one hundred thou- 
sand replies per year on an advertising expenditure of fifteen 
or twenty thousand dollars, a standard magazine — with adver- 
tising at the front and back of the book and not next to reading 
matter — brought returns direct at a lower cost than any of the 
next-to-reading-matter magazines. All the magazines were cut 
off that did not bring replies at less than 20c. each. The goods 
were intended for women. The various women's publications 
brought returns at from 14c. to 18c. each. The standard size 
women's publications brought returns at about 13c. 

Looking over records of returns covering several years, a 
sporting-goods account has always had its lowest-cost returns 
from a standard-shape publication. 

For several years a toilet-goods manufacturer has gotten his 
lowest returns from general magazines, from two magazines 
of standard size. The next-to-reading-matter magazines have 
not been able to overtake these two publications in the pro rata 
low cost of direct replies. 

A manufacturer of supplies used by business houses to handle 
the details of their business got his lowest cost of replies from 
a standard-size magazine with the advertising not running next 
nor opposite reading matter. The second and third magazines 
were standard-size magazines in the low cost of direct replies. 

The manufacturer of a household article classed as furniture 
also got his lowest replies from a standard-size magazine. 

The following extracts are from the twenty-seven 
letters from agencies presenting facts to prove that space 
next to reading matter is superior to space in the segre- 
gated advertising sections : 



320 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

In a number of our advertising campaigns where the results 
are carefully tabulated I have found repeatedly that the maga- 
zines, when placed in the order of their showing in results, 
give strong evidence in favor of those which place advertise- 
ments next to reading matter. The magazines in the front of 
the list are nearly all of this character, whereas those that 
bulk the advertising in the back of the book without reading 
matter almost always fall to the bottom of the list. 

On several mail order lists we have in this office, we have 
found, over a number of years' test, that most all of the publi- 
cations that do the best are those which carry advertising next 
to reading matter. 

The evidence we have to offer that advertising next to reading 
is of greater value than if massed in the front or back of the 
magazine, is that our mail-order advertising accounts actually 
produce a lower cost of inquiry and of sale in publications 
where position is given next to reading; this where rate for 
quantity of circulation is proportionately the same. A canvass 
of lists used for three or four years back shows that on mail- 
order accounts approximately ninety per cent, of the papers 
were those where advertising was given position alongside read- 
ing and ten per cent, where advertising was bulked in the front 
or back of the magazine. 

The following extracts are from the nine letters from 
agencies expressing the opinion that space in the segre- 
gated advertising sections is superior to space next to 
reading matter : 

Our belief is that people have becpme accustomed to reading 
advertisements from force of habit, and not by accident. And 
an advertisement placed alongside of reading matter that might 
attract attention would either detract from the article being 
written, or might be forgotten after the story is finished, and 
the reader would not take the trouble to go back and locate 
the advertisement. 

When a reader opens a magazine and starts reading the ad- 
vertising section, his mind is in a receptive mood for the oppor- 
tunities offered, and the advertisement, we believe, is much more 
effective as a result of this. 



NEXT TO READING MATTER 321 

I have your interesting letter of August 23d, and regret to 
say I can throw no definite information on the point you raise, 
as I have never been able to check up the pulling quality of 
advertising next to reading matter. My opinion, and it is only 
an opinion, is that it does not matter where the advertisement 
is. Personally, I would rather have it away from reading mat- 
ter, if it is so set up, or in such a position as to attract the 
attention of the reader. 

I am further of the opinion that when the mind is engaged 
in following the thought conveyed by the type pages, the force 
of the advertising appeal is weakened when it is next to reading 
matter, for the mind is diverted from the idea of the letterpress 
to the foreign idea of the advertisement. 

The segregation of advertisements, as in the magazines, has 
become a tradition. People know where to find the printed ap- 
peal to buy, Buy, Buy; and prepare an elastic mind ready to 
absorb. Folks examine an advertising section of a magazine 
as they would look for the title-page of a book or the index 
thereof. 

The following extracts are from the fifty-four letters 
from agencies expressing the opinion that space next to 
reading matter is more valuable than space in the segre- 
gated advertising sections. 

Everything after all comes back to a matter of opinion. I 
have worked with advertisers for twenty years, and I have 
found that, without exception, all advertisers have a predilec- 
tion for position next to reading and for other preferred posi- 
tions such as back cover, first page facing reading, or top of 
column next reading in newspapers. Whether this is a tradi- 
tion handed down, or whether it is a hunch based upon some 
actual scientific facts, I do not know. 

My own personal opinion is that an advertisement next to 
reading is enhanced, not so much by the interest of the reader 
in the reading matter, but by the display given to contrast be- 
tween the advertisement and the uniform gray of straight 
matter. 

It is easy enough to hazard the opinion which is almost axio- 
matic in the advertising business— that positions next to read- 



322 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISINO 

ing matter are more valuable than other positions, and my in- 
stinctive feeling is that in the majority of cases this is true. 

In reply to your recent letter addressed to a member of our 
staff on the question, whether advertisements placed in maga- 
zines next to reading matter enjoy preferred position, that is, 
are more valuable to advertisers viewed from the point of re- 
sults, we wish on the strength of experience of years, to answer 
affirmatively. Such positions are undoubtedly preferable to 
those of ads massed at the two ends of a magazine. 

We ourselves have not collected data on this subject, but 
from cases where we had occasion to learn of advertisers' ex- 
perience, we have found that ads with preferred position have 
always brought not only better results, but were of immediate 
action. 

Logically this stands to reason, for magazines are not bought 
primarily for the advertising they contain, but for the reading 
matter they contain. The reader's first attention goes to the 
articles, essays and stories, and then if he is not tired out, he 
begins to look to the ads. If, hoAvever, an ad is next to reading 
matter, it attracts the reader's attention at once. It actually 
forces itself upon the reader. 

The following extracts are from the ninety-nine letters 
from advertisers who present neither facts nor opinions 
as evidence for either side of the controversy. 

I have no evidence that advertising next to reading matter is 
of greater value to the advertiser than advertising space massed 
at the two ends of the magazines. The tendency of standard 
magazines to alter their forms so as to place more advertise- 
ments next to reading, seems to point to the fact that it is 
easier to sell space next to reading matter than it is among 
solid advertising. 

We have no facts to present with regard to the general prob- 
lem because any conclusions we have reached in this regard 
have proven themselves to be fallacious in some way. 

A study of these seven hundred and seventy-six replies 
leaves one with certain very definite convictions : 

First : For certain classes of goods and under certain 



NEXT TO READING MATTER . 323 

conditions there is a clear difference in the value of space 
in segregated advertising sections and space next to 
reading matter. For schools, books, railroads, resorts, 
and investments, space in segregated sections is more 
valuable than space next to reading matter. Space next 
to reading matter is more valuable than space in the 
segregated advertising sections for advertisements of 
silk if the advertisement, is placed next to an article on 
dresses or internal household decorations ; for advertise- 
ments of seeds if placed next to an article on gardening ; 
for advertisements of almost any class of goods if placed 
next to an article dealing with the use of the goods 
advertised. 

Second: Space in some standard magazines is more 
valuable than space in certain flat magazines for almost 
any class of goods ; but space in some flat magazines is 
more valuable than space in certain standard magazines 
for almost any class of advertising. 

Third: The conflicting evidence in the data and in 
the opinions presented by the experts, and the absence 
of conviction on the part of so many of them, make it 
evident that segregated vs. next to reading matter is not 
the controlling factor in value of advertising space. The 
quantity and quality of the circulation, the responsive- 
ness developed in the readers, and other contributing 
factors, must be considered in each instance before any 
definite conclusion can be reached as to the value of 
advertising space in any particular magazine. 



324 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



XXV 

PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPEEIMENT 

The introduction of the experimental method is a 
modern innovation in the case of all the sciences. Occa- 
sional experiments had been made in each of the sci- 
ences before experimental laboratories were established, 
but with the founding of laboratories for experimental 
purposes, physics, chemistry, geology, physiology, and 
botany became established on a new and firmer basis. 

Occasional and haphazard experiments had been made 
in psychology ever since the days of Aristotle, but. no 
systematic attempt had been made to apply experi- 
mental methods to psychology till 1880. At this date 
Professor Wundt, of Leipzig, established the first psy- 
chological laboratory. Since that date similar labora- 
tories have been established in all the leading universi- 
ties of the world. 

To avoid error as to the conception of the function of 
a psychological laboratory, it should be held firmly in 
mind that psychological laboratories have nothing to do 
with telepathy, spiritism, clairvoyance, animal magnet- 
ism, mesmerism, fortune-telling, crystal-gazing, palm- 
istry, astrology, witchcraft, or with any other of the 
relics of the cults of medieval superstition. It is true' 
that the question of occult thought transference in its 
various forms has been put to the test in a few of the 
laboratories, but as none of these superstitions have been 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT 325 

able to stand the test they have been discarded as worth- 
less hypotheses. Quite extensive and elaborate tests have 
been made with telepathy, but as the results secured 
were so meager, it is safe to say that there is not a direc- 
tor of any psychological laboratory in Germany or 
America ( most of the laboratories are in these two coun- 
tries) who has any faith in it. 

In frequent association with the cults mentioned above 
are certain other phenomena which have proven them- 
selves to be worthy of consideration and which do occupy 
a place in a laboratory. Among such phenomena are 
hypnotism and what might be classed as prodigies or 
^'freaks." To-day no one doubts the existence of hypno- 
tism, but it is understood as something so different from 
what it was formerly supposed to be that it is robbed 
of its mysterious and uncanny connections. A mathe- 
matical prodigy is not regarded as an individual who 
holds relationship with an evil spirit, but as a person 
abnormally developed in a particular direction. Hypno- 
tism and prodigies play such a subordinate part in the 
workings of a laboratory that it would not be worth 
while to mention them at all if it were not for the fact 
that they are so frequently associated with the theories 
which were mentioned above and which can show no 
good reason for their existence. 

Psychological experiments are most frequently carried 
on in laboratories especially constructed for this pur- 
pose. The laboratory for some experiments may be 
merely a convenient place for meeting and a place free 
from undesirable disturbances, or it may be rooms fitted 
up with the most elaborate sort of instruments needed. 
In experiments in which the element of time enters, in- 
struments are employed which record one one-thou- 
sandth of a second with the greatest accuracy. 



326 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The nature of the experiment determines the kind 
of apparatus needed, the number of persons who should 
take part, the method to be pursued, and the place to be 
chosen. Great ingenuity has been shown in construct- 
ing apparatus, devising methods, and controlling the 
conditions of experiments. The experiment may be 
simple and call for almost no equipment, or it may be 
intricate and call for years of investigation and an enor- 
mous expenditure of money to create the necessary con- 
ditions for its successful investigation. 

In general a psychological experiment is a psychologi- 
cal observation made under "standard conditions." 
Standard conditions are those which may be repeated 
and that are of such a nature that the various conditions 
are under the control of the experimenter. This makes 
it possible for one investigator to perform an experiment 
and to have his work verified by others or to show 
wherein the first experimenter has erred. Standard 
conditions are ordinarily of such a nature that they may 
be varied, that non-essential and confusing conditions 
may be eliminated, the various causes investigated one 
by one, and the real causes given and the object of the 
experiment explained. 

The nature of a psychological experiment (the kinds 
of problems that may be attacked, the method of investi- 
gation, the kind of results secured, and the treatment 
of the result) can be understood better by giving a con- 
crete example than by any complete description. The 
following example is given because it is one that is of 
special significance to the readers of these pages and 
because it is so simple that it can be fully described in 
few words. 

The general passenger agent of one of the leading rail- 
road systems was constructing a new time-table for the 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT 



327 



entire system. A dispute arose as to which of two faces 
of the same kinds of type could be the more easily read. 






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The body of the type was the same in both cases, but 

the face of the one was heavier than that of the other. 

The light-face type did not crowd the figures so closely 



328 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISI:N^G 



together and there was more white space around each 
figure and letter. It was argued by the advocates of this 



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style of type that the white space made the type stand 
out plainer and that it could be read more easily. The 
advocates of the heavy-face type argued that that style 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT 329 

of type looked larger, that it used more ink, and that the 
figures could therefore be more easily read. It was im^ 
possible to decide which was the more legible without 
putting them to an authoritative test. For this purpose 
specimens of both styles were sent to the psychological 
laboratory of the Northwestern University, with the 
request that each style be tested as to its relative 
legibility. 

The method adopted was to have pages taken from the 
time-table set up in both styles of type. A number of 
persons were then requested to read the pages as fast as 
possible. The manner of reading was the same as that 
ordinarily employed by the traveling public with the ex- 
ception that the reading was done aloud and that the 
entire page was read instead of a part of it. I con- 
ducted all experiments, was provided with duplicate 
sheets, recorded all errors, and took the exact time of 
reading with a stop watch. 

Two full pages were taken from the time-table and 
each page was set up in both styles of type, thus making 
four sheets, of which two were set up with small-face 
type and two with large. Each sheet was marked with a 
letter, and the four sheets are indicated as Exhibit C, 
Exhibit D, Exhibit E, and Exhibit F, respectively. 

Exhibits C and F have small-face type, as shown in 
Table I. Exhibits D and E have large-face type, as 
shown in Table II. The first four subjects are indicated 
by initial letters of their names, viz., R. C, N. Z., J. S., 
and D. W. The order in which the pages were read, the 
time required, and the number of errors made are indi- 
cated by the following table : 



330 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 





C. 


D. 


E. 


F. 


- 


19' 26" (6 errors) 










15' 48" (1 error) 






R. C. «} 




15' 53" (2 errors) 










17' 11" (0 errors) 


r 




22' 28" (19 errors) 




21' 36" (17 errors) 


!!!!!'!"'!!!!!!: 




N. Z. } 


:;:::::::::":::: :;:;:;::;;;:::::; 




21' 11" (27 errors) 








18' 5" (13 errors) 


. 






15' 3" (59 errors) 








16' 11" (21 errors) 


J. S. \ 




15' 30" (28 errors) 






15' 3j" (27 errors) 






r 




22' 56'' (13 errors) 










20' 3" (17 errors) 


D. W. \ 


20' 10'' (9 errors) 


1 


[ 


18' 39" (7 errors) 
















Total time for four persons to read small face type .... 
Total time for four persons to read large lace type .... 
Excess of time required for four persons to read small face type 
Per cent, of time lost by four persons in reading small face type 
Total errors made by four persons reading small face type 
Total errors made by four persons reading large face type 
Excess of errors made by four persons in reading small face type 
Per cent, of excess of errors in reading small face type . . . . 



150' 12" 

145' 22" 

4' 40" 

162 
104 

55l 



The four persons who took part in the experiment as 
described above hardly knew what was expected of them 
and had had no experience in such work. ( Special men- 
tion will be made of R. C. below. ) 

Two additional persons were tested and each read over 
the list of stations and tried reading parts of the pages 
before beginning the experiment. After this prelimi- 
nary drill they read the sheets as described above, but 
read only the first half of each sheet. 

The order in which the sheets were read, the time 
required, and the number of errors made are indicated 
in the following table. The persons are indicated by 
C. W. and E. S. respectively: 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT 



331 





c. 


D. 


E. 


F. 


,. w f 








9' 58" (12 errors) 


;;;;;;;; i ::::::: 


8' 52" (4 errors) 


c. w. -> 




8' 34" (2 errors) 












E.S. ] 






6' 29" (7 errors) 








6' 42" (7 errors) 


5' 57" (6 errors) 








5 39" (6 errors) 















Total time for two persons to read the small face type 31' 28" 

Total time for two persons to read the large face type . ..... 29' 34" 



Excess of time required to read the small face type 

Per cent, of time lost by using small face type 6^ 

Total number of errors made by two persons in reading small face type 35 

Total number of errors made by two persons in reading large face type 19 

Excess of errors made by two persons in reading small face type ... 16 

Per cent, of increase of errors by use of small face type 84 



54" 



Of the first four subjects R, C. is an employee in the 
general passenger department of the railroad for which 
the folder was being investigated. He was familiar with 
the names of the stations and was accustomed to reading 
this particular time-table. The first page which he read 
was one with the small type. The other subject who 
began with the small type was my brother (J. S.). He 
knew what the experiment was and was determined to 
read the page in less time than any of the others. He 
made very many mistakes, but read the first half of the 
first sheet (F) in six minutes and fifty-two seconds. 
None of the other four subjects even approximated such 
a speed or made so many mistakes — thij^ty-three. He 
found that he could not maintain such a speed through- 
out the experiment. The two of the four subjects who 
began with the large-face type, namely, ^. Z. and D. W., 
were entirely unfamiliar with the time-table and lost 
time in getting well under way. Under these circum- 
stances it seems fair to regard the first page, which each 
of the first four read, as merely practice sheets and to 
eliminate them in the final results. 

Eliminating the first sheet which each of the four first 



332 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

subjects read, and uniting the results for all the six 
subjects, we get the following : 

Total time for six persons to read small face type 147' ii* 

Total time for six persons to read large face type 129*42" 

Excess of time required to read small face type 17' 29" 

Per cent, of time lost by using small face type 13^ 

Total errors for six persons reading small face type 132 

Total errors for six persons reading large face type 91 

Excess of errors for small face type 41 

Percent, of increase of errors by use of small face type ... 45 



These figures make it clear that the large-face type is 
easier to read and is not so subject to error as the small- 
face type. 

It should be added that two of the six persons com- 
plained that the small type was hard on their eyes, and 
three thought that tlie small-face type was much harder 
to read than the large-face type. 

The test with R. C. was made in the office of the presi- 
dent of the railroad concerned, and twice during the 
experiments R. C. was interrupted by persons calling at 
the door. The duplicate copy used with him was not 
accurate, and so the number of errors which he made in 
reading was not secured with certainty. With the other 
five persons tested no such interruptions occurred, and 
the number of errors made could be accurately recorded. 
These five were tested in quiet rooms, free from all dis- 
tractions. 

E. S. was able to read so rapidly that it was very diffi- 
cult to record his errors. Possibly he made more errors 
than the figures show. 

The figures given above are the results secured during 
the last ten days. Some weeks before sheets had been 
secured, printed in both styles of type — a page of one 
time-table set up in one style of type and a different page 
set up in the other style. The total number of trains 
in the two pages were almost identical, and the names 



PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT . 333 

of the stations were apparently equally difficult to pro- 
nounce. So far as I could judge, the results secured 
with these pages were trustworthy, but to remove any 
possibility of doubt I had the pages prepared as described 
in the experiment above. The results secured in the two 
cases are in general the same. The experiment as de- 
scribed is therefore a verification of the first experiment. 
We thus have the results secured from twelve subjects in- 
stead of from six. The total result secured from th.e 
first six persons showed that the heavy type could be 
read 12f per cent, faster than the lighter-face type. 
The increase secured with the last six subjects was 13i 
per cent. These results are more uniform than might 
have been expected. Two of the twelve subjects read the 
small-face type faster than the large-face. As great a 
number of abnormal results as two out of twelve may 
ordinarily be expected. To overcome such errors a large 
number of persons should take part in the experiment 
and then in the general average single exceptions are 
less disturbing. 

The marked contrast in the results secured from the 
two kinds of faces of the same size type is found in the 
number of errors which the readers made, the difference 
being forty-five per cent, or more. The errors were ordi- 
narily in misreading tlie time. Frequently the time was 
connected with the wrong station. One person, for 
example, read that the train leaves Cream Ridge at 7.52, 
when in fact the train leaves there at 7.25 and leaves 
Chillicothe at 7.52. . An error of that kind would cause 
the would-be passenger to miss his train. Mistaken 
pronunciation and similar minor mistakes were not 
recorded as errors. 

When it is taken into consideration that time-tables 
are used as sources of information as to the times of 



334 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

trains, and when it is discovered that the lighter-face 
type increases the chance of errors forty-five per cent, 
and increases the time necessary to read any part of the 
time-table thirteen per cent., it then becomes evident 
that such minor differences as that of the two faces here 
given are details which should be carefully considered. 
Those who construct time-tables try to get them up in 
such form that it will be easy and pleasant for the public 
to read them. The smaller-face type is harder to read, 
as is shown by the two facts of increase of time and 
increase of number of errors in reading it. The smaller- 
face type is also less pleasant reading than the heavier- 
face, as is shown by the fact that several of the persons 
complained that the small-face type was hard on their 
eyes. Time-tables are often read at night and by poor 
light. This fact makes it essential that the type should 
be of such a nature that it does not unnecessarily strain 
the eyes. 

The results of this experiment are not of more impor- 
tance to the advertising manager of a railroad than they 
are to other advertisers who are limited to the use of 
type for the exploiting of what they have to offer to the 
public. The easier and more pleasant the type is to 
read, the greater are the chances that it will be read 
and have the desired effect. 



FOOD ADVERTISING 335 



XXVI 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF FOOD 
ADVERTISING 

The taste of foods is partially a matter of sentiment 
and imagination. This is largely true of all foods, but 
is particularly applicable to foods as served by our 
modern chefs. Our rural ancestors were engaged long 
hours of the day in strenuous toil in the open air. For 
them eating was merely to relieve the pangs of hunger. 
Pork and beans would cause their mouths to "water/' 
and would be a more tempting morsel to them than are 
the best-prepared dishes of our gastronomic artists to 
us. Times have changed. We have turned from a rural 
population living out of doors into an urban popula- 
tion of sedentary habits. This change is manifesting 
itself yearly in the alterations which are being wrought 
in our food consumption. The cruder, grosser, and 
unesthetic foods are finding fewer consumers, while 
those foods are finding a readier market which are more 
delicate in texture and more elegant and esthetic in 
appearance. Tlie garniture of a food is becoming a more 
and more important factor in its consumption. The 
reproduced advertisement of Sunkist ( No. 1 ) presents a 
good illustration of this principle. 

The appetite of our modern urban population is 
much more a matter of sentiment and imagination than 
was that of our rural ancestors. We all think that we 
prefer turkey to pork because the taste of the turkey is 



^p 



How 

Garnishing 

Improves 
Foods 




rioxK 



an ui tne 
home cook 



CALtFOnNJA 




Uniformly Good Lemons 




No. 1. — Food depicted not as victuals but as a delicate morsel. 



FOOD ADVERTISING 337 

better than that of the pork. We should question the 
esthetic judgment of a man who would be so bold as 
to say that the taste of chicken is as good as that of 
quail. Even if I have such a cold in my head that I 
can smell nothing, I should greatly prefer maple sirup 
to sorghum molasses. It seems absurd that there should 
be any possibility of hesitation in choosing between these 
articles. The facts are that in each of these alternatives 
as to choice we are unable to distinguish the difference 
between the two by taste at all. 

The ''tasting game" has proved itself to be extremely 
interesting to both old and young. In this game por- 
tions of food are given to blindfolded subjects who are 
then asked to identify the food by eating it. In arrang- 
ing for this game, the foods should be carefully prepared. 
The meats should be chopped fine and no seasoning or 
characteristic dressing of any sort should be used. If 
these conditions are observed, and if in no extraneous 
manner the name of the food is suggested, the blind- 
folded subjects will make the most astounding mistakes 
in trying to name the most ordinary articles of diet. 
The following are some of the mistakes which will 
actually occur: Strawberry sirup may be called peach 
sirup or sugar sirup. Beef broth may be called chicken 
broth. The liquid in which cabbage has been boiled 
may be said to be the liquid from turnips. Malt ex- 
tract may be called yeast or ale. Veal broth may be 
called the broth of mutton, beef, or chicken. Raw pota- 
toes chopped fine may be thought to be chopped acorns. 
White bread may be called whole-wheat bread. Boston 
brown bread may be called corn-meal cake. Beef, veal, 
I3ork, turkey, chicken, quail, and other meats will be 
confused in a most astounding manner. 

This ''tasting game" would be impossible if we really 



338 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

discriminated between our articles of diet by the sense 
of taste. 

We are at once led to inquire for the reasons why we 
choose one article of food and reject another if their 
tastes are so similar that we cannot tell them apart when 
our eyes are closed or blindfolded. Why do we prefer 
turkey to pork? Of course there' are certain cuts of 
pork which do not resemble certain parts of turkey, but 
the question has to do only with those parts of turkey 
and pork which cannot be easily discriminated with 
closed eyes. The correct answer to the question is that 
we prefer turkey to pork because turkey is rarer than 
pork and because there is a certain atmosphere or halo 
thrown about turkey which is not possessed by pork. 
We are inclined to think of pork as ^'unclean/' gross, 
and unesthetic. Turkey has enveloped itself in visions 
of feasts and banquets. It is associated with Thanks- 
giving and all the pleasant scenes connected therewith. 
We have seen pictures in which turkey was so garnished 
that it looked beautiful. Grossness and sensuousness 
naturally attach themselves to the unesthetic process of 
eating and to the unesthetic articles of food, but turkey 
associates itself with our most pleasing thoughts and 
does not stand out in all its nudity as dead fowl. 

Again it may be asked, Why do we prefer quail to 
chicken? This can be answered in terms similar to 
those in which we explained the preference for turkey 
as compared with pork. Quail is rarer than chicken. 
Furthermore, the quail is associated in our minds with 
the pleasures of the chase, the open fields, pure air, the 
copse of woods, vigorous exercise, days spent in agree- 
able companionship and exhilarating sport. Our an- 
cestors lived by the chase, and we seem to have inherited 
a fondness and even love for everything connected there- 



FOOD ADVERTISING 339 

with. It might also be added that quail is served in a 
more elegant form than chicken. The garnish is a 
large part of a quail, but chicken is likely to be served 
in its nudity. There is a delicacy and yet a plumpness 
about the quail which is not to be found in a chicken. 
It will be noticed that all these points of superiority 
of quail over chicken are independent of taste ; yet they 
all have a part in determining our final judgment as to 
the taste of the meat. 

The American people have been long years in creating 
this sentiment in favor of the turkey and the quail, 
but it is well established, and it will cause turkey and 
quail to be desired even when other meats equally good 
in taste are rejected. 

The man who has foodstuffs to sell would be fortunate 
if he could get his commodity in a class with turkey 
and quail. Such a result would insure him constant sales 
at a profitable price. Just as we are willing to pay 
more for turkey and quail than we are for pork and 
chicken, so we would be willing to pay more for any 
article of food which could be presented to us in such 
an appetizing atmosphere as they are. 

The questions which naturally arise in the mind of 
the advertiser are. Can I create such a sentiment in 
favor of my commodity that it will be seen enshrined 
in sentiment? Has a glamour ever been created for 
an article of merchandise by advertising? This last 
question must certainly be answered in the affirmative. 
If the advertisements of Ivory Soap (No. 2) have ac- 
complished anything, it is this very thing. All of these 
advertisements have been of one class for a quarter 
of a century. They all bring out the one point of spot- 
less elegance. These advertisements have created an 
atmosphere, and when I think of Ivory Soap, a halo 



340 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

of spotless elegance envelops it, and I do not think 
of it merely as a prosaic chunk of fat and alkali. I 
have had this idea of spotless elegance so thoroughly 
associated with Ivory Soap by means of these many ad- 
vertisements that I actually enjoy using Ivory Soap more 
than I should if the soap had not thus been advertised. 
The advertising of this soap not only induces me to buy 





m 

m 



No. 2. — This advertisement assists in 
creating an atmosphere of spotless 
elegance about Ivory Soap. 

it, but it influences me in my judgment of the soap after 
I have bought it. 

Another advertising campaign which is to be likened 
to that of Ivory Soap is that of the Chickering Piano 
(No. 3). These advertisements, like those of Ivory 
Soap, often seem to say so little and at times it really 
seems that they squander their space by filling almost 



FOOD ADVERTISING 



341 



the entire page with the illustration and by saying so 
little directly about their merchandise. They are alike 
in that the goods advertised are not thrust out into 
the foreground of the illustration. The ChicJ^ering 
Piano may, indeed, be the central part of the cut, but 




No. 3. — This advertisement attempts to as- 
sociate with the Chickering Piano an 
atmosphere of sumptuous elegance. 



other articles of furniture, etc., are emphasized in a 
manner which seems to detract from the piano. Many 
advertisements of the Chickering Piano are evidently 
devised to represent the piano as an article of furniture 
in a home which is most sumptuously and tastefully 
furnished. We are left to draw the conclusion foa' our- 
selves that if persons with such elegant homes choose 
the Chickering it must be good enough for us. The 



342 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

piano is set most artfully in this atmosphere of cultured 
refinement and elegance. Most pianos are advertised 
merely as pianos^ and I can think of them as such, 
but I find that my thought of the Chickering is biased 
by this air of elegance which hovers over it. 

It seems to me that the sentiment created in favor 




No. 4. — This advertisement attempts to 
associate with Nabisco an atmosphere 
of romance and sentiment. 



of Ivory Soap and Chickering Pianos is quite comparable 
to that which exists in favor of turkey and quail. So 
far as I am concerned, no advertiser of foodstuffs has 
quite equaled Ivory Soap and the Chickering Piano in 
creating a favorable sentiment or atmosphere in favor 
of his commodity. The firm which has come the nearest 
to it is the National Biscuit Company. Their adver- 



FOOD ADVERTISING 



343 



tisements of Nabisco (No. 4) are most excellent in 
that they create an atmosphere which is exactly suited 
to the article advertised. Delicacy and purity, even 
bordering on the romantic and sentimental, are the 
qualities which we all feel as we look at the advertise- 
ments or read them. These advertisements have been so 
successful with me that when I eat a Nabisco I seem 




fLand 
o^Cakes 



"Land o CaKes" is a name frenoertly given to 
Scotland where meal cakei form an imporlanl 
artcle of diet • The phrase was rr^de famous by 
Robert Bums in >:«<» in his poem Oh CaptaiH 

Closes Percgnna/wm through Sictlaiui.^vibici^ 

cocwnencej. with the following lines; 

Vfrie MiKknlurti lo Johnny Onatf* 

ft may *ell be thai some later poe» wiH sng of 
Amcnca as the Land of BisodI, for m the past 
■five years the Amencan peooie have consijjied 
(f*ex three hundred mJIon pacJiiiges <J, 

Uneeda 



Biscuit 



wnoKAL eiscinr compaky 



5* 



No. 5. — This advertisement attempts to 
associate with a soda-cracker an atmos- 
phere of patriotism. 

to get a sentimental or romantic taste out of it. If 
while in the dark I were given a new flavor of Nabisco, 
and if I did not know what it was, it would not taste 
so good as it would under normal conditions. I enjoy 
Nabisco wafers more. because of these advertisements 
than I should if I had not seen them. Sentiment is 
not easily or quickly engendered, but if this style of 
advertising is continued I anticipate that Nabisco sugar 



,344 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

wafers will taste better and better with each succeeding 
appearance of a good advertisement. 

A soda-cracker is one of the most prosaic things 
imaginable, and nothing kills the flavor of an article 
of diet more than this feeling of the commonplace and 




No. 6. — An over-crowded advertisement ; the 
promiscuous abundance kills the appetite 
for food. 

the lack of poetical or esthetic sentiment. The National 
Biscuit Company is undertaking a big task when it 
attempts to weave poetical associations about Uneeda 
Biscuit (No. 5). The attempts thus far have been but 
half-hearted and infrequent. The reproduced illustra- 
tion shown herewith (No. 5) is a very good attempt 
to give the Uneeda Biscuit a connection with man's 



FOOD ADVERTISING 345 

higher nature. If the firm is able to create a senti- 
mental setting, or to associate the soda-cracker with 
something patriotic, or with something of that sort, it 
will add immensely to the "taste" of the commodity. 

There are a few advertisers of food products who are 
trying to create an appetizing halo and to spread it 
over their goods, but in geneml, food advertisements 
are woefully weak at this point. If my appreciation of 
a soap or a piano can be increased by advertising, then 
most assuredly there is a great field for profitable en- 
deavor for the advertiser of foodstuffs. Nothing is in- 
fluenced by sentiment and imagination more than the 
sense of taste. Whether I like an article of food or 
not often depends upon what I think of the food before 
I taste it. Here is the advertiser's opportunity. He is 
able to influence me to buy the goods, and then his ad- 
'Vertisements may make me like the taste of the goods 
after I have bought them. Whether his goods will be 
classed with "pork" or with "turkey" depends not only 
on the real taste of the foodstuff, but also upon the 
efficacy of the advertisements in creating the favorable 
atmosphere. 

When we are pleased we are open to suggestions and 
are easily induced to act. When we are displeased, we 
become insensible to appeals, and are overcautious in 
our actions. One of the functions of the advertiser is 
to please the prospective customers and in every way 
possible to knit agreeable suggestions about the prod- 
uct offered for sale. 

Most persons choose their foods wholly upon the stand- 
ard of taste. They choose that which tastes good while 
they are eating it, and refuse that which is displeasing 
to the palate. The savory morsel is eaten without 
thought as to its chemical constituents. 



346 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Perhaps in no form of advertising is it so necessary 
to please the prospective customer as in food advertis- 
ing. Pleasure stimulates the appetite, and pleasure is 
the standard of choice. The advertiser of food prod- 
ucts should therefore present only the most pleasing 
suggestions, and he should depict his food product in 
the most appetizing manner possible. 

It is true that certain foods are bought because of 
their medicinal properties, but such foods should be 
regarded as medicine rather- than as food. The trend 
of our diet is not dependent upon any one thing. A 
careful study of the changed food fashions will discover 
many agencies at work, but among others will certainly 
be found the appearance of the foodstuff. The package, 
can, bag, basket, bottle, or whatever is used to encase the 
goods as sold and delivered, must be regarded as an 
integral part of the foodstuff, and as an efficient factor 
in determining whether the goods will be consumed 
in increasing or decreasing quantities. How much more 
appetizing are crackers packed in a box than the same 
crackers sold in bulk! Who will say how much is due 
to the form of the box in the enormous increase of 
crackers in America during the last few years ! Would 
the American public ever have taken kindly to the 
cereal breakfast food if we had been compelled to buy 
it in the bulk? 

The housewife purchases the provisions for the table. 
In her mind the package is intimately associated with* 
the contents. She knows that a meal does not taste 
good unless the linen is spotless and the service more 
or less formal and ceremonious. The package in which 
the goods are delivered is as surely associated with the 
food as is the linen of the table and all the other articles 
of service. The modern housewife is insisting on a beau- 



FOOD ADVERTISING 347 

tiful dining-room, the best of linen and artistically dec- 
orated china. The glassware must be cut-glass and the 
silver of the most improved pattern. The table must 
be decorated and the individual dishes garnished. The 
housewife who is insisting on all these details is the 
one the merchant should have in mind when he is plan- 
ning for the sale of his goods. She wants those articles 
of food which come in neat packages and which can be 
served in neat and elegant form. In her mind the ap- 
pearance is an essential part of the taste, and she does 
not believe that a food can be appetizing unless it looks 
as if it were. 

This same modern housewife predetermines her choice 
of foods by what she knows of them in advance. Her 
ideas may be molded by advertising, for this process is 
at work daily in all our homes. Like the housewives, 
we all form an idea of a food by the advertisements of 
it which we have seen, even 'if- we have not read them. 
If the advertisement looks pleasing and if the food is 
there presented in an appetizing manner, we believe 
that the food itself will be all right and we are preju- 
diced in favor of it. 

One thing that spoils the looks of food products is 
having them piled up in a confused mass. A table which 
contains many articles of food at once is not inviting 
to the epicure. We like to have our meals served in 
courses, and prefer many light courses rather than a 
few heavy ones. The same principle holds with adver- 
tisements. Many advertisements which would other- 
wise be strong are weakened by overcrowding of good 
things. 

The reduced advertisement of Wheatlet (No. 6) as 
reproduced herewith is not appetizing, for the appear- 
ance of the whole thing is ruined by the multitude of 



348 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

fruits which are thrown promiscuously into the illus- 
tration. I think I might like Wheatlet if it were served 
with any one of these frmts, but if it should be pre- 
sented in such a confusion as this it would not be eaten 
at all. 

The method which the housekeepers of the land em- 




No. 7. — A simplification of the Wheatlet 
border. It familiarizes the public with 
the appearance of the package. 

ploy in purchasing foods must be a factor in determin- 
ing the appropriate form of advertising. In some 
instances householders make written lists of the goods 
desired; the order is placed without looking at the 
goods at all. In other instances the order is sent by 
telephone or by a messenger. In perhaps the most cases 
the purchaser enters the grocery store in person. She 
has her list of purchases but imperfectly made out. 



FOOD ADVERTISING 349 

As she enters the store she is confronted by rows and 
tiers of bottles, cans, and boxes. Out of this bewilder- 
ing multitude of packages she is pleased to see certain 
ones which are known to her. These familiar packages 
catch her attention more than the scores of unknown 
ones. The known ones are the packages which she is 
most likely to purchase, as they catch her attention just 
at the time she is trying to recall the things of which 
she may be in need. 

Of the two advertisements (Wheatlet and Egg-o-See), 
the last-mentioned emphasizes the appearance of the 
package, while the advertisement of Wheatlet omits the 
presentation of the package. At the moment of making 
the purchases for the week these two commodities might 
be on the shelf before the purchaser. The reproduced 
advertisement of Egg-o-See is such that it has made her 
familiar with the package as it appears on the shelves 
and it would thus be called to her attention at the crit- 
ical moment. The advertisement of Wheatlet is not 
such as would have assisted in familiarizing her with 
the appearance of the package, and thus it does not 
assist in attracting her eye to the goods advertised at 
the moment of decision. While in the grocery store 
the purchaser does not taste the various articles, but 
tier upon tier of different goods are presented to her 
sense of sight. It is by sight that she recognizes the 
various packages, and an advertising campaign that 
familiarizes the housekeepers of the nation with the dis- 
tinguishing appearance of any particular package has 
done much to increase its sale. 

While the public is being made familiar with the food 
or the food container, a pleasing appeal should also be 
made to the esthetic nature of the possible customers. 

The human race is carnivorous, but it does not like 



350 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

to be reminded of the fact. It is disgusting to think 
of eating the flesh of dead cows, hogs, and sheep. We 
refuse to use the terms "cow-fiesh," "hog-flesh/' and 
^'sheep-flesh.'' Our abhorrence of such ideas is regis- 
tered in our language, and so we use the terms "beef," 
"pork," and "mutton." It is not pleasing to think of 
eating the flesh of the smaller animals and of fowls, still 
it is not so abhorrent as the thought of eating the flesh 
of the larger and domestic animals. Accordingly we 
still use the same word to denote the live animal and the 
flesh in such instances as "rabbit," "squirrel," "chicken," 
"goose," etc. 

It is quite conceivable that the sight of a dead car- 
cass would whet the appetite of a hyena. The sight 
of a fat pig might cause the mouth of a wolf to "water." 
The sight of an animal, whether dead or alive, is not 
very appetizing to the civilized man or woman. We 
know that beef is nothing but the flesh of dead cattle, 
but we refuse to entertain the idea at mealtime. In- 
deed, we have become so cultured that we like to have 
our meats garnished till they cease to have the appear- 
ance of flesh at all. There are whole nations which 
refuse to eat meat, and vegetarianism in our own coun- 
try is but an indication of the revolt of the human mind 
against our carnivorous habits. 

As a nation our wealth is increasing rapidly and 
consequently we are better able to purchase meats now 
than fifty years ago, yet the government statistics shov 
a great decrease per capita in the consumption of meats. 
We have changed from a rural to an urban population 
and hence require less meat foods, and what we do 
eat must always be presented in a pleasing manner and 
in a way which jars as little as possible against our 
refined and cultivated natures. 



FOOD ADVERTISING 



351 



In advertising meats, the fact should never be empha- 
sized that the meat is the flesh of an animal. That point 
should be taken for granted and passed over as lightly 
as possible. Certain advertisers have not taken this 
matter into consideration and press to the front the fact 
that their meats are the flesh of animals. Thus the 
reproduced advertisement of Liebig (No. 8) is given 
up to the emphasizing of the point that this extract is 




No. 8. — This adver- 
tisement makes no 
one hungry for ex- 
tract of beef. 



secured from the carcasses of beautiful steers. This 
advertisement makes no one hungry for Liebig Com- 
pany's extract of beef. The advertisement is intended 
to make the public familiar with the Liebig trademark^ 
and the criticism is therefore directed against the choice 
of such a trademark rather than against this special 
advertisement, which is but a presentation of the trade- 
mark. The reproduced advertisement of Armour & Co. 
(No. 9) does not present an animal in its entirety, but 
it represents too much of it. The carcasses as shown 
in the advertisement are too large to tempt our appe- 
tites and the general effect is rather disgusting. If 



352 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

smaller pieces of meat had been shown, the result would 
have been entirely different. 

The reproduced advertisement of Armour's potted 
ham and ox tongue (No. 10) is perhaps one of the most 



Association of Ideas 

A Lesson in Memory Training 





By what Chain of Ideas 

'Sould .'- you . link together, 

Hhese (our mental pictures? 

Armour's— Beef— Extract— Potted 

au Englanq 

And by what Mental Images 

»Ould you fasten in your mind the following three, ideas? 
(l.) 4 Jame cattle— of selected bfeed -raised' on rich 

iarm lands — not running ^vlld on the South 

American pampas, 
(a.) ''Extrict made on the highest" and": most: moderJi 

scientific principles. 
(3) Best Extract of ih« Best BeeL 

U'net onir •»p»cl«li/ 
««*M (or Soupt. Saucti. 
OmlM^and B««l T»«, 
Ibtii tfiKumarabl* o»li«r 
•ImcUintf'dilntydUAM. 
^Dl* It No. Win "Odl' 
fcloiM Duhn,-* • Booklet 



^p««, which w% will MNO 
r<H» rmt il lou wriu to 
,0«Pt.Jt . 



SCALLOPED FISH. 

nefnalfitef any cold flih; tali; ptrvvr^torfad-erumbtt 

ftvlivr (m«Uao); Armour*! BiUftct of B««f ; nulm»ff. 

.^FUke U>e fiiH f^ii c.rcf'iltjf mniov« »ny hgnrs or tUin. 

B(»lK oul lonx lollop Shi< t or ir«\.l«], w I <rc ;re«l iak, 

niihbuller: •l"*! it "cU «iih crumbl. Sprinkle oilli t layrr 

of fi»h and a (<w more brrad-crumbf, thch pour over ■ liitle of 

the butter. se««o<i with ult and pepper. Repeat tintH the diih 

orahell ij full, then rnelt the E»racl In •.il/i/droa ot hot 

water and bruih overShe top with It. Fiolih •iih bread. 

Bake In gixA fy*n a Die* 



olden brown, and mn 



t.ihell Of diib. 



ARMOUJ} Cr CO.. 46b. Holbora Vi^uct. Loadon, ELC 



No. 9. — This advertisement associates Armour's 
meat with the carcasses of dead animals. 



pleasing advertisements of meats that has appeared in 
our magazines. No one can look at the advertisement 
without being impressed with the desirability of these 
products. The meat is presented in small pieces and 
is garnished till it is hardly recognizable. Such an 



FOOD ADVERTISING 



353 



advertisement creates a demand for the goods and preju- 
dices the customers in their favor, and the ham and 
ox tongue will taste better to the customer after he has 
seen this advertisement. This would be a better adver- 




No. 10. — This advertisement increases the 
appetite for Armour's meat. 



tisement for Armour & Co. if the can were shown in 
which this meat had been purchased. The border might 
include a cut of the container and the total effect be 
rendered none the less artistic. 

We not only object to thinking of ourselves as car- 



354 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

nivorous but we object to having animals connected in 
any way with our foods. The reproduced advertisement 
of White Star Coffee (No. 11) is in every way disgust- 
ing. Frogs are inherently uncanny to most persons, and 
to see them here as the representatives of a particular 






^.f^ WhitI 

Star 

offee 




No. 11. — ^A slimy frog 
associated with 
White Star Coffee 
kills the desire for 
coffee. 




No. 12. — He seems to 
like it and I imag- 
ine that it is excel- 
lent. 



brand of coffee serves but to instil a dislike and even 
abhorrence for the product. This advertisement never 
made any one eager for a cup of coffee. It does not 
create a demand for coffee and in the cases where the 
demand already exists it does not convince the casual 
observer that White Star Coffee is particularly desir- 
able. It is one of the most silly and destructive adver- 



FOOD ADVERTISING 



355 



tisements appearing in our current magazines. The 
other reproduced advertisement of the same brand of 
coffee (No. 12) is in no way objectionable and is a 
great improvement in point of display over the first one. 
Ordinarily we feed the animals what we do not care 
to eat ourselves, and the assumption is that that which 




No. 13. — An example of waste in adver- 
tising. 



is good enough for the beasts is not fit for men and 
women. In the reproduced advertisement of Korn Krisp 
(No. 13) the food is represented as being fed to the 
fowls. The assumption would be that it is a food es- 
pecially adapted to their taste, and I should not want to 
eat it myself. Even the young goose seems to be dis- 
gorging the food for some unexplained reason! Here 



356 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

we have evidence of an amateur advertiser who was en- 
amoured with his play on the words, "it fills the bill," 
and who was willing to pay for the exploitation of his 
joke under the pretense of an advertisement. 

It may be possible that under very exceptional cir- 
cumstances it would be advisable to introduce an ani- 
mal in an advertisement of a food product, but it should 
be don^ only with great caution and with full realiza- 
tion of the dangers incurred because of the inevitable 
association between the animal and the food advertised. 

The advertiser must seek to associate his food only 
with purity and elegance. In a sense the advertisement 
is the representative of the food, and if the advertise- 
ment is associated with disgusting or displeasing objects 
the food is the loser thereby. The advertising pages 
of many of our cheaper periodicals are nothing better 
than chambers of horrors. The afflictions of mankind 
are here depicted in an exaggerated form. The paper 
is poor, the ink is the cheapest, and the make-up is with- 
out taste. They are altogether a gruesome sight. Food 
advertisements in such papers are practically worth- 
less. Even in these papers a few food advertisements 
are found, but, unfortunately, there are only a few. In 
these cheaper forms of publications the majority of ad- 
vertisements are likely to be of patent medicines or of 
forms of investments. The medicines are advertised by 
depicting the unwholesome aspects of life, and the in- 
vestments are usually of a questionable sort. These 
advertisements of patent medicines and investment 
schemes make the readers suspicious and hence they 
ar-e in a condition of mind which leads them to suspect 
the foods advertised as being adulterated and impure. 

Even good daily papers are open to this criticism. 
No. 14 is a reproduction of a section of one of the best 



FOOD ADVERTISING 



357 



American dailies. The food advertisements are here 
associated with "skin diseases/' "asthma/' "consump- 
tion/' "blood poison/' "whirling spray douche/' "pim- 
ples/' "eruptions/' "backaches/' and other ills and un- 



pdcrs in 
|l condi- 

fson 

faur 

ikey 



NT 



F 



I Soap 

No. 14 




^' ' '"-^^ 



MALT MARROW 

Ma«VoV MALT «XT'<KCr O tPT., CHIJAQO. 



CURED, SATISFIED PATIENTS 



BLOOD POISON 




cuRtoio sTAt Cored. 



p. HAROLD MkVU. ButtsJo. N. ' 



C R E M E^ M AR Q U I S E 



Y£OLDE iUfr ALE 

KCILCV BREV«lhaGO.,CniCA«o,lll 









ARMOUR»S 



Hood's Sarjoparilla 



OU UatLrroof Rye 






ourrvs^puRE wilt whuucy 

—Food advertisements ruined by the 
make-up of the paper. 



appetizing suggestions. What value is the advertise- 
ment of Malt Marrow and of Armour's Star Ham in 
such an environment? Until the daily papers have 
more to offer than such position as is indicated by No. 
14 they certainly are not preferred media for food 
advertisers. 



358 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

XXVII 
THE LAWS OF PROaEESSIVE THINKING 

In acquiring simple acts of skill we all use in the main 
the ^'trj, try again'' method. This is technically known 
as the ^^trial and error" method. We simply keep try- 
ing till we happen to hit it right, and then w^e imitate 
our successes till finally the skill is acquired. The first 
correct response may have been reflex, instinctive, or 
merely accidental. When, however, w^e attempt to de- 
velop acts of skill or ideas in advance of our fellows this 
simple method of trial and error does not suffice. It is 
of course true that most of the actions of all of us and 
all the acts of many of us are not progressive in the 
sense here intended. By progressive thinking we mean 
the conception of new ideas, the invention of new meth- 
ods of doing work, the construction of a new policy or 
a new instrument, or something of a kindred nature. 
For such thinking the essential mental process involves 
nothing totally different from ordinary thinking, but 
it involves the ordinary processes in a more complete 
and efficient form. The processes referred to are the 
following four : observation, classification, inference and 
application. The laws of progressive thinking are de- 
rived from these processes and are nothing more than 
a demand for the complete carrying out of these four 
processes. The thinking of the advertiser does not differ 
from that of others; and in what follows the discus- 
sion will be confined to the advertiser and his problems, 
inasmuch as such a concrete problem seems more definite 
than a general discussion. 

Observation is logically the first step. All advertis- 



LAWS OF PKOGRESSIVE THINKING 359 

ers have eyes, but they do not all use them equally well. 
Observation should begin at home. The advertiser 
should analyze his own response to advertisements, but 
unfortunately he is likely to become so prejudiced or 
hardened to advertisements that his own judgment must 
be taken with great caution. How does this advertise- 
ment or this part of the advertisement affect me? How 
does it affect my wife, my mother, my sister? How 
does it affect the persons who ride on the train with 
me or who pass by the billboards with me? This is the 
territory which is so near at home that we disregard 
it. Such observations must, of course, be supplemented 
by tests carried on by means of keying the advertise- 
ment, by consulting the sales department, etc. 

None of us are ideal observers. We can't tell just 
how certain advertisements affect us or what element of 
the advertisement is the most effective. We do not 
observe accurately how advertisements affect those about 
us. We see only those things which we have learned to 
see or which have been pointed out to us. We are not 
skillful in discovering new methods of securing new 
data and so our observations are neither so accurate 
nor so extensive as they should be. 

The advertiser has an extensive field of observation 
and but little direction as to the best method. He must 
observe his goods in order to know the possible qualities 
which may be presented with greatest force. He must 
observe the public to which he is to make his appeal. 
He must be a practical psychologist. He must also be 
an advertising expert according to the narrow and falla- 
cious use of that term. In the past the advertiser has 
not been required to know his commodity or his public, 
but he has felt satisfied if he was an expert in the con- 
struction of advertisements, the choice of mediums, the 



360 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

keying of advertisements, and similar strictly technical 
accomplishments. The observations are not complete 
unless they include these three fields, i.e.^ the goods, the 
public, and the advertisements. 

The second step in the method, logically speaking, is 
that of classification. The observations must be classi- 
fied. The scattered data must be brought together be- 
fore they can be utilized. Great skill is necessary to 
make the right classifications. In any large office care 
must be used in filing away material to see that the 
general heads are not only correct but that they are 
the most usable ones. Likewise in filing away our ob- 
servations, in getting them into shape so that we can 
use them, the greatest care is necessary in choosing 
the right heads and in getting all the data under their 
appropriate general heads. All the data must be 
analyzed and classified and reclassified, for new ob- 
servations require new classifications, so that the classi- 
fication is never complete and the generalizations based 
on the classifications are continually increasing. For 
instance, every advertiser has a certain amount of data 
concerning the effectiveness of advertisements without 
illustrations in publications in which the text matter is 
largely illustrated. But how many advertisers have 
grouped this data and formed any general statement 
concerning it? 

The process of classification involves that of analysis, 
and the difficulty of forming new analyses is much 
greater than would be supposed by those who have not 
studied the process. In order that new classifications 
may be made, the data must be worked over and thought 
of in all the possible relations. The man who makes 
the best use of his knowledge is the one who has it best 
analyzed and classified. 



LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING 361 

Advertisers have sent me two different advertisements 
which were carefully keyed, one of which was successful 
and the other one unsuccessful. In some cases the ad- 
vertisements are very similar and the differences at 
first sight seem non-essential, yet the differences are 
great enough to secure success in one case and failure 
in another. Lender some circumstances it might be 
practically impossible to deduce the cause of the differ- 
ences. Recently an advertiser sent me two such ad- 
vertisements. One had been unsuccessful and the other 
had been extremely successful. The illustrations were 
very similar and the arguments were largely identical 
throughout. The two had been run in the same sizes 
and in the same and also in different publications. It 
seemed quite evident that the difference must lie in 
the advertisements themselves and not in any extrane- 
ous matter. 

I think that I was correct in inferring that the dif- 
ference lay in the display of the illustration and text 
matter, but not in the quality of either of them. In 
the unsuccessful advertisement there was no resting- 
place for the eye and no point or line of orientation. 
(The line of orientation is the line which the eye fol- 
lows in observing an illustration.) In the successful 
advertisement the eye rested naturally at the point from 
which the advertisement looked the most artistic and 
from which the content of the advertisement could best 
be understood. Furthermore, the line of orientation was 
such that the eye naturally followed the order which 
made the argument and display mutually strengthen- 
ing, and so the eye rested, at the conclusion, at the 
point which was most inducive to immediate action. 
Any trained artist, or even any one who had studied 
the theory which underlies artistic productions, might 



362 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

very naturally have looked for this resting-place for 
the eye or for the appropriate place for the line of 
orientation, but unless these features were taken into 
consideration the wrong conclusion would have been 
drawn as to the cause of success or failure in the case of 
these two advertisements. 

The fourth step in the mental process of the progres- 
sive advertiser is that of applying the deductions drawn 
from the former experience. The laws concerning the 
force called electricity are known to thousands, but it 
takes an Edison or a Marconi to make a new application 
of these same laws. If Edison and Marconi had not a 
comprehensive grasp of these laws they would not be 
inventors. Others have as good a knowledge of all the 
phenomena connected with electricity as they and yet 
are unable to make a practical use of their knowledge. 
Science can formulate the laws of the phenomena as far 
as they have been discovered and applied, but it cannot 
lay down rules or suggest infallible methods for further 
discoveries and inventions. This does not minimize the 
value of science, but it emphasizes the need of originality 
and ingenuity in the man who strives to lead his pro- 
fession and to invent new methods and to make new 
applications of those he has learned. 

Certain keen students of advertising have prophesied 
but little benefit to advertising from the science of psy- 
chology, because a science cannot lay down rules for 
things which are not yet discovered. This criticism 
has weight with any who should be so foolish as to 
suppose that every accomplished student of the human 
mind would of necessity be a successful advertiser. To 
suppose that a great psychologist would of necessity be 
a successful innovator in advertising is just as sane 
as to suppose that every one who understands electricity 



LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING 363 

as well as Edison would have as great a record as he at 
the patent office. If Edison had known nothing of the 
science of physics, it is quite certain that he never would 
have been heard from. Science does not produce in- 
ventors, but it is of great assistance to a genius and 
may cause him to become a great discoverer. Psychol- 
ogy is of assistance to every advertiser in helping him 
to observe widely and accurately, in teaching him how 
to classify or group his observations systematically : it 
should help him in drawing the correct conclusions from 
his classified experience. If psychology could do no 
more it would be of inestimable value, but as applica- 
tions or new discoveries depend so largely on the forma- 
tion of correct deductions and hypotheses, psychology 
may even be of benefit in this last and most difficult step 
in the mental process of the innovator. 

The most successful advertisers are those who ob- 
serve most widely and accurately, who classify their 
observations and group them in the most usable form, 
who then think most keenly about these classified ob- 
servations so as to draw the most helpful conclusions, 
and lastly who have the greatest ability in utilizing 
these deductions in their advertising campaigns. They 
are the active men, those who are seeking better methods 
of observation and of classification and who are never 
content with their past deductions or their applications. 
To show what I mean at this point I will illustrate 
from methods employed by one of the leading advertisers 
of America. 

In observing the effect which advertisements produce 
upon a community it is much easier to learn which 
advertisements are effective than what it is in the par- 
ticular advertisements which makes them interesting. 
Mr. B., as an aid in making observations at this latter 



364 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

point, secured several thousands of letters from readers 
of issues of the magazine of which he was the advertis- 
ing manager. In these letters the writers told which 
advertisements they were the most interested in and 
what it was in each particular advertisement which in- 
terested them. Mr. B. could have turned to the pages 
of his magazine and have made a personal observation 
as to the way the different advertisements affected him 
and what it was in any particular advertisement which 
interested him most, but by the method described he 
multiplied his observations a thousand fold, and all 
within the commodity with which he has to deal. When 
he had read over the letters he had the data before him 
but it was in chaotic and worthless condition. The next 
step was to bring order out of chaos. It was easy to 
tabulate the results and find out how many were es- 
pecially interested in each particular advertisement. 
But when it came to classifying the reasons — and often 
women's reasons at that — for being interested in each 
advertisement, the task proved itself to be one of great 
difficulty. 

The data were turned over to me for such classifica- 
tion, and though this is not the place to give in full 
the general heads and the sub-heads under which the 
classification was finally made, it may be interesting to 
know that t4ie reasons for advertisements proving in- 
teresting were in the order of their frequency: first, 
reliability; second, financial consideration; third, the 
construction of the advertisement ; and fourth, the pres- 
ent need of the reader. Thus of the letters received one 
month, 607 affirmed that they were most interested in 
their chosen advertisement because they believed that 
the firm or the medium or the goods were strictly re- 
liable. In some cases they had tried the goods adver- 



LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING 365 

tised ; in some they had dealt with the firm ; in some they 
noticed the testimonials or the prizes taken, etc. In 
the same month 508 were particularly interested be- 
cause of money considerations. Some because they could 
get the goods advertised more cheaply than elsewhere; 
some because the advertisements offered a chance to 
get something for service instead of for cash, etc., etc. 
In the same month 418 were most interested in the con- 
struction of the advertisement. Some were most inter- 
ested, for instance, in the Nestle's Food advertisement, 
because it was very artistic and was run in colors. In 
the same month 408 were most interested in a particular 
advertisement because it presented goods which they 
needed at that particular time. To recapitulate the 
results : 607 for reliability, 508 for money considerations, 
418 for the construction of the advertisement, and 408 
because of the present need. 

It is not necessary to say that from the classifications 
of these data certain conclusions have been drawn and 
that attempts are being made to apply the conclusions 
to the planning of advertising campaigns. These experi- 
mental applications will furnish new data; these will 
in turn be classified, new conclusions deduced, and 
further attempts at practical application will follow. 
In this way we have an endless chain of observation, 
classification, inference, and application. This method 
is applicable not only to writing advertisements but to 
every detail of the profession. Indeed it is the method 
of progressive thinking in every line of human endeavor. 
The four steps are not fully differentiated in our actual 
experience, but are presented here as distinct for the 
sake of clearness. 



366 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVEETISING 



XXVIII 

THE UNCONSCIOUS INFLUENCE IN 
STEEET EAILWAY ADYEKTISING 

Every form of advertising has its particular psycho- 
logical effect, and the medium which the merchant 
should choose depends upon many conditions. Fore- 
most among such conditions are expense, the class of 
persons to be reached, the quality of goods to be pre- 
sented, the width of distribution of goods, etc., etc. 
Equal with these conditions, however, the advertiser 
should consider the peculiar psychological effect of each 
particular form. The monthly magazine, the week- 
lies and the dailies carry authority which is lacking 
in other forms. These publications are held in high 
repute in the household, and advertisements appearing 
in them are benefited by this confidence which is be- 
stowed upon everything appearing in them. Posters, 
bill-boards, painted signs, and similar forms of adver- 
tising admit of extensive display within a prescribed 
area and have great attention value. Booklets, circu- 
lars, and similar forms of advertising admit of com- 
plete descriptions and may be put in the hands of only 
those who are interested in the commodity offered for 
sale. They appeal to the reason in a way not surpassed 
by any form of printed advertising. 

The psychological effect of street-car advertising is 
not generally recognized, and in this presentation there 
is no attempt to praise one form of advertising and to 



STEEET KAILWAY ADVERTISING 367 

decry all others, but inasmuch as the psychological 
effects of other forms are recognized and that of street- 
car advertising is frequently not recognized, this latter 
is selected for fuller presentation. 

Our minds are constantly subjected to influences of 
which we have no knowledge. We are led to form opin- 
ions and judgments by influences which we should reject 
if we were aware of them. After we have decided upon 
a certain line of action, we frequently attempt to justify 
ourselves in our own eyes, and so we discover certain 
logical reasons for our actions and assume them to have 
been the true cause, when in reality they had nothing 
to do with it. The importance of these undiscovered 
causes in our every-day thinking and acting may be il- 
lustrated by the following example. 

> — < 



< — > 



Lines A and B are of equal length, although A seems 
longer. Now why do we reach the conclusion that A is 
longer than B, when in reality such is not the case? If 
they are the same length, and we see them in a clear 
light, we should expect that they would appear to be as 
they actually are. The accepted explanation of this 
illusion is that there are, entering into the judgment, 
certain imperceptible causes which make us see the lines 
as of different length. This explanation was not discov- 



368 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

ered till recent years, but it has been proved to be cor- 
rect. In judging the length of lines we run our eyes 
over them, and so get a sensation from the contraction 
of the muscles of the eyes. We judge of the length of 
lines by the amount of this sensation derived from con- 
tracting the muscles which move the eyes. If two lines 
are the same distance from us and are the same length, 
our eyes w^ill ordinarily move equal distances in travers- 
ing their lengths. If two lines are equally distant from 
us, and one longer than the other, we ordinarily have to 
move our eyes farther in estimating the length of the 
longer one than in estimating the length of the shorter 
one. We are not aware of the sensations received from 
these movements of our eyes, and yet we estimate lengths 
of lines by them. The peculiar construction of the lines 
A and B induces the eye to move farther in estimating 
the length of A. We therefore assume that A is longer 
than B because our eyes move farther in estimating its 
length than in estimating the length of B. 

The street-railway advertiser controls an unrecog- 
nized force which is similar to that just described in the 
estimation of the length of lines. The arrow pointing 
toward the line as shown in A causes us all to over- 
estimate the magnitude of the line ; and there is a factor 
present in street-railway advertising which causes us to 
be influenced by it more than would seem possible. There 
has been much poor street-railway advertising, and yet 
the results have been phenomenally great. Some recent 
tests of the extent to which passengers had been influ- 
enced by such advertising showed most conclusively that 
there was an unrecognized power in it. A study of the 
situation discloses the fact that this unconscious influ- 
ence is none other than TIME which manifests itself in 
three phases as presented below. 



STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING 369 

As a result of investigations upon magazine and news- 
paper advertising the conclusion was reached that on the 
average only ten per cent, of the time devoted to news- 
papers and magazines was spent in looking at the adver- 
tisements. .( For a fuller account of the investigation see 
Chapter XXIX. ) As a conclusion deduced from these re- 
sults it was recommended that advertisements should be 
so constructed that the gist of each could be compre- 
hended at a glance, for most advertisements in news- 
papers and magazines receive no more than a glance 
from the average reader. The ordinary reader of news- 
papers and magazines glances at all of the advertising 
pages and sees all the larger and more striking adver- 
tisements. There are many exceptions to this. There 
are persons who read all the advertisements and there 
are others who glance at but few of them. Magazines 
and newspapers have become so numerous and the daily 
duties so pressing that we cannot take time to read al] 
the advertisements, and so we devote but few minutes to 
them, and in those few minutes we see a great number. 
We cannot afford the time to do more. 
* The case is different with street-railway advertising. 
Here there is no shortage of time. There is sufficient 
opportunity to see every person in the car and to devote 
as much time to the process as good breeding will allow. 
Thereafter one is compelled to look at the floor or else 
above the heads of the passengers. One cannot read a 
newspaper on a crowded car — I am acquainted only with 
crowded cars. Neither is it practicable to read a book 
or magazine on a jolting car — I am acquainted only with 
such. To attempt to look out of a window opposite to 
you causes the lady opposite to wonder at your rudeness 
in staring at her, for to look out of the window the 
eyes are directed so nearly at the face of some passenger 



370 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

that one's intentions are misjudged. In defence of one's 
good breeding and to drive away the weariness of the 
ride many a passenger is compelled to turn his gaze on 
the placards which adorn the sides of the car. The pas- 
senger has for once an abundance of time. He reads the 
card and then reads it again because he has nothing 
else to do. This may be very silly, but what of it? It 
offers a diversion, and anything is better than looking at 
the floor, counting the number of passengers, or watch- 
ing the conductor ring up the fares. 

The amount of time spent in riding on street-cars in 
America is far beyond the conception of most persons. 

The electric railways of the United States carry 
about fourteen billion, five hundred million passengers 
annually. This does not include the electric divisions of 
certain steam roads which carry advertising. All cars 
carrying advertising in the United States carry about 
fifteen billion riders annually. 

The population of the United States living in towns on 
or adjacent to electric railway systems is about forty- 
five million people. The percentage of passengers car- 
ried daily to the total population of these cities averages 
approximately one hundred per cent. There are no data 
available for the length of time consumed by an average 
street-car ride. Fifteen minutes may be regarded as a 
fair estimate. Upon this estimate each inhabitant of 
our cities spends on the average about fifteen minutes 
a day in a street car. These rides become very monot- 
onous ; the passengers' minds are not occupied, and very 
much more time is whiled away by looking at the adver- 
tisements than we are aware of. 

One young lady asserted that she had never looked 
at any of the cards in the cars in which she had been 
riding for years. When questioned further, it appeared 



STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING 371 

that she knew by heart almost every advertisement ap- 
pearing on the line (Chicago and Evanston line), and 
that the goods advertised had won her highest esteem. 
She was not aware of the fact that she had been study- 
ing the advertisements, and flatly resented the sugges- 
tion that she had been influenced by them. Some of the 
goods advertised were known to her only by these adver- 
tisements, yet she supposed that they had nothing to do 
with her esteem of the goods. She supposed that she 
had always known them, that they were used in her 
home, or that they had been recommended to her. She 
did not remember when she had first heard of them. 

It has been said that we have learned nothing per* 
fectly until we have forgotten how we learned it. This 
has a special application to advertising. An advertise- 
ment has not accomplished its mission till it has in- 
structed the possible customer concerning the goods and 
then has caused him to forget where he received his in- 
struction. This is especially important in street-car ad- 
vertising. The information which we receive from the 
card in the street car soon becomes a part of us, and we 
forget where we received it. 

This forgetfulness of the source of our information is 
due to the interval which has elapsed between the first 
time the advertisement was seen and the present. The 
more frequently the advertisement is seen, the more rap- 
idly will the memory of the first appearance fade and 
leave us with the feeling that we have always known the 
goods advertised, and that the advertisement itself is 
no essential part of our information. [This point is more 
fully developed in Chapter XIV, Suggestion.] 

The element of time as it enters the problem of adver- 
tising is recognized to a limited extent in the two phases 
thus far discussed, but there is another phase and one 



372 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

of even more importance which has., to the writer's 
knowledge, never been mentioned in connection with ad- 
vertising. We devote the most time to those subjects 
which we regard as the most important. My profession 
takes most of my thought, the lacing of my shoes very 
little. Ideas which impress me as important cause me 
to think of them for lengthy periods of time. Ideas 
which seem insignificant are dismissed immediately 
from my mind. 

This element is recognized by every skillful public 
speaker. He speaks rapidly that which he wishes us to 
consider as of little importance. He speaks slowly that 
which he wishes us to regard as of special significance. 
We weigh the importance of his statements and estimate 
their value in terms of the time which he gives to each. 

In poetry, thoughts which are trivial or of minor im- 
portance are expressed by rapid movements. Ideas 
which are of more importance and which are suppbsed 
to call forth much thought from the reader are expressed 
in slow movements. This same principle holds in music. 
Music which means much — which suggests many 
thoughts, which is sublime, deep, or large — all such 
music is written in slow time. The so-called "rag-time" 
is assumed to have no meaning; it is not supposed to 
suggest lines of thought. It has no intrinsic importance 
and is consequently appropriately expressed in fast 
time. 

In the case of the orator, the poet, and the musician 
the effect is produced by this unrecognized element of 
time. That which holds our thought for a longer time 
seems to us to be important; that which we hurry over 
seems unimportant. The orator, the poet, and the musi- 
cian have simply accommodated themselves to our intui- 
tive method of thinking and have been successful because 



STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING 373 

they have conformed their expressions to the human 
method of thought. 

As was shown above, the passengers on street railways 
have but little to distract their attention. They go over 
the same road so frequently that the streets passed 
through cease to be interesting. Since newspapers and 
magazines cannot be easily read, the cards have but few 
rivals for attention. Even those who have but little 
interest in the advertisements find that they glance at 
the cards frequently and that the eyes rest on a single 
card for a considerable length of time. The same card 
may be read or glanced at daily for as long a time as the 
card is left in the car. The sum total of the time thus 
devoted to the card is as great as the amount of time 
that we devote to many of our important interests. 
Under ordinary circumstances we bestow thought upon 
objects in proportion to their importance. This is not 
an absolute rule, of course, but it expresses a principle. 
The reverse of this principle is not recognized by us at 
all and yet it is of primal importance. 

That which occupies our minds for a great amount of 
time assumes thereby an importance which may be out 
of all proportion to its real value. Illustrations of this 
fact are to be found on every hand. The mother is 
likely to think the most of the child which has caused 
her the most thought. The sickly child occupies her 
mind more than the well one, and this accounts for the 
fact that she attributes to the sickly child an importance 
far beyond its real worth. Our old schoolbooks, upon 
which we were compelled to bestow so many hours of 
study, in later years assume a value in our eyes far in 
excess of their real merit. The goods which through 
their advertisements have occupied our minds for long 
periods of time assume in our minds an importance 



374 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

which is often far in excess of anything which would 
have been anticipated by one who was not familiar with 
the peculiar power here described. In estimating the 
relative values of two competing lines of goods, I as- 
sume that my judgment is based on the goods themselves 
as they are presented to my reason. I am not aware of 
the fact that I am prejudiced in favor of the goods that 
have occupied my mind the longest periods of time. Yet 
it is as certain that this element of time has biased my 
judgment of the relative values of the goods as it is that 
the eye movement influences my judgment of the lengths 
of lines. 

Advertisements in newspapers and magazines are seen 
by a great number of the readers, but the time devoted 
to any particular advertisement is very small, unless 
there is a special interest in the advertisement. 

There is indeed no form of advertising which is pre- 
sented to such a large number of possible purchasers 
for such a long period of time and so frequently as is the 
advertising in street-railway cars. In most other forms 
of advertising we devote to any particular advertisement 
only as much time as we think it is worth. In street- 
railway advertising we devote longer time than we really 
think is due to the advertisements, and then we turn 
around and estimate the value of the goods advertised 
by the amount of time that we have devotied to the adver- 
tisement. This is the psychological explanation of the 
amazing potency of this particular form of advertising. 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 375 



XXIX 

THE QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD IN 
ADVERTISING 

ILLUSTRATED BY AN INVESTIGATION UPON NEWSPAPERS 

Experience is the best teacher. Methods that enable 
one to make the greatest use of one's own experience are 
valuable. Methods that make the experiences of others 
also available are even more valuable. 

One of the functions of every science is to develop 
methods that are useful for investigating problems which 
concern that particular science. One of the methods 
that modern psychology has developed is the so-called 
Questionnaire Method. This method has many defects, 
but it has the inestimable value of assisting the investi- 
gator to take advantage of the experiences of a great 
number of individuals. 

The Questionnaire Method is used to secure the con- 
sensus and the diversity of many individual opinions. 
A single question or a set of questions is presented to 
any desired group of persons. The answers to the ques- 
tions are derived from the experiences of those who are 
to answer them. If the questions call for the descrip- 
tion of simple unemotional events, reliance may be put in 
the answers received from all sincere respondents. If 
the answers call for a difficult analysis of motives and 
interests, less reliance can be placed in any single answer 
and greater caution must be used in drawing conclusions 
based upon the replies. 

There are many problems that the advertiser needs to 
investigate for which the Questionnaire Method alone is 



376 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

available. A single illustration will indicate how such 
questions arise, how they may be investigated, and will 
also present a mass of information concerning news- 
papers that is of interest and profit to advertisers. 

A prominent advertising man was planning copy to be 
used on street-car cards designed to secure new sub- 
scribers to newspapers. The campaign was to be con- 
ducted in different American cities in the interest of 
local papers, but in each case the attempt was to be 
made to reach the best citizens of the city. The two 
following questions naturally suggested themselves: 
What is there in the modern newspaper that appeals to 
the better classes of society ^ and what motives should he 
appealed to in inducing them to begin a subscription? 
The problems here raised are clearly psychological and 
subject to the Questionnaire Method, which was em- 
ployed in investigating them. 

A carefully selected list was prepared containing the 
names of four thousand of the most prominent business 
and professional men in Chicago. An attempt was made 
to include what could fairly be said to be the best citizens 
of Chicago. The number was so large that it contained 
a fully representative group. For the purpose of com- 
parison, another list of one thousand names was pre- 
pared. This list contained the names of men from very 
different classes of society, but all, with few exceptions, 
were adult men. The questionnaire as reproduced here- 
with was mailed to the five thousand names constituting 
the two lists. 

I. What Chicago daily or dailies do you read? 

II. Which one do you prefer? 

III. State in order the five features of your paper which inter- 
est you most. (For example, politics, society, finance, 
sporting, foreign news, local news, special articles, ro- 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 377 

a 

mance and storiettes, cartoons, advertisements, art, 
music and book reviews, moral or ethical tone, editori- 
als, brevity, accuracy, etc.) 

1....; 

2 

3 

4 

5 

IV. Do you spend on an average as much as 15 minutes daily 

reading a Chicago paper? 

V. What induced you to begin the subscription of the paper or 
papers which you are now taking? 

VI. Were you ever induced by means of a premium or prize to 

subscribe for a Chicago paper? If so, 

did you resubscribe for the same paper without a 
premium? 



Answers to these questions are desired from the selected per- 
sons to whom they are mailed. The answers are needed in 
solving a psychological question of interest and may be placed 
in the stamped envelope enclosed herewith and mailed at once. 
They will be gratefully received by the sender. 
Yours respectfully, 

WALTEE D. SCOTT, 
Director of the Psychological Laboratory, 
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 

Eeplies were received from about two thousand, three 
hundred of the representative business and professional 
men. The replies from the one thousand are disre- 
garded in the present chapter ; and inasmuch as but ap- 
proximately two thousand answered each of the ques- 
tions, the two thousand, three hundred are hereafter 
referred to as "the two thousand." Those receiving the 
questionnaire seemed much interested in the research, 
and although they are very busy men, the answers indi- 
cate careful deliberation and the utmost sincerity. Al- 



378 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 



• 



though no place was provided for signatures, a good 
proportion signed their names to the paper or enclosed 
a personal, signed letter. A large number of the slips 
were carefully keyed, and even when no signature was 
attached, the author of the replies was known. In all 
the slips the key indicated at least to which one of the 
numerous groups the respondent belonged. In case of 
doubt as to whether the replies were filled out personally 
by the man to whom the questionnaire was sent, they 
were rejected as not authentic. No proxies were desired. 

Over fifty per cent, of those receiving the questionnaire 
took pains to fill out the blank. This proportion is un- 
usually large and is to be attributed to several causes. 
A stamped return envelope was enclosed. The subject 
under investigation was personally interesting. The 
answers were sought for as a means of "solving a psy- 
chological question," and psychology is very popular 
just at present. The investigator, owing to his univer- 
sity connection, was assumed to be honest and desirous 
of securing only the facts. The advertiser might have 
great difflculty in selecting a group of persons whose 
answers would be significant and yet who would be will- 
ing to fill out the blanks. Doubtless in many cases the 
list would have to be confined to business associates or 
to personal friends. Haphazard, voluntary answers re- 
ceived in competition for a prize or for the gaining of a 
paltry reward are not to be compared in value to volun- 
tary replies from a carefully selected list. The difficulty 
of securing trustworthy replies is so great that the ad- 
vertiser will usually be compelled to have the investiga- 
tion carried on by a disinterested person, as it was done 
in the present instance. 

Ordinarily no suggestions should be made as to what 
answer is expected. If any suggestions are made, that 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 379 

fact should never be forgotten in estimating the results. 
In the questionnaire reproduced herewith, the amount 
of space left for answering the first question suggested 
that the names of but one or two papers were to be 
written. This doubtless affected the results. Also in 
connection with the third question a series of answers 
was suggested. The number of suggestions was made 
so large that no particular one would have much more 
effect than the others, and as all probable answers were 
suggested the results were certainly not greatly changed 
thereby. 

The fact that each individual reads or scans a number 
of papers daily was brought out clearly by the answers 
to the first question. ( I. What Chicago daily or dailies 
do you read?) Eighty-six per cent, reported themselves 
as reading more than a single paper. The space in the 
questionnaire left for writing the names of the papers 
read was but a little over one inch in length. In spite 
of this fact the respondents took pains to write in a num- 
ber of papers. As stated above, it is quite probable that 
the inadequate space and, in some cases, the haste of 
writing the names caused an understatement of the 
actual number of papers read. As reported, the figures 
are as follows : 

14% read but one paper 
46% read tw^o papers 
21% read three papers 
10% read four papers 

3% read ^ye papers 

2% read six papers 

3% read all the papers (8). 

Some of the papers taken by any person are to be 
regarded as subsidiary and as commanding but little 



380 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

attention; These subsidiary papers contain a large part 
of the advertisements that are also contained in the pre- 
ferred papers, which command the most attention. The 
same advertisement seen in two or three papers may be 
more effective than if seen in but one; but most adver- 
tisers are convinced that.it is not worth three times as 
much to have an advertisement seen in three papers as 
it is to have it seen in one. The duplication of circula- 
tion represents a loss. If the advertiser could pick out 
the papers that command the most confidence of a rela- 
tively large number of readers, he could afford to neglect 
the subsidiary papers entirely. 

The fourth question was, (IV. Do you spend on an 
average as much as 15 minutes daily reading a Chicago 
paper?) 

A decided majority seemed to consider fifteen minutes 
a fair estimate of the time spent in reading the daily 
papers. Four per cent, answered that they spent less 
than fifteen minutes daily. Twenty-five per cent, re- 
ported a greater amount of time. A few reported as much 
as two hours, but "just about fifteen minutes" was by 
far the most common answer. The writers were fre- 
quently careful to state that this fifteen minutes was 
the total time spent in reading all the papers and not 
the amount spent in reading each of the several papers 
read. Considering together the total number of papers 
read and the total amount of time spent in reading them, 
we reach the conclusion that a very decided majority of 
these representative business and professional men spend 
but approximately from five to ten minutes reading any 
particular paper. These few minutes admit of but the 
most cursory reading. A favorite program, as reported, 
is the reading of the head lines, the table of contents, 
the weather reports, etc. Then if time admits or if any- 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 381 

thing especially interesting is discovered, attention may 
be turned for a few seconds or minutes to a more leisurely 
reading of the articles discovered in the preliminary 
search. 

The papers are glanced through so hurriedly that an 
advertisement, in order to be seen at all, unless sought 
for, must be striking in appearance and must announce 
something in which the reader is particularly interested. 
Advertisements may be divided into two groups : classi- 
fied and display advertisements. The classified are read 
only by those who search for them. The display adver- 
tisements are glanced at by a very large number of per- 
sons who pick up the paper. The advertisement must 
tell its story quickly if at all. If the message which it is 
capable of imparting to those who glance at it is invit- 
ing, the advertisement may be selected and read from 
beginning to end. The advertiser should attempt, how- 
ever, to construct his advertisement so that a single 
glance at it may be effective in imparting information 
and in making an impression even though the advertise- 
ment is not to be under observation for more than a few 
seconds. 

A majority of the respondents answered the second 
question, naming the preferred paper. (II. Which 
one do you prefer?) A very respectable minority, how- 
ever, confessed that they had no preference. Many an- 
swered that one paper was preferred for general news, 
another for cartoons, another for special articles, an- 
other for moral tone, etc. Others refused to go on record 
as preferring any paper and so expressed themselves by 
saying that one paper was "less objectionable," "less 
yellow," "less venal," etc., than the others. Particular 
groups of men displayed considerable uniformity in their 
preference for a single paper ; e.g., the one hundred pro- 



382 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

fessional men connected with one educational institution 
preferred one paper; the business men who were mem- 
bers of an athletic club showed a decided preference for 
another paper; the business and professional men who 
were members of one of the most prominent clubs pre- 
ferred with equal uniformity still a different paper. 

The circulation of the evening papers in Chicago is 
greater than that of the morning papers, and it is prob- 
able that they are preferred in more cases than are the 
morning papers. For business and professional* men the 
reverse is true; among them the morning papers are 
read in larger numbers and are preferred in more in- 
stances than the evening papers. With these men the 
evening papers are often to be regarded merely as sub- 
sidiary. The laboring classes have no time to read a 
morning paper, but "after the day's work is over, the 
evening paper is read and doubtless much more than 
fifteen minutes is devoted to it. Many business and 
professional men prefer evening papers and many labor- 
ing men prefer the morning papers, but such instances 
are exceptions rather than the rule. 

A majority of business and professional men fail to 
see advertisements appearing in evening papers and are 
not greatly affected by those that they do see. Like- 
wise, probably a majority of the laboring class are un- 
affected by advertisements appearing in the morning 
papers. If these statements did not have so many ex- 
ceptions the advertiser's task would be comparatively 
simple when it comes to choosing a medium for any par- 
ticular advertisement. If he wanted to reach the better 
classes, he would use the morning papers ; if he wanted 
to reach the laboring class, he would employ the evening 
papers. 

The replies from the two thousand showed somewhat 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 383 

of a uniformity in their selection of a preferred paper, 
but the most surprising thing was the lack of uniformity. 
This particular group could not be reached by using any- 
thing less than all the papers. Perhaps one-half of them 
could be reached by a single paper, three-fourths by two 
papers, and over nine-tenths of all by using half the 
papers. 

The chief interest in the investigation centers in the 
answers to the third question. (III. State in order 
the five features of your paper which interest you most. ) 

To reduce the answers to some sort of a comprehensible 
unit, the following plan was adopted. A feature that 
was mentioned as first choice was credited with five 
points ; one mentioned as second choice, four points ; one 
mentioned as third choice, three points ; one mentioned 
as fourth choice, two points; one mentioned as fifth 
choice, one point. The sum of all these points was arbi- 
trarily assumed to represent the sum total of interest. It 
was then found what per cent, of this total interest had 
been credited to politics, editorials, and all other features 
mentioned by any of the respondents. As thus found, 
the total result for all papers and all respondents is as 
follows : 

PER CENT. 

Local news 17.8 

Political news 15.8 

Financial news 11.3 

Foreign news 9.5 

Editorials 9. 

General news 7.2 

Ethical tone( broadly considered) 6.7 

Sporting news 5.8 

Cartoons 4.3 

Special articles 4.3 



384 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

PER CENT. 

Music 1.88 

Book reviews 1.84 

Arrangement 1.4 

Society notes 1.4 

Drama 1.1 

Art 9 

Advertisements 44 

Storiettes 13 

Weather 1 

Humor 05 

Inasmuch as these figures represent the distribution 
as found for all the papers combined, it would, of course, 
be anticipated that the same order would not hold 
exactly for any individual paper. In most particulars 
there is a pronounced similarity in the distribution of 
interest in the different papers. This is true, for in* 
stance, in the case of local news. In one paper it monop- 
olizes 19.5 per cent, of the interest and in the others 
18.8 per cent., 18.3 per cent, 17.6 per cent, 14.9 per cent., 
13.8 per cent., 12.8 per cent., and 12.1 per cent., respec- 
tively. In some features the diversity between papers 
is very great Thus in one paper 19 per cent, of the 
interest is in sporting news, in another but 2 per cfent. 
In one paper 19.7 per cent, of the interest is in financial 
news, in another but 6.9 per cent. These last illustrations 
from sporting news and finance are exceptional in- 
stances, and even in these the extremes are found in the 
papers that were least often mentioned as the preferred 
papers. For all the papers and for all the different groups 
into which the business and professional men were 
divided the striking fact was the uniformity of interests. 
Features that were interesting to any group in any 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 385 

paper were usually found to be interesting in all the 
papers and to all the groups. The features that were 
most uniformly interesting were the news items, which 
possessed over seventy-five per cent, of the total interest. 
All other features were low in interest with most of the 
groups and in most of the papers. As is indicated in the 
tabulation above, advertisements did not seem to attract 
much attention. 

These results make it clear that the Chicago dailies 
are valued as NEWS papers and as little else. Local 
news, general news, foreign news, financial news, politi- 
cal news, and sporting news, — these monopolize the inter- 
est of business and professional men. Editorials, stori- 
ettes, book reviews, art, music, drama, society, — all 
these combined do not possess so much interest as local 
news alone. Every one seemed interested in news, and 
when cartoons and editorials were mentioned the writers 
were frequently careful to add that they were interested 
in these because they were a summary or index of some 
important news. 

Advertisements aiming to secure new subscribers to a 
newspaper should give most importance to the descrip- 
tion of the news service of that particular paper. Other 
features might be mentioned, but the uniformity with 
which all groups expressed their interest in the news in 
each of the papers makes it quite certain that here we 
have the vital feature of the newspaper and that which 
gives it its name. 

The third question should be considered in connection 
with the fifth. (V. What induced you to begin the 
subscription of the paper or papers which you are now 
taking?) Immediately following the statement of the 
third question, as printed in the questionnaire, sugges- 
tive answers were presented. This list of examples acted 



386 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

as a constant suggestion and made it moi^e likely that the 
answers cited would be given than any original ones. 
No such suggestions were added to the statement of the 
fifth question and hence answers to this latter question 
are more reliable. While it resulted in the presentation 
of many different answers, still the uniformity with 
which the news items were mentioned — observed in the 
answers to the third question — is even greater here. 

Of all the motives that could be classified, the fol- 
lowing show what per cent, of the total number of 
times each motive was mentioned : 

To keep informed concerning current events 65% 

Ethical tone (including accuracy, etc.) 10% 

Premiums 4% 

Cartoons * 4% 

Special articles 3% 

Reputation of paper. ., 1% 

Service (best delivery) 1% 

All other motives (about twenty in number) received 
scattering mention. 

It is a significant fact that sixty-five per cent, of the 
business and professional men united in stating that the 
motive in first subscribing to their chosen papers was the 
desire to keep informed concerning current events. The 
following expressions were frequently used and are most 
suggestive: "to keep in touch with current events,'' 
"desire to be informed,'' "to be informed as to what is 
going on," "to be up to the times and not a back num- 
ber," "to be en rapport with the world." 

In comparison with this desire for news of current 
events all other motives seem insignificant. News ser- 
vice is the desideratum. If a choice is to be made be- 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 387 

tween papers equally good in news service, then premi- 
ums and cartoons or even editorials and storiettes may 
become the deciding factor. 

In waging a campaign to increase the circulation of 
newspapers the fact should be constantly before the ad- 
vertiser's mind that people are interested primarily in 
the news. A description of the methods used by any 
great paper to secure the news would be a most power- 
ful argument for securing new subscribers. A presen- 
tation of all the means employed to avoid mistakes, and 
hence to present the news accurately, would furnish a 
theme for further advertisements. A truly educational 
campaign carried on in the interests of the two theme» — 
completeness of news service and care to present the 
truth — would increase the circulation of any of the 
better metropolitan dailies. 

The questionnaire invited no criticisms of daily papers 
and yet many of these business and professional men 
volunteered criticisms which they inserted on the sheets 
of questions or else wrote them in personal letters that 
were enclosed. There are but few criticisms of the less 
important features of the papers. There are almost 
no criticisms of the storiettes, the society notes, the 
book reviews, the funny columns, etc. All these seem 
to be as good as desired ; nor does the reader express him- 
self as aggrieved by the poor quality or even by the 
absence of any of them. 

In the main the criticism centered about the news ser- 
vice, the editorials, and the general lack of integrity of 
the papers. There was no criticism of the newspapers 
for failure to know the facts ; they were criticised rather 
for the failure to present an unbiased report. The same 
sort of criticism is made of the editorial columns. The 
editor is believed to be unduly influenced by the business 



388 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

manager. The phrase "the potent censorship of Big 
Business/^ or some analogous expression, occurred so 
often that it seemed to express a general lack of confi- 
dence. 

The present research was not devised to ascertain the 
degree of confidence in newspapers, and one would not 
be justified in asserting that the lack of confidence is 
general unless other grounds for the statement were at 
hand. 

The newspaper that would be preferred by the rep- 
resentative business and professional men might not be 
popular with other classes of society. Judging from the 
answers of two thousand men the conviction is forced 
upon one that they do not care to have a newspaper 
serve as interpreter, defender, or advocate of the truth. 
All that is desired is a brief but comprehensive publica- 
tion of the news. That editor will be the most appreci- 
ated who selects the news most wisely and presents the 
unvarnished truth in all matters in which the constit- 
uency are interested. Some persons have no interest in 
the sporting pages; others never admit reading crimes 
and casualties. .Individual interests are so varied that 
no paper can expect general circulation without criti- 
cism from many readers because of the events empha- 
sized in news gathering. However, the readers do not 
complain generally because of the presence of pages of 
material that they never read. The man who is not in- 
terested in finance, sports, etc., does not complain be- 
cause of the presence of these things. He does complain 
because in place of a short and accurate account of 
things interesting to him, he finds long and inaccurate 
accounts of them. The ideal paper would have to do 
only with facts. The news would have to be well writ- 
ten, but the interest would be mainly in the news itself 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 389 

and not in the reporter's or the publisher's views con- 
cerning it. 

There are many persons who read neither books nor 
monthly or weekly magazines. For them the daily 
newspaper must supply the place of all these. The 
storiette is their only literature. The editor and the re- 
porter must interpret the daily events. The unbiased 
presentation of these daily events would not be adequate. 
For the business and professional man the circumstances 
are different. All of the two thousand business and 
professional men answering my questionnaire read much 
besides the daily papers. Their literary entertainment 
is found in books and magazines. 

The whole reading world desires to secure pleasure 
from literature, to read articles which champion its 
rights, and to follow some great leader in interpreting 
current events. That all these functions are performed 
in many instances by the daily press cannot be doubted. 
That the better class of society has passed beyond this 
condition is likewise apparent. The results as presented 
above make it quite evident that for the vast majority 
the daily paper is merely a news paper. For this class 
the ideal paper would be the one that serves this interest 
most perfectly. Cartoons would find a place in such 
papers but they would not be the same sort of cartoons 
that appear in the monthly comic papers. Editorials 
would find a place but they would be in the main concise 
statements concerning important events. Special articles 
would be in place in such a paper but they would deal 
in the main with current events. The ideal daily would 
put its emphasis on the field that is not covered by the 
weeklies and monthlies. It would also present the events 
of the day in such form that they could be read in fifteen 
minutes; for the busy man does not devote more than 
that time to any daily paper. 



390 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The question which the advertiser is sure to raise in 
this connection is, What sort of advertisements could 
be valuable in what might be an ideal paper for the so- 
called better classes? If the ideal paper is fully ditfer- 
entiated from the weeklies and monthlies in its ^^literary 
departments/' has it not surrendered to them also the 
field of advertising except for the announcement of local 
sales and other similar events? Has it not ceased to be 
a competitor for national advertising? This conclusion 
does not follow ; for the ideal newspaper, which had the 
full confidence of its readers, would be a powerful 
medium for all classes of advertisements. Success in 
advertising is based on confidence, and one reason why 
advertising rates are higher in weeklies and monthlies 
for a proportionate amount of circulation is the fact 
that at the present time people have more confidence in 
these than in the dailies. 

Potential customers are not coldly logical and analytic 
in estimating commodities. An advertisement seen on 
garbage boxes may be a good advertisement and may 
announce real bargains but it possesses little influence. 
The same advertisement seen in a cherished household 
publication carries all the respect and trust that has 
been created by the other departments of the publica- 
tion. We do not appreciate even good food if served 
upon dirty dishes. We are not influenced even by a good 
advertisement appearing in daily papers if they seem to 
us to be in any way unreliable. 

The present research was not undertaken to discover 
the value of newspapers as advertising media for the 
better class of society, but to ascertain which motives 
would appeal most profoundly to this class of society in 
inducing them to subscribe for newspapers. Incidentally 
the fact is revealed that the newspapers do not have the 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 391 

confidence of many of this particular class of society. 
If later researches discover the fact that the lack of con- 
fidence is general with this class of society, the results 
may be disquieting to the publishers, but it will result 
in the production of some newspapers which conform to 
the demands of this great and influential body of citizens. 
The sensational newspaper may possess the confidence 
of the lower classes of society and hence be a good adver- 
tising medium for reaching that class. Unless the news- 
papers are a valuable medium with the better classes, 
they are not serviceable for many of the most influential 
advertisers. The hope for relief from sensational jour- 
nalism is to be found only in the discovery of the fact 
that a very influential class of business and professional 
men cannot be influenced by advertisements appearing 
in sensational publications. That this hope will be 
realized may be confldently anticipated if we may judge 
from the similar results which have been brought about 
of recent years in our best weeklies and monthlies. A 
few years ago all these publications contained adver- 
tisements of patent medicines, questionable financial 
schemes, etc. Many readers were interested in these 
advertisements and the space was well paid for. The 
significant fact was discovered, however, that more ad- 
vertising space could be sold in high-grade magazines 
that did not accept such advertisements. The space in 
the cleaner publications was worth more, simply because 
such publications secured the confidence of the class of 
society that had the money necessary to purchase the 
advertised goods. 

The value of a publication as an advertising medium 
is in a large degree determined by the particular class 
of citizens whose confidence it possesses. This is shown 
in monthlies, weeklies, and dailies. For instance, for 



392 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

every thousand of circulation the advertising space in 
the Century Magazine is worth one hundred and seventy- 
eight per cent, more than that in the Popular Magazine; 
and likewise, space in Collier's Weekly sells for two 
hundred and thirty-three per cent, more than space in 
Hearsfs Sunday Magazine. The Chicago evening papers 
are not able to secure so much for advertising space as 
the morning papers, circulation considered. The results 
of the investigation concerning the opinions of the two 
thousand Chicago business and professional men show 
that the Chicago paper which was most often preferred 
in proportion to its total circulation is the paper that 
secures, in proportion to circulation, a larger price than 
any of the others for its advertising space. That paper 
which was the least often preferred is the one which is 
compelled to sell its advertising space the cheapest, circu- 
lation being considered in both particulars. 

It will not be necessary for the better classes of so- 
ciety to boycott the firms advertising in the sensational 
newspapers — although such action might hasten the day 
of relief. If a large proportion of the better classes of 
society lack confidence in newspapers, then these pub- 
lications are not so valuable as advertising media as they 
might be. Sooner or later the publishers will find out 
the facts. Newspapers are sure to conform to the de- 
mands of the people because any other policy would be 
suicidal on the part of the publishers. Probably from 
fifty to ninety per cent, of the total income from afiy 
newspaper is derived from its advertising pages. Any- 
thing which makes these pages valuable will be diligently 
sought for even though the policy adopted may reduce 
the total subscription list. 

In all the answers received from business and pro- 
fessional men there was no expression of a hope that 



QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 393 

the newspapers would ever be better than at present. 
The sentiment seemed to be common that they were 
getting worse. Two facts, however, render this pessi- 
mistic conclusion at least uncertain if not improbable. 
The first fact is that the newspapers are primarily 
dependent for their life upon the income from their 
advertising. The second fact is that the value of these 
pages is largely determined by the confidence which the 
public has in the paper as a whole ; for lack of confidence 
in one part is unconsciously extended to all parts. The 
better American metropolitan daily is a wonderful em- 
bodiment of enterprise. If it would be strengthened as 
an advertising medium by an increased confidence on the 
part of the better classes of society, it is quite certain 
that the publishers will be equal to the emergency and 
will produce a paper that meets the enlightened and 
cultured demands. 

The Questionnaire Method is available in securing 
data valuable in planning an advertising campaign. If 
the questions asked are reasonable and interesting and if 
the motives of the person carrying on the research are 
not questioned, a large proportion of business and pro- 
fessional men will fill out the blank. 

Most business and professional men read more than 
one daily and hence may be reached by an advertisement 
even though it is not inserted in all the papers. Adver- 
tisements inserted both in the best and also in the poorer 
papers are largely lost in the latter because of duplica- 
tion of circulation. 

Most business and professional men spend about fif- 
teen minutes daily reading papers. The amount of time 
spent in reading advertisements must be very small. 
Hence advertisements should be so constructed that 
they will carry their message at a single glance. 



394 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Business and professional men subscribe for dailies 
because of the desire for news. Prizes, editorials, stori- 
ettes, etc., are of secondary importance in inducing these 
men to subscribe for any particular paper. 

These business and professional men lacked confidence 
in their preferred daily papers. Hence advertisements 
seen in such publications do not have the greatest pos- 
sible influence. The newspaper is, from the publisher's 
point of view, primarily an advertising medium and can 
attain its maximum value only when it secures the full 
confidence of its readers. This fact may lead to an im- 
provement in the ethical standards of our daily papers. 



SOCIAL SEEVICE OF ADVERTISING 395 



XXX 

THE SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 

The most widely known advertiser of the past genera- 
tion worked on the assumption that the American public 
likes to be humbugged. The advertising of the late P. T. 
Barnum is still thought of by many as typical of all ad- 
vertising. His style might be characterized as consum- 
mate skill in the use of bombast, hyperbole, and deceit. 
By glare of color, by exaggeration of description, and by 
grandeur of parades it bamboozled many innocent cit- 
izens into attending the menagerie, the circus, and the 
side shows. Such methods of advertising are so far 
removed from the methods pursued by continuous and 
successful advertising of to-day that it seems unjust to 
assign the same name to both. 

The advertising of Barnum was founded on the fact 
that he could hoodwink the public with profit to himself. 
Such advertising should be called hamboozling the public 
rather than advertising. The best advertising cam- 
paigns of to-day are founded on the assumption that the 
confidence of the public can be won by service rendered 
and when secured is the business man^s most valuable 
asset. Such advertising might properly be designated 
as the modern form of salesmanship. 

As human beings we are so organized into groups and 
subgroups that no one person can act in any way with- 
out affecting the other members of the group of which he 
is a member. If one negro commits a nefarious crime, 



396 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

all his race fall in our estimation. If one black man 
develops into a Booker T. Washington, we are likely to 
expect unprecedented evolution of his entire race. If 
by chance we come into contact with a Chinese gentle- 
man of unusual intellectual and moral worth, we are 
inclined to look for the orientalization of the world. 

As our opinion of a whole race is prejudiced by a few 
individuals of that race, so too is our judgment of the 
classes within the race biased by a few examples. One 
notorious slugger and dynamiter prejudices a million 
against all laborers. One corrupt capitalist awakens a 
popular distrust of the well-to-do classes. 

If a single person can affect the reputation of his 
entire nationality, and if each member of a group can 
affect the reputation of the entire group, a single adver- 
tiser has to an extreme degree the power to affect the 
reputation of all advertisers. A dishonest advertiser 
is a double menace to all of his associates, not only be- 
cause he actually deceives and defrauds the unwary, but 
also because by his wide publicity he subjects all adver- 
tisers to the scorn of the sophisticated. 

Modern advertising has the important and difficult 
task of overcoming the prejudice created by the exploit- 
ers of the past generation and perpetuated by the few 
disreputable advertisers of the present time. 

In a recent research on the psychology of advertising, 
21,820 persons answered one or more of the following 
three questions : 

Do you answer advertisements? 

Are you satisfied? 

If not, what is your complaint? 

Of that number 17,855 asserted that they made use 
of advertisements. The remaining 3,965 declared that 
they never had answered advertisements, or else had 



SOCIAL SEKVICE OF ADVEKTISING 397 

ceased to do so. Of the 3,965 who did not answer adver- 
tisements, the overwhelming majority said they did not 
trust the statements of the advertisers. Practically all 
would have been glad to make use of advertisements and 
would have done so if it were not for this element of 
distrust. 

Of the 17,855 who had answered advertisements, over 
ninety per cent, of them reported that their experience 
had been perfectly satisfactory. 

This fact comes out in the results of the research: 
Although it is lack of confidence that makes the public 
hesitate to ansiver advertisements y yet the number of 
persons who, are disappointed in answering advertise- 
ments has become relatively small. 

'No class of society, no professional, industrial, or com- 
mercial group can win and retain the confidence and 
respect of the public without adequate cause. In a 
recent research in social psychology, one hundred adults 
of experience were asked their judgments on these two 
questions: 

Fifty years ago, which group held most completely 
the respect and confidence of the American public, — ^^the 
lawyer, the physician, the business man, the minister, 
or the professor? 

To-day which group holds most completely the respect 
and confidence of the American public, — the lawyer, the 
physician, the business man, the minister, or the pro- 
fessor? 

The general consensus of opinion of the one hundred 
respondents was that the business man was clearly not 
the most respected fifty years ago, but that during these 
past five decades he had been progressing until to-day 
he outranks all his competitors in gaining the respect 
and confidence of the public. 



398 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Fifty years ago the advertiser was one of the least re- 
spected members of one of the least respected classes of 
society. To-day he is one of the most highly respected 
members of the most highly respected class of society. 
Such a remarkable change in social status cannot be 
accidental, but is the result of a psychological law that 
will continue to control the further evolution of adver- 
tising. 

In general, society has given its most profound respect 
and confidence to that class of society which renders the 
service which is felt as the most insiste^it and most vital. 
Because of this fact the holders of social prestige differ 
from nation to nation and from age to age according as 
these needs change from time to time and from place to 
place. 

The most highly respected class in Germany previous 
to November, 1918, was clearly not the commercial class. 
Germany was comparatively a small country territori- 
ally and was surrounded on all sides by nations jealous 
of her and supposedly desirous of humiliating her. The 
most pressing need of the German was supposed to be 
protection from these dreaded foreign foes. The Ger- 
man army satisfied this need. The military man was 
therefore looked upon in Germany as the one indis- 
pensable member of society. He alone could perform the 
task which the patriotic Germans most desired to have 
accomplished. Because of this fact, the social prestige 
in Germany was held by the military class. Where pos- 
sible, the German traced his ancestor to a man of mili- 
tary achievement. If a father, his ambition for his sons 
was that they might become officers in the army; his 
highest ambition for a daughter was that she might 
become the wife of a soldier. Every German took off 
his hat when he met an army officer. This homage was 



SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 399 

bestowed because of the service rendered by the military 
class, the supposed preservation of the integrity of the 
Fatherland. 

From the sixth to the thirteenth century, Europe was 
inhabited by peoples submerged in ignorance and super- 
stition. The blight of the crop, the destruction of the 
cattle, the hurricane, disease, pain, and death were all 
looked upon as the working of unseen and supernatural 
powers. Their most pressing felt need was deliverance 
from these malign forces. Such a' deliverance was 
offered by the priest. The priest not only offered escape 
from future eternal punishment, but he interceded for 
the living individual as well, and freed him from the 
dread of unfriendly supernatural forces. The priest 
thus rendered the service which the individual felt as the 
profoundest necessity. As a result of such services, the 
priestly class was given the place of social prestige. The 
Emperor bowed down to the' Pope, and one-third of the 
soil of Europe passed by free-will offerings into the hands 
of the clergy. 

In every land and in all ages there is a felt need for 
the formulation, adjudication, and execution of laws. 
The criminal must be restrained, justice between citizens 
secured, and the rights of the individual protected. 
When the ruling class renders such service, society 
grants to the political ruler and to his associates un- 
rivaled social prestige. 

From 1865 to 1900 the United States passed through 
a period of unprecedented commercial and industrial 
expansion. The most pressing felt need of the nation 
was the building of railroads, the stretching of wires, the 
sinking of wells, the digging of mines, the construction 
of manufacturing plants, and the organization of in- 
dustry on a national and international scale. This was 



400 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

a service that the capitalist could and did render. Hence 
it was that during the period from 1865 to 1900 the cap- 
italist was the American idol. We looked up to him and 
permitted him to dictate our laws and our national 
policy. Mothers discarded the traditions of Achilles, of 
David, and of King Arthur, but awakened the ambitions 
of their sons by narrating the achievements of the cap- 
tains of industry. 

But, suppose a German army did preserve the nation 
from the fear of foreign aggression and did win the con- 
fidence and respect of the German; suppose the priest- 
hood did free the medieval Europeans from the dread of 
unseen forces and thus secured the first place in the esti- 
mation of the inhabitants of the continent of Europe; 
suppose the ruling classes in many ages and nations 
have protected their peoples from injustice and oppres- 
sion and thus won the fealty of their subjects ; suppose 
the capitalists in America 'have enabled the nation to 
organize her activities on a more extensive plan and have 
thus received in return the homage of all America, — 
what of all this? What has it to do with advertising? 

It has ordinarily been assumed that no man goes in 
for advertising except to make money, that it is not his 
purpose to shield the citizen from foreign aggressions, 
vj to protect the ignorant from unseen enemies, to banish 

fraud, or to organize industry for the benefit of the pub- 
lic in any way. The twentieth-century conception is 
that, although no man goes in for advertising unless he 
expects to find it profitable, the only way to make money 
in advertising is to render social service. Occasionally 
an ancient pirate retained his booty to the end. We all 
know of instances where by fraud and corruption 
fortunes have been amassed. Highwaymen, counterfeit- 
ers, forgers, and def rauders are not always restrained, 



SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 401 

yet we all agree that in business, honesty is the best 
polieyi Advertising is the outcome of a social evolution. 
The advertiser is, in the last analysis, the servant of the 
ultimate consumer. Only in so far as he proves to be 
an efficient servant does he receive the respect and con- 
fidence of his master, the ultimate consumer. 

To-day we have come to see that the crucial estimate 
of the work of the advertiser is service to the ultimate 
consumer. By approximating this standard the adver- 
tiser has arisen in social prestige. But until his adver- 
tising is conducted strictly in the interest of the ultimate 
consumer he will never win the complete confidence of 
the public and occupy the position of prestige to which 
he may possibly attain. 

But few, if any of us, to-day believe that the position 
of the United States among the nations of the earth is to 
be effected by military force. We are not likely to be 
invaded by a hostile army, and we are not likely to better 
our condition by conquest. Our national struggle is to 
be economic and not military. The greatest menace to 
America's prosperity to-day is the high cost of living. 
We have largely solved our problems of production and 
manufacture, but our problem of distribution is with 
the future. The cost which is added to the product, 
after it leaves the producer or manufacturer, and before 
it reaches the ultimate consumer, is so enormous that it 
would seem no people could continue to pay it year after 
year and not become impoverished. One single item in 
the distribution of merchandise is general advertising. 
America's annual contribution to such advertising is 
commonly estimated at |800,000,000. It has been stated 
by various advertising experts that much of this adter- 
tising is so unwisely done, that three-fourths of it is lost 
annually. 



402 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

The annual expense for traveling salesmen is said to 
approximate $1,600,000,000, or double that for general 
advertising. It is possible that if advertising were suffi- 
ciently well done, the number of traveling salesmen 
could be decreased so that the expense for such salesmen 
would be reduced to $800,000,000 annually; that is to 
say, $800,000,000, the expense of traveling salesmen, 
would be made equal to the amount now expended an- 
nually for advertising. This economy alone would save 
the American people $800,000,000 annually. Such an 
amount, if spent for food, and applied to the right places, 
would probably be sufficient to drive want from the home 
of every needy family in America. Every dollar 
squandered in distribution is lost to the ultimate con- 
sumer. On the other hand, the ultimate consumer re- 
ceives the benefit from every dollar that is wisely spent 
on advertising, because efficient advertising is the most 
economical form known of distributing merchandise. 

One of the favorite questions for debate in the old- 
fashioned debating society was. Which is mightier, the 
pen or the sword? In Germany the soldier was better 
trained than the advertiser, the soldier's service was 
more important in the eyes of the patriotic citizen, and 
the soldier was esteemed more highly than the adver- 
tiser. But in Germany the new generation is less en- 
thusiastic for war and more enthusiastic for commercial 
efficiency. In America the advertiser is as well trained 
as the soldier. The distribution of the necessities of life 
is recognized as a greater social service than intimidat- 
ing Indians and strikers or parading on Decoration Day. 
If the advertiser renders a greater social service than 
the soldier, society will be willing to award him honor 
and fitting remuneration. 

In the hand of the efficient advertiser the pen wields 



SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 403 

the mightier influence for the prosperity of America than 
a musket in the hands of a national volunteer. Society 
ultimately rewards those who render needed service and 
it is no surprise that the advertiser is coming to his own 
in the estimation and esteem of our people. 

Until the last century the typical American family 
lived in the country or in a small village. The needs of 
the family appear to us to have been pathetically few. 
Practically all the provisions for the table were raised 
in the family garden or purchased from producers in the 
vicinity. If the flour was had from the miller, he was a 
neighbor known personally to all of his customers. 
Every man in the community knew the quality of wheat 
used for grinding and had watched the process of manu- 
facture from the time the wheat left the bin until it was 
tied up as flour in the sack. The purchaser knew the 
products as well as did the manufacturer himself. 

The clothing was not infrequently spun and made 
up in the home. When garments were purchased, the 
buyer was in a position to judge of the quality and price 
of the goods, for the source of material and the method 
of manufacture were known to him. 

The principal method of transportation was by means 
of the horse. Every purchaser of a horse knew the 
weak and the strong points of the animal. Not infre- 
quently he had known the horse by name from the time 
it was a colt. The seller and the buyer were on equal 
footing and the joy of trading horses was recognized 
among our ancestors. 

If any form of investment were to be made, it might 
be the purchase of real estate in the vicinity, a part inter- 
est in a neighboring industry, or perhaps a government 
bond. 

Food, clothing, transportation, and investment were 



404 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVEKTISING 

typical wants of our ancestors. The seller and the 
buyer possessed equal knowledge of the merchandise. 
This fact was recognized by law under the principle 
caveat emptor. Translated in simple English this legal 
term means, Let the purchaser beware. The legal as- 
sumption was, that if the purchaser exercised due pre- 
caution he would not be cheated. If he was cheated, no 
one was to blame but himself. 

Alas, alas, that the day of the self-sufficient and com- 
petent purchaser has passed ! You and I look with pity 
on the medieval European who, surrounded with the 
mysteries of pain and death, and oppressed with the 
dread of unseen powers, turned to the priest for guid- 
ance and protection. It is necessary but to call your 
attention to the fact that the ultimate consumer in 
America is in a position quite comparable to that of his 
or her ancient European ancestor. When the woman of 
the house steps to the telephone to order provisions for 
the morrow she is haunted with the visions of the unseen 
world — microbes, poison, adulterations, and substitu- 
tions. These are horrors and monsters of which person- 
ally she can have no knowledge and over which she can 
have no control. 

When she orders clothing for her household she fears 
that the prints are not permanent, that the woolens are 
cotton, and that the leather is paper. It is quite beyond 
her power to judge of the quality or the value of all her 
purchases. 

The buyer of an automobile, the holder of a ticket on 
a railroad or a steamboat, is unable to judge for himself 
as to the quality of material and workmanship that goes 
into the construction of his vehicle of transportation. 

The man and the woman having money to invest know 
little or nothing of the business methods of the corpora- 



SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 405 

tion in whose securities they invest their earnings. They 
are not in a position to investigate the business for them- 
selves, nor can they afford to secure the services of com- 
petent attorneys or experts to make independent reports 
for them, because the cost of this investigation would as 
a rule far exceed the amount of the investment. 

The ultimate. consumer in America, in making his pur- 
chases, is in a peculiarly dependent condition. In case 
of need, society seeks a protection. At the present junc- 
ture the honest distributor, and particularly the honor- 
able advertiser, is assuming the responsibility of protect- 
ing the ignorant. 

The publishers of some of our best magazines allow 
no advertisement to appear in their pages unless the firm 
placing the advertisement is financially and otherwise 
responsible, and unless the advertisement contains only 
statements deemed to be truthful. 

A few of the best advertising agencies refuse to give 
their advice to firms conducting questionable business. 
Such agencies refuse business on the ground that the 
merchandise offered for sale renders no social service — 
it neither reduces the cost of living nor adds to the rich- 
ness of life. 

Our best mercantile houses exercise the greatest pre- 
caution to see that their advertisements in no way de- 
ceive the readers or arouse false hope. The advertise- 
ments are written, not mainly to dispose of a particular 
line of goods, but to provide possible customers with 
store news and to create good will. 

Likewise the advertising campaigns of our best "bond 
houses are planned, not primarily to sell any particular 
securities^ hut to educate the public to discriminate be- 
tween sound and unsound investments. By such educa- 
tional campaigns the public is being taught to be wary 



406 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

of investments exploited by promises of inordinately 
high income return or hy promises of certainty of rise 
in value. When the public is thus educated it avoids 
the tipster, the tout, and the man of the sure-thing 
gamble, and it seeks out the house that offers investment 
service, that offers a diversity of sound investment, that 
places safety above speculation, principle above high 
interest, and bases its business on its ability to keep 
its customers rather than on its ability to continue to 
get a lot of new business. 

One of the principal services rendered society by the 
political ruler and his associates is the creation of laws, 
their adjudication and execution. This service is ten- 
dered primarily in the interests of social justice. In the 
present state of the commercial world, our governmental 
powers are unable to render such service in any adequate 
degree. 

Mr. R. S. Sharp, Chief Post-Office Inspector, reports 
that during a recent year the American public handed 
over 177,000,000 to men who were later convicted of 
fraud. A large part of this |77,000,000 was secured as 
a result of fraudulent advertising. Each year there is a 
new brood. The Post-Office Department is unable to 
prevent fraudulent advertising. The best it can do is to 
punish a few of the worst offenders after they have de- 
frauded the public of millions of dollars annually and 
made the public suspicious of all advertisers. There is 
no force in America that can suppress fraudulent adver- 
tising and thus win the confidence of the public in adver- 
tisements except the advertisers themselves. 

The honest advertisers of America are awakening to 
the fact that they alone possess the power to eliminate 
the fraudulent advertiser. No advertising publication 
can flourish unless it receives the patronage of the 



SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 407 

reputable advertisers. When, therefore, the reputable 
advertisers refuse to buy space in publications carrying 
questionable advertisements the fraudulent advertiser is 
forced from the field. When reputable manufacturers 
refuse to place their accounts with agencies handling the 
business of any questionable firms, the criminal destroy- 
ers of public confidence are unable to exploit their com- 
modities. 

In so far as educational advertising campaigns teach 
the public to discriminate between the honest merchant 
and the faker, the houses conducting,the campaigns not 
only gain customers, they also render a social service 
of incalculable value. 

During the last six or seven decades the capitalist has 
made possible the expansion of American industries. He 
has supplied the plant and the equipment. The rail- 
roads, the rural route, the irrigating ditch, the wells and 
the mines are now realities, and should be utilized in 
the service of the public. Expansion would be useless 
unless a comprehensive and economical method of dis- 
tribution were provided. Because of these services, the 
capitalist has won our esteem, but the greater task of 
distribution is left to the advertiser. There is no real 
service in scientific manufacture on a large scale unless 
there can be a final reduction in cost to the ultimate 
consumer. When the cost of distribution shall have 
been lessened as has the cost of production, then, not the 
capitalist, but the advertiser will be heralded as the 
captain of industry. 

The advertiser in the past may have been the exploiter 
of the public, but the new generation of advertisers are 
becoming more and more the protectors of society. In 
the past they may have in all too many instances misled 
the unwary, but the successful advertisers of to-day are 



408 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

becoming the trusted guides of the ultimate consumer. 
The fraudulent advertiser has not yet become extinct, 
nevertheless the great body of advertisers in America 
is to-day one of the most substantial forces in protecting 
the public from fraud. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY * 409 



XXXI 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The literature on the subject of advertising has enor- 
mously increased since the last revision of this work. 
The books cited in the following list have been carefully 
selected, and although some of them are of relatively 
minor significance, a familiarity with them is well 
worth the while of all vitally concerned with the science 
or the art of advertising; In view of the size of the 
present list it has seemed necessary to omit reference 
to the studies of specific forms of advertising such as 
bank advertising, drygoods advertising, etc. The prices 
given are neither complete nor vouched for as final. 

ACHERSON, A. 

TRADEMARK ADVERTISING AS AN INVESTMENT. The NcW Yovk 

Evening Post, New York, 1917, pp. 35, $1.00. Several well- 
written little articles on the value of the trademark in ad- 
vertising. 

Adams, Henry Foster. 

ADVERTISING AND ITS MENTAL LAWS. Macmillan Co., NeW 

York, 1916, pp. 333, $1.50. A psychological interpretation of 
advertising. A thoroughgoing attempt to reduce the com- 
plexities of printed advertisements to their elements. 
Scientific and reliable. 

Allen, Frederic J. 

ADVERTISING AS A VOCATION. Macmillan Co., New York, 1919. 
An excellent study of the subject of advertising. Traces its 
historical development. Describes carefully the methods 
and mediums of retail and manufacturing advertising. 



410 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Contains a chapter on the ethics of advertising and the 
qualities, training, etc., necessary for success in this 
profession. 

American Association of Foreign -Language Newspapers. 

THE UNREACHED MILLIONS. American Association of Foreign- 
Language Newspapers, New York, 1909, pp. 55. A short 
pamphlet which contains some interesting ideas on the ad- 
vertising directed toward foreigners in this country. 

American Printer. 

THE AMERICAN MANUAL OF TYPOGRAPHY. The Oswald Pub- 
lishing Co., Neiv York, 1905, pp. 105, $Jf.OO. An exhaustive 
exposition of the various phases of type-composition. This 
volume is prepared by a number of experts and represents 
the best, to date, in typography. 

Arren, J. 

LA PUBLICITE LUCRATIVE ET RAISONNEB. SON ROLE DANS LES 

AFFAIRES. Bihliotheque des ouvrages pratiques, 1909, pp. 
Jf36. The author claims this as the first work written in 
French on the subject. He describes it as a. study of ad- 
vertising, its place, its methods, and its results. It is 
illustrated by accounts of the launching of notable adver- 
tising campaigns in France. 

Balmer, Edwin. 

THE SCIENCE OF ADVERTISING. Duffteld & Co., Ncw York, 1910, 
pp. 64. 

Balmer, Thomas. 

SOME sunken rocks IN ADVERTISING. Buttcrick Co., New 
York, 1906, pp. 26. 

Barsodi, William. 

advertising cyclopedia of selling phrases; short talks by 
merchants and advertisement writers, classified to facili- 
tate the expression of ideas and assist merchants in 
general lines of business and specialists in the prepara- 
TION OF ADVERTISING COPY. The Advertiscrs Cyclopedia Co., 
New York, 1909, pp. 1360, $15.00. 



BIBLIOGEAPHY 411 

Bates, Charles Austin. 

THE ART AND LITERATURE OP BUSINESS. Bates Advertising 
Co., New York, 1902, 6 volumes, pp. 2221, $25.00. The work 
contains no table of contents, and the index fills the entire 
sixth volume of 324 pages. The work is intended to be an 
encyclopedia of advertising although this is not made clear 
by the title. It is in the main a most creditable production 
and in spite of minor deficiencies should be a part of every 
advertiser's library. 

Bellamy, Francis, Editor. 

EFFECTIVE MAGAZINE ADVERTISING. With an introduction 
''The Science of Advertising Copy," Mitchell Kennerley, 
New York, 1909, pp. 361, $5.00. 

Berkwitz, William Leonard. 

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF THE MAIL ORDER BUSINESS. PuhUshcd hy 

the author. New York, 1908, pp. 270, $5.00- 

Bird, Thomas Alexander. 

SALES PLANS. The Merchants' Record Co., Chicago, 1906, 
pp. 282, $2.50. A book filled with schemes for increasing 
business. A collection of three hundred and thirty-three 
successful ways of getting business, including a great va- 
riety of practical plans that have been used by retail mer- 
chants to advertise and sell goods. 

Breitwieser, Joseph Valentine. 

psychological advertising. Apex Book Co., Colorado 
Springs, 1915, pp. 167, $0.80. Evidently intended as a begin- 
ners' text-book. Touches lightly upon a number of topics. 

Bridgewater, Howard. 

advertising; or the art of making known: a simple ex- 
position OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING. I. Pitman & Son, 
New York, 1910, pp. 102. A short book on the principles of 
advertising especially as applied to conditions in England. 

Bunting, Henry S. 

SPECIALTY ADVERTisiNc;. Novclty Ncws Prcss, Chicago, 1914, 
pp. 163. 



412 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Bunting, Henry S. 

the premium system of forcing sales i its principles, laws, 
AND USES. Novelty News Press, Chicago, 1913, pp. 180, 
$2.00. A study of premium systems of various kinds and a 
plea for their use as an advertising device. 

Bunting, Henry S. 

THE elementary LAWS OF AD\^RTISING AND HOW TO USE THEM. 

Novelty News Press, Chicago, 1913, pp. 188. Written for 
the "business man" and deals with some of the recognized 
topics of advertising, such as media, circulation, appeal, 
etc. 

Calkins, Ernest Elmo. 

THE BUSINESS OP ADVERTISING. D. ApplctOU & Co., NcW Yorhy 

1915, pp. 363, $2.00. A revision which has amounted to 
a complete rewriting of his earlier work, "Modern Adver- 
tising." Intended to "show briefly the work of those who 
deal in advertising." 

Casson, Herbert Newton. 

ads and sales '. a study of advertising and selling from the 
standpoint of the new principles of scientific manage- 
MENT. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1911, pp. 167, $2.00. 
A series of a dozen popular talks on advertising and sales- 
manship with practical illustrations. 

Castarede, L. de. 

MONEY-MAKING BY AD-WRITING. NeufYian and Castarede, 
London, 1905, pp. 367, 10s., 6d. This book is intended for 
beginners in advertising and contains the following chap- 
ters: Composition and Style in Writing Advertisements; 
Technical Proof and Press Corrections ; Block Type ; Illus- 
trations; Small Advertisements; Newspaper Advertising; 
Magazine Advertisfng; Circularising; Eatio of Advertising 
to Eeturns; Poster Advertising; How to "Key" Advertise- 
ments; The Psychology of Advertising; also several other 
chapters of less importance. The author makes much use 
of the American contributions to the literature of advertis- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 413 

ing. This is especially apparent in the chapter on "The 
Psychology of Advertising" which consists almost entirely 
of quotations from "The Theory of Advertising," by Scott, 
though no mention of this fact is made by the author. 

Chapman, Clowry. 

THE LAW of advertising AND SALES. PuhUslied hy the 
author, Denver, 1908, 2 volumes, $10.00. 

Chasnoff, J. E. 

SELLING NEWSPAPER SPACE : HOW TO DEVELOP LOCAL ADVERTISING. 

The Ronald Press Co., New York, 1913, pp. 133, $1.50. A 
half-dozen chapters on the value and efficiency of news- 
paper advertising. 

Cherrington, Paul Terry. 

advertising as a business force! a compilation of experi- 
ENCE RECORDS. Douhledap, Page d Co., Garden City, N.Y., 
1913, pp. 569, $2.00. A thoroughgoing study of the practical 
problems of advertising, such as distribution, media, adver- 
tising for the retail and wholesale trades, premium sys- 
tems, trademarks, disposals of costs, etc. Prepared as a 
text for the Educational Committee of the Associated 
Advertising Clubs of America. 

Cherrington, Paul Terry. 

THE ADVERTISING BOOK. Douhlcday, Page & Co., Garden 
City, N.Y., 1916, pp. 604, $2.00. Prepared, like his earlier 
work, for the A. A. C. of W. Its chief purpose, the author 
states, is "to put into form for convenient reference some of 
the available records of recent progress in advertising 
methods." Highly instructive and entertaining reading. 

Clifford, William George. 

building your business by mail: a compilation of success- 
ful direct advertising campaigns drawn from the experi- 
ence records of 361 firms representing every line op busi- 
NESS. Business Research Puhlicity Co., Chicago, 1914, pp. 
443, $2.00. A plea for direct advertising and its specific 
application to many kinds of merchandising. 



414 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Cody, Sherwix. 

how to do business by letter and advertising*. a practical 
and scientific method of handling customers by written 
SALESMANSHIP. Cofistahle & Co., London, 1911, pp. 288, 
$1.50. A collection and explanation of sample letters to 
be used in general business procedure, sales and advertis- 
ing campaigns. 

Cody, S her win. 

how to deal with human nature in business '. a practical 
book on doing business by correspondence, advertising, and 
SALESMANSHIP. Funk & Wagncills Co., New York, 1915, pp. 
488, $2.00. An amplification of Ms earlier work, "How to 
do Business by Letter and Advertising." Contains addi- 
tional chapters on tlie principles of salesmanship. 

Coleman, Edgar Werner. 

ADVERTISING DEVELOPMENT. PuhUsked by tlw author, Mil- 
waukee, 1909, pp. 449' An account of the progressive 
development of advertising. Interestingly written. 

Collins, James H. 

HUMAN NATURE IN SELLING GOODS. Henry Altemus Co., 
Philadelphia, 1909, pp. 93, $0.50 net. 

CoRBiN, William A. 

SALESMANSHIP DEPORTMENT AND SYSTEM. G. W. JaCOhS <& 

Co., Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 380, $1.00. 

Curtis Publishing Company. 

SELLING FORCES. The Curtis Publishing Co., Philadelphia, 
1913, pp. 288. Deals with the history of advertising, and 
with its present efficiency, machinery, and methods, and 
the consumer toward whom it is directed. 

Debower, Herbert Francis. 

ADVERTISING PRINCIPLES. Alexander Hamilton Institute, 
New York, 1917, pp. 330. One of a series of texts prepared 
for the Alexander Hamilton Institute. Treats of the pur- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 415 

pose of advertising; the methods of getting the advertise- 
ment seen, read, understood, and acted upon; and the 
various instruments employed, such as trademarks, slogans, 
catalogs, etc. 

DeLAND, LORIN F. 

IMAGINATION IN BUSINESS. Harper and Brothers, New York, 
1909, pp. 108, $0.50. 

Deuch, Ernest Alfred. 

ADVERTISING BY MOTION PICTURES. The Standard Publishing 
Co., Cincinnati, 1916, pp. 255, $1.00. A study of the com- 
paratively new method of motion-picture advertising. Takes 
up the respective values of slides and films and their appli- 
cation to different types of advertising; 

DeWeese, Trauman A. 

THE principles OF PRACTICAL PUBLICITY. The Matthews- 
Northrup Works, Buffalo, 1906, pp. 2JfJf. A treatise on the 
art of advertising. Sold only as a part of Business Man's 
Library System Co., Chicago. The following are the chap- 
ter titles: Modern Commercial Publicity; What is Adver- 
tising? Mediums Employed by General and Direct Pub- 
licity; What is Good Advertising Copy? The Bull's-eye 
Method in Advertising; "Keason-Why Copy"; The Maga- 
zine and the Newspaper; Kelative Values of Magazine 
Pages; Mail-Order Advertising; Follow-up Systems; The 
Booklet in Mail-Order Advertising; "Keying" Mail-Order 
Advertisements; Bank Advertising; Street Car Advertis- 
ing; Railway and Steamship Advertising; Outdoor Adver- 
tising; Planning an Advertising Campaign; The Advertis- 
ing Agency. This is one of the best books on the subject 
of advertising. 

Dunn, Arthur., 

KEEPING A DOLLAR AT WORK. The New York Evening Post, 
New York, 1915, pp. 176, $1.00. Fifty short talks devoted 
to the importance of the newspaper in successful adver- 
tising and merchandising. 



416 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISI:NG 

Dunn, Arthur. 

SCIENTIFIC SELLING AND ADVERTISING. Industrial Publishing 
Co.f New York, 1919, pp. 119. Short exposition of some oft- 
repeated axioms of advertising. 

Edgar, A. E. 

HOW TO ADVERTISE A RETAIL STORE. The OuUng Press, 
Deposit, N.Y., 1908, pp. 50 Jf, $3.50. 

Eldridge, Harold Francis. 

MAKING ADVERTISING PAY. The State, Columbus, S.C., 1918, 
pp. 231. Deals with the economic and social side of adver- 
tising, with the application of psychological principles, and 
details specific methods adapted to retail and wholesale 
merchandising. 

Farrar, Gilbert Powerly. 

THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS THAT PAY. D. AppletOH 

d Co., New York, 1918, pp. 282, $2.25. A classification of 
type faces and their application to certain general styles 
of advertising, e.g., the hand-lettered, the poster, the depart- 
ment store, etc., together with chapters on the combina- 
tions of types, of type with pictures, borders, margins, etc. 
A plea for a more thorough knowledge of typography 
among advertising men. 

Farrington, Frank. 

RETAIL ADVERTISING COMPLETE. The Byxhee Publishing Co., 
Chicago, 1910, pp. 270, $1.00. A dozen chapters, informally 
written, on methods of retail advertising such as window- 
trimming, media, special sales, etc. 

Fowler, Nathaniel C. 

ABOUT ADVERTISING AND PRINTING. L. Barta & Co., Boston, 

1880, pp. 160, $2.00. This volume treats of the same gen- 
eral subjects as the author's encyclopedia. This later book 
is, however, more adequate and is the product of later 
years. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 417 

Out of print, to be had only at second-hand. The most 
pretentious and complete work on advertising to date. 

Fox, Irving P., and Forbes, B. A. 

ONE THOUSAND W^AYS AND SCHEMES TO ATTRACT TRADE. Spatultt 

PnUishing Co., Boston, 1912, pp. 208, $1.00. 

French, George. 

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF ADVERTISING. Sherman, FreucJi & 
Co., Boston, 1909, pp. 291, $2.00 net. 

French, George. 

ADVERTISING : THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEM. Tlw Ronald 

Press, New York, 1915, pp. 258, $2.00. A well-written book 
dealing with the general topics of advertising. 

French, George. 

HOW TO advertise: a guide to DESIGNING, LAYING OUT, AND 

COMPOSING ADVERTISEMENTS. DouMeday, Page & Co., Garden 
City, N.Y., 1917, pp. 279, $2.00. Written for the A. A. C. of 
W. Shows the principles adopted from graphic arts, 
optics, and psychology that are behind effective advertising. 
Demonstrates the waste in advertising by concrete examples 
of ads that have made or missed their mark. 

Gale, Harlow. 

ON the psychology op ADVERTISING. PiihUshed by the 
author, Minneapolis, 1900, pp. 32, $0.75. The author of this 
pamphlet seems to have been the first to apply experimental 
methods to the subject. 

Galloway, Lee. 

ADVERTISING AND CORRESPONDENCE. Alexander Hamilton In- 
stitute, New York, 1913, pp. 606. Written as a text for the 
Alexander Hamilton Institute. Deals with the history of 
advertising; the pisychological factors involved in writing 
ads ; the technique of advertising, typography, illustrations, 
arrangement, etc., advertising media of all sorts ; sales and 
follow-up letters. 



418 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Gerin, Octave Jacques, et Espixadel, C. 

la publicite suggestive, theorie et technique, avec preface 
DE M. WALTER DILL SCOTT. H. Dufiod and E, Pinat, Paris, 
1911, pp. W. A thorough exposition of the subject of ad- 
vertising. Treats of its history, its national characteris- 
tics, its value to the public, its theoretical laws, — sugges- 
tion, etc.; its practical laws, — optic, spacial, etc.; its media; 
its special devices such as trademark, mail order, house- 
organ, etc.; and its legal regulations. 

GOODALL, G. 

advertising: a study op a modern business power. With 
an Introduction hy Sidney Wehh, Constable & Co., Lon- 
don, 191Jf^ pp. 91. A short treatise on advertising as an 
economic factor. 

Hall, Samuel Robert. 

WRITING AN advertisement; AN ANALYSIS OF THE METHODS 
AND MENTAL PROCESSES THAT PLAY A PART IN THE WRITING 

OF SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING. Hougliton Mifflin Co., New 
York, 1915, pp. 217, $1.00. A detailed description of the 
make-up of an advertisement, its construction, its setting, 
and its effect. 

Hawkins, George Henry H. 

NEWSPAPER advertising: BEING A SERIES OF TALKS ON THE 
VALUE AND USE OF THIS GREATEST OF ALL LOCAL ADVERTISING 
MEDIUMS — THE NEWSPAPER — WITH REPRODUCTIONS OF OVER 
1,000 ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENTS. ALSO INCLUDES READY-MADE 
ADVERTISEMENTS, HEADINGS, AND CATCH PHRASES FOR EVERY 
LINE OF RETAIL BUSINESS, AND 58 PAGES OF INSERT REPRODUC- 
TIONS OF ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENTS, WITH COMMENTS. Adver- 
tisers' Publishing Co., Chicago, 191^, pp. 119, $4-00. 

Henderson, R. 

Henderson's sign painter. Published by the author, New- 
ark, N.J., 1906, pp. 112, $3.00. A compilation of the very 
best creations from the very best artists in their specialties, 
embracing all the standard alphabets; also all the modern 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 419 

and fashionable styles of the times. The book contains 
nothing more than the title indicates. The price is ex- 
cessive. 

Hess, Herbert Williams. 

PRODUCTIVE ADVERTISING. J. B. Lippificott, Philadelphia, 
1915, pp. 358, $2.50. A general book on advertising. In- 
cludes chapters on the history of advertising; the part 
played in it by sense experience, instinct, imagination, at- 
tention; the technique of advertising; and other items of 
general interest. 

High AM, Charles Frederick. 

SCIENTIFIC DISTRIBUTION. NesMt d Co., Lofidon, 1916, pp. 
170. A study of publicity as an economic factor. Describes 
the matter and manner of advertising, and offers sugges- 
tions as to its wider application. 

Hollixgsworth, Harry Levi. 

advertising and selling : principles of appeal and response. 
D. Appleton d Co., New York, 1913, pp. 310, $2.00. An 
investigation of the mental processes involved in the re- 
sponse to the advertising appeal as demonstrated by actual 
advertisements, and an attempt to anticipate by laboratory 
methods the effectiveness of new ones. A reliable and 
scientific study. Contains topical references for further 
study. 

HoYT, Charles Wilson. 

THE PREPARATION OF A MARKETING PLAN. Aft addrcss deliv- 
ered before the Department of Business Administration of 
Yale University, 1917, pp. 22. Outlines a complete working 
plan for the marketing of a product by advertising. Con- 
cise and lucid. 

International Correspondence Schools.. 

RETAIL ADVERTISING. International Textbook Co., Scranton, 
Pa., 1905, 2 volumes, each of over JfOO pages, $4.00 per vol- 
ume, hut not to he had except in sets of 5 volumes. The 



420 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

following are the chapter heads: Copy and Proof; Supple- 
mentary Advertising; Retail Advertising Management; 
Conducting an Advertising Office; Department Store Ad- 
vertising; Advertisement Illustration; Advertisement Con- 
struction; Principles of Display; Illustrations in News- 
paper Advertisements; Engraving Process; Advertise- 
ments for Various Businesses; Cyclopedia of Retail Ad- 
vertisements and Selling Points; Printing-House Methods; 
Exhibit of Advertising Types and Borders. Each chapter 
is written by an expert. Chapters are being added from 
time to time and the whole "course" bids fair to be the 
best encyclopedia of advertising. 

International Correspondence Schools. 

LETTERING AND SIGN PAINTING. International Textbook Co., 
Bcranton, Pa., 1902, pp. 237, $4.00, but to be had only in 
connection with If other volumes {as above). 

International Correspondence Schools. 

SHOW-CARD writing. International Textbook Co., Scranton, 
Pa., 1903, pp. 172; in addition many pages of illustrations, 
$Jf.OO, but to be had only in connection with Jf other vol- 
umes {as above). 

International Correspondence Schools. 

FORM letters AND FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS, CATALOGS, BOOKLETS, 
AND FOLDERS, MANAGEMENT OF GENERAL CAMPAIGNS, MISCEL- 
LANEOUS DETAILS OF MANAGEMENT, THE ADVERTISING AGENCY, 

HOW TO ENTER THE PRACTICAL FIELD. International Textbook 
Co., Scranton, Pa., 1909, pp. Jf85. 

International Correspondence Schools. 

engraving and printing methods, advertisement illustra- 
TION, technical and trade PAPER ADVERTISING, STREET-CAR 

ADVERTISING, OUTDOOR ADVERTISING, HOUSE PUBLICATIONS. In- 
ternational Textbook Co., Scranton, Pa., 1909, pp. 4S2. 

International Correspondence Schools. 

advertisement display: mediums: retail management: de- 
PARTMENT store MANAGEMENT. International Textbook Co., 
Scranton, Pa. 



BIBLIOGKAPHY 421 

International Correspondence Schools. 

advertising: copy for advertisements: correct and faulty 
diction: punctuation and editing: type and type measure- 
ments: layouts: proofreading. International TexthooTc 
Co., Scranton, Pa, 

International Correspondence Schools. 

advertiser's pocket book. International Textbook Co., 
Scranton, Pa., 1911, pp. JflS. A book of reference dealing 
with plans, copy, typography, illustration, media, man- 
agement, and other details of advertising practice. 

Jones, Christopher. 

HANDBOOK OF ADVERTISING. A MANUAL FOR THOSE WHO WISH 
TO become ACQUAINTED WfTH THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES 

OF ADVERTISING. Pitman d Son, New York, 1912, pp. 133. 
Intended for the use of manufacturers planning an adver- 
tising campaign. Deals with the various practices of 
advertising, outdoor, press, etc. 

Kastor, E. 

ADVERTISING. La Salle Extension University, Chicago, 1918, 
pp. 317. Written for the business man and contains prac- 
tical information on such topics as appeal, copy, layout, 
media, advertising agencies, etc. 

Kaufman, Herbert. 

THE CLOCK that HAD NO HANDS. Gcorge H. Doran Co., New 
York, 1912, pp. llJf. Twenty short popular talks on the 
value of advertising. 

Lenington, Norman G. 

SEVEN principles OF SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING. Commercial 
Science System, Scranton, Pa., 1908, pp. Ul, $1.00. 

Lewis, Barnard Joseph. 

how to make type talk: the relation of typography to 

VOICE modulation; basic PRINCIPLES AS DEVELOPED AND PROVEN 

IN ACTUAL PRACTICE. The Stctson Press, Boston, 1914, pp. 



422 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

SI, $1.00. A short paper on the relation of different styles 
of type, spacing, etc., to the thought they are intended to 
convey. Illustrated by pages of sample type. 

Lewis, E. St. Elmo. 

FiNAxeiAL ADVERTISING. Lcvcy Brothcrs & Co., Indianapolis, 
1908, pp. 992, $5.00. 

Lewis, Henry Harrison, and Duff, Orva S. 

HOW fortunes are made in advertising. Publicity Pub- 
lifihing Co., Chicago, 1908, pp. 2^2, $1.25. 

LlESENBERG, CaRL. 

personliohe, geschaftliche, politische reklame : LEHRBUCH 

DER REKLAMEKUNST, DEREN WESEN, BEDEUTUNG und konse- 

QUENZEN. PfalziscJie Verlagsanstaldf, Neustadt a.d. Haardt, 
1912, pp. 288. A general study dealing with the theory of 
advertising, its appeal, its value, and the relative merits 
of its various forms. 

Lindgren, Charles. 

THE new salesmanship AND HOW TO DO BUSINESS BY MAIL. 

Laird d Lee, Chicago, 1909, pp. 190, $1.50. 

Macdonald, J. Angus. 

SUCCESSFUL advertising: how to accomplish IT. The Lin- 
coln Publishing Co., Philadelphia, 191)2, pp. JfOO, $2.00. The 
book contains the following five chapters: Advertisement 
Building; Eetail Advertising all the Year Around; Special 
Features in Eetail Advertising; Mail Order Advertising; 
Miscellaneous Advertising. The book contains much ad- 
vice, numerous illustrations of good ways of saying things, 
and is altogether a helpful book for the beginner in adver- 
tising. 

Mahin, John Lee. 

LECTURES ON ADVERTisii^G. MaMn Advertising Co., Chicago, 
1907, pp. 76, $1.00. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 423 

Mahin, John Lee. 

mahin's advertising data book. Mahin Advertising Co., 
Chicago, 1908, pp, 556, $2.00. 

Mahin, John Lee. 

advertising: selling the consumer. Douhleday, Page & 
Co., Garden City, N.Y., 1919, pp. 298, $2.00. Written for 
the A. A. C. of W. Describes the commercial status of ad- 
vertising; its value; its tools; its media; the method of 
building and testing an advertisement; and takes up such 
specific topics as trademarks, mail order business, etc. 
Contains chapter references for supplementary reading. 

Martin, Mac. 

planning an advertising campaign for a manufacturer. 
Bulletin of the University of Minnesota, 1914, pp. 99. Maps 
out an advertising campaign by a thoroughgoing analysis 
of the product, its markets, channels of distribution, media, 
and the construction of its ads. 

Martin, Mac. 

advertising campaigns. Alexander Hamilton Institute, 
New York, 1917, pp. 338. Written as a text-book for the 
Alexander Hamilton Institute. Starts a campaign from 
the beginning with an analysis of the demand for the 
product, competition to be encountered, costs, methods of 
giving identity to the product, advertising technique, medi- 
ums and ways of estimating their value, testing success by 
sampling and other means. 

Mataja, Victor. 

die reklame. fine untersuchung "user ankundigungswesen 
UND werbetatigkeit im geschaftsleben. Duncker d Hum- 
hlot, Leipzig, 1910, pp. 489. An exhaustive study treating 
of the laws and principles of advertising, media, technique, 
and the legal regulations of advertising. 

McNaughlan, Flint. 

MORE business THROUGH POSTCARDS : AN EXHAUSTIVE ANALYSIS 
OF THE POSSIBILITIES FOR INTENSIVELY INCREASING PROFITABLE 



424 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

SALES THROUGH RETURN POSTCARDS. DRAWN FROM THE EXPERI- 
ENCES AND RECORDS OF OVER 100 FIRMS REPRESENTING PRACTI- 
CALLY EVERY LINE OF BUSINESS. Selling Aid, Chicago, 1917, 
pp. 39. 

Minneapolis Journal. 

attainable ideals in newspaper advertising. 1920. 

Moran, Clarence. 

THE BUSINESS OF ADVERTISING. Mcthucn & Co., Londoti, 1905, 
pp. 191, 2s. 6d. net. The book contains the following chap- 
ters: Advertising and its Utility; History of Advertising; 
Manual of Advertising; Advertising in the Press; Adver- 
tising by Circular; The Pictorial Poster (other chapters 
and appendices are purely local in interest). 

Opdycke, John Baker. 

news, ads and sales: the use of english for commercial 
PURPOSES. Macmillan Co., New York, 1914, pp. 193. A 
study of the ncAvspaper as an advertising medium. A com- 
parison of it with other forms of advertising. 

Opdycke, John Baker. 

ADVERTISING AND SELLING PRACTICE. A. W. Shaw Co., Chi- 
cago, 1918, pp. 230, $2.65. A clear exposition of the prin- 
ciples, practices, and methods of advertising and selling. 
Contains an extensive bibliography. 

OsBORN, Alexander Faickney. 

BRASS tacks of ADVERTISING, AN UN MYSTERIOUS ANALYSIS OP 
THE PRACTICAL PHASES OF THE KIND OF ADVERTISING WHICH 

ANALYZES. Hausauer-Jones Printing Co., Buffalo, 1915, pp. 
135, $2.00. Popular chapters on such topics as : How Best 
to Attract the Eye; How to Advertise the Half -Wanted 
Product, etc. 

Parsons, Frank Alvah. 

PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING ARRANGEMENT. Prang Co., NcW 

York, 1913. The application to advertising of accepted 
principles of form and color. The necessity of considering 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 425 

such things as color, color-combination, shape, balance, 
tendency to eye movement, etc. 

Powell, George Henry. 

Powell's practical advertiser. Published by the author, 
New York, 1905, pp. 229, $5.00. A practical work for ad- 
vertisement writers and business men, with instructions on 
planning, preparing, placing, and managing modern pub- 
licity. With cyclopedia of over one thousand useful adver- 
tisements. 

Pratt, William Knight. 

the advertising manual. Daniel Stern, Chicago, 1909, pp., 

278, $8.50. 

Kamsay, E. E. 

effective house organs. Applet on. New York, 1920, $3.50. 

EiCHARDs, William Hurst. 

HOW. TO make money BY ADVERTISING. PuhUshed by the 
author, Baltimore, 1913, pp. 96, $1.00. Short book on the 
value of advertising. 

Richards, William Hurst. 

POWER in ADVERTISING. Empire Printing Co., Kansas City, 
Mo., 1915, pp. 27 Ji, $2.00. A second book of the same gen- 
eral style as the first by this author. 

Richardson, A. O. 

THE POWER OF ADVERTISING. Lambert Publishing Co., New 
York, 1913, pp. 300. An interesting work on the social and 
economic value of advertising as well as its principles and 
technique. 

Rogers, Edward S. 

GOOD WILL, trade-marks AND UNFAIR TRADING. A. W. 8haW 

Co., Chicago, 1914, pp. 288, $3.25. About ten chapters are 
devoted to a study of the trademark as an advertising 
device and the methods of safeguarding same. 



426 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

EOGERS, W. S. 

A BOOK OF THE POSTER. Greening d Co,, London, 1901, pp. 
158, 7s. 6d. Illustrated with examples of the work of the 
principal poster artists of the world. 

RowELL, George Presbury. 

FORTY YEARS AN ADVERTisixG AGEXT, 1865-1905. Printers' Ink 
PuUishing Co., New York, 1906, 517 pp., $2.00. The book 
contains no table of contents, but is subdivided into fifty- 
two "papers"; the contents of the book are mainly remi- 
niscence, but the style of the author is so pleasing that the 
papers will be found interesting even by those who have 
never known the author personally. 

Ruben, Paul. 

die reklame. ihre kunst und wissenschaft. herausge- 
^ gebex von paul ruben, unter mitarbeit bekannter fach- 
LEUTE, JURISTEN UND KUNSTLER. Verlag fUr Sozialpolitik, 
volumes 1 and 2, 1913-1^. A symposium in two large vol- 
umes of articles written by a dozen or more authors, on 
such topics as: The Makeup and Details of Advertising; 
American and German Advertising; Advertising in the 
Cigarette Industry; What we Accomplished in America 
through Advertising; Science in Advertising, etc. 

Rubin, Manning J. 

MAKING ADVERTISEMENTS PAY. Hannis, Jordan Co., New 
York, 1913, pp. 89. .Short articles on the value and some 
of the devices of advertising. 

Russell, T. H. . 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING. Putnam, New York, 1919. $2.50. 

Sammons, Wheeler. 

MAKING more OUT OF ADVERTISING. A. W. Skaw Co., GMcago, 
1919, pp. 285, $3.25. Describes the practical problems and 
details of advertising and how to handle them. Applies 
especially to the business of retail advertising. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 427 

Sampson, Edith. 

ADVERTISE. D. C. Heath d Co., Boston, 1918, pp. 240. In- 
teresting little book dealing with what ihe author terms 
the ten commandments of advertising. 

Sampson, Henry. 

a history of advertising from the earliest times. chatto 
d Windus, London, 187^, pp- 616, 7s. 6d. Illustrated by 
anecdotes, curious specimens and biographical notes. The 
book is exactly what the title asserts and has supplied 
many an interesting story or illustration for speakers be- 
fore advertising clubs. 

Sawyer, Samuel. 

SECRETS OF THE MAIL-ORDER TRADE. SaWt/eV PuhUshiug Co., 

New York, 1900, pp. 180, $1.00. The book is confined to 
the subject named in the title and is rather well written 
and instructive. • 

Scott, Walter Dill. 

THEORY of advertising. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston, 
1903, pp. 2JtO, $2.00, net. A Simple Exposition^ of the Prin- 
ciples of Psychology in Their Kelation to Advertising. 
This book is the first volume in which psychological prin- 
ciples are thus applied, and hence the book may be said 
to have created a new era in the science of advertising. 
The book contains the following chapters: The Theory of 
Advertising; Attention; Association of Ideas; Suggestion; 
The Direct Command; The Psychological Value of the 
Eeturn Coupon; Psychological Experiment; Perception; 
Illusions of Perception; Illusions of Apperception; Per- 
sonal Differences in Mental Imagery; Practical Applica- 
tion of Mental Imagery; Conclusion. 

Shaw, A. W., Company. 

HOW TO WRITE ADVERTISEMENTS THAT SELL. HOW TO PLAN 
every step in your campaign — USING SALES POINTS, SCHEMES, 
AND INDUCEMENTS. HOW TO WRITE AND LAY OUT COPY — CHOOS- 
ING PROSPECT LISTS AND MEDIUMS — TESTS AND RECORDS THAT 



428 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

INCREASE RETURNS. HOW 146 SHREWD ADVERTISERS PLAN AND 

PLACE THEIR COPY. A. W. SJiaw Co., CMcago, 1912, pp. 128. 
Shaw, A. W., Company. 

ATTRACTING AND HOLDING CUSTOMERS. A. W. SJiaW Co., Ghl- 

cago, 1919. $3.00. 

Shaw, A. W., Company. 

MORE SALES THROUGH ADVERTISING. A. W. Shaw Co., Chi- 
cago, 1920. $3.50. 

Sherbow, Benj. 

MAKING TYPE WORK. Ceutury Co., New York, 1916, pp. 129, 
$1.25. A study of the part played by different forms of 
type in commanding attention, shifting the emphasis of 
attention, overcoming monotony, etc. Discusses also the 
matter of sub-heads, side-heads, margins, etc. 

Shryer,*W. a. 

ANALYTICAL ADVERTISING. Busifiess Service Corporation, 
Detroit, 1912, pp. 228. A discussion of psychology as it 
applies to advertising. Treats of such topics as sensation, 
attention, suggestion, reason, interest, habit, imagination. 

Shryer, W. a. 

sixteen hundred business books. h. w. whsou & co., 
New York, 1917. A bibliography, prepared by the Newark 
(N.J.) Free Public Library for the A. A. C. of W. The 
books are listed according to author, title, and subject. 

Spiers, Ernest A. 

THE ART OF PUBLICITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO BUSINESS. T. F. 

Unwin, London, 1910, pp. 166. General discussion of tile 
subject of advertising covering such topics as: How to 
Attract and Eivet Attention; Cost; Media; Follow-up 
Letters; and Advertisement Construction. 

Starch, Daniel. 

PRINCIPLES OF advertising: A SYSTEMATIC SYLLABUS OF THE 

fundamental principles of advertising. The University 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 429 

Co-operative Co., Madison, Wis., 1910, pp. 67, $1.00. A 
working outline of the factors involved in successful adver- 
tising, with topical references and suggestions for further 
study. Thorough and concise. 

Starch, Daniel. 

advertising : its principles, practice, and technique. scott, 
Foresman d Co., Chicago, 191Jf, pp. 281, $1.25. The author 
states this is an attempt "to combine the practical and 
theoretical aspects of the subject in such a way that the 
practical experiences of business houses, which are quoted 
at length, may illustrate the underlying principles, and 
that the discussion of principles may illuminate the prac- 
tical results of business." A scientific and reliable treat- 
ment of the subject. One of the best books on the market. 

Stead, William. 

THE ART OF ADVERTISING. T. B. Brownc, Londofi, 1899, pp. 
151, 3s. 6d. This is one of the best foreign books, but is 
not up to the American standard. 

Strong, Edward Kellogg, Jr. 

THE RELATIVE MERITS OF ADVERTISEMENTS, A PSYCHOLOGICAL 

AND STATISTICAL STUDY. The Scieuce Press, New York, 
1911, pp. 81. A careful study by laboratory methods of the 
relative values of certain well-known advertisements. 

Taylor, Henry C. 

what an advertiser should know: a handbook for every 
ONE WHO ADVERTISES. Browfie d Howcll, Chicago, 1914, PP- 
95, $0.75. A short book on the practical problems of ad- 
vertising. 

Thayer, John Adams. 

ASTIR. Small, Maynard d Co., Boston; 1910, pp. 302, $1.20 
net. 

Thompson, J. Walter. 

THE THOMPSON BLUE BOOK ON ADVERTISING. /. Walter Thomp- 
son d Co., New York, 1906, pp. 238. A register of represen- 



430 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

tative organs and liow to use tliem. The book is in the 
main a register of newspapers and other publications with 
a statement of the supposed circulation of each and the ad- 
vertising rate. The book is published in the interests of 
an advertising agency and presents numerous illustrations 
of the work of the agency. Incidentally much informa- 
tion concerning advertising is presented. 

Tipper, Harry, Hollingworth, H. L., Hotchkiss, G. B., and 
Parsons, F. A. 

ADVERTISING, ITS PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES. The Rofiald PVCSS, 

New York, 1915, pp. 575, $6.00. One of the most complete 
works on the subject of advertising. Considers the subject 
under the four headings : Economic Factors in Advertising ; 
Psychological Factors in Advertising; Practical Factors 
in Advertising; and The Technical Details of Advertising. 

Tipper, Harry; Hollingworth, Harry L.; Hotchkiss, George 
Burton; Parsons, Frank Alvah. 
the principles of advertising: a text-book. The Ronald 
Press Company, Neiv York, 1920, pp. 376, $3.50. This is a 
so-called "text edition," intended for school use and might 
be thought of as a later edition of "Advertising: Its Prin- 
ciples and Practices." 

Tregurtha, C, and Frings, J, W. 

the craft of silent salesmanship: a guide to advertise- 
ment construction. Pitman & Son, London, 1917, pp. 97. 
A thorough study of the process of preparing an ad for the 
press. Takes up such details as the "command" versus the 
"question" heading, sub-headings, admonition, signature, 
etc. 

United States Depaijtment of Commerce, Bureau op Foreign 
AND Domestic Commerce. 

foreign publications for advertising AMERICAN GOODS, ADVER- 
TISING RATES, circulation, SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, ETC. Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington. A list of foreign news 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 431 

and trades papers that may be advantageously used for 
advertising American goods. Prepared from consular 
reports. 

Wagonseller, G. W. 

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ADVERTISING. Wagofiseller Publish- 
ing House, Middlehiiry, Pa., Jfth edition, 1919, pp, 6Jf, $1.00. 

Wilson, George Frederick. 

THE house-organ — HOW TO MAKE IT PRODUCE RESULTS. Wash- 
ington Park Publishing Co., Milwaukee, 1915, pp. 199, $2.00. 
A study of the house-organ as a business asset. Gives 
technical details of its make-up and shows where it is most 
effective. 

WooLLEY, Edward Mott. 

THE ART OF SELLING GOODS. Thc American Business Man, 
Chicago, 1907, pp. 167, 



THE FOLLOWING MAGAZINES ARE DEVOTED EN- 
TIRELY OR IN PART TO THE SUBJECT OF ADVER- 
TISING. 

Advertising Age and Mail Order Journal, Chicago, monthly. 
Advertising Club News, New York, monthly. 
Advertising and Selling, New York, monthly. 
Advertising World, Columbus, Ohio, monthly. 
Associated Advertising, New York, monthly. 
Bulletin (American Association of Newspaper Managers), Chi- 
cago, monthly. 
Business Digest and Investment Weekly, New York, weekly. 
Class (advertising in class publications), Chicago, monthly. 
Editor and Publisher, New York, weekly. 
Exclusive Distributor, Columbus, Ohio, monthly. 
Fourth Estate, New York, weekly. 
Independent Advertising, New York, monthly. 
Mailbag, Cleveland, monthly. 
Mail Order News, Newburgh, N.Y., monthly. 
Marketing and Business Advertising, Toronto, monthly. 



432 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Newspaperdom, New York, semi-montMy. 

Novelty News, Chicago, monthly. 

100%, Chicago, monthly. 

Postage (magazine of direct advertising), Haverhill, Mass., 
monthly. 

Poster, Chicago, monthly. 

Printers^ Ink, New York, weekly. 

Publishers' Weekly, New York, weekly. 

Signs of the Times, Cincinnati, monthly. 

Up-to-Date Distributer (house-to-house advertising), Colum- 
bus, Ohio, monthly. 



THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF THE BOOKS ON 
PSYCHOLOGY WHICH ARE MOST HELPFUL TO 
BUSINESS MEN. 

Angell, James R. 

PSYCHOLOGY. Henry Holt & Co., Neiv York, 1908, pp. JflO. 
$1.50. Modern, scientific, and practical. 

Angell, James R. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. Henry Holt & Co., New 
York, 1918, pp. 281, $1.36. 

BALDw^N, James Mark. 

THE STORY OF THE MIND. D. Applcton & Co., New York, 
1901, pp. 232, small, $0.35. An excellent little book and is 
found by business men to be of interest and value. 

Betts, George Herbert. 

THE MIND AND ITS EDUCATION. D. Appleton & Co., NetO 

York, 1906, pp. 265, $1.25. 

COLVIN, S. S., AND BaGLEY, W. C. 

HUMAN BEHAVIOR. Macmtllan Co., New York, 1914, pp- 336, 
$1.00. 

Halleck, Reuben Post. 

EDUCATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Macmillan Co., 

New York, pp. 285, $1.50. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 433 

Hoffman, Frank Sargent. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND COMMON LIFE. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York, 1903, pp. 286, $1.80. 

HOLLINGWORTH, HaRRY L. 

VOCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. D. Applcton & Go., 1916, pp. 308, 

$2.50. 

HOLLINGWORTH, H. L., AND POFFENBERGER, A. T. 

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY. D. AppUton & Go., 1917, pp. 337, $2.25. 

James, William. 

PSYCHOLOGY, BRIEFER COURSE. Henry Holt d Go., New York, 
1900, pp. 478, $1.60. This is in many ways the most sig- 
nificant volume that has yet been written in English on 
psychology. The general reader may begin his reading of 
the book at page 134, as the first 133 pages involve a knowl- 
edge of physiology. 

James, William. 

TALKS TO TEACHERS ON PSYCHOLOGY. Henry Holt & Go., New 
York, 1901, pp. SOI, $1.50. Although this book was written 
primarily for teachers, it will be found valuable to business 
men. 

Jastrow, Joseph. 

THE subconscious. Houghton, Mifflin & Go., Boston, 1905, 
pp. 5Jf9, $2.50. The best book on the phases of psychology 
indicated by the title. 

Jastrow, Joseph. 

FACT AND fable IN PSYCHOLOGY. Houghton, Mifflin & Go., 
1900, pp. 375, $2.50. 

Kelly, T. L. 

EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE. Teacliers Gollege, Golumhia Uni- 
versity, New York, 19U, $2.00. 

Ladd, G. T., and Woodworth, E. S. 

ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Gharlcs Scrihner^s 
Sons, New York, 1911, pp. 70J/, $4.00. 



434 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

Link, Henry C. 

EMPLOYMENT PSYCHOLOGY. Macmillan Co., New York, 1919, 
pp. JfJfO, $2.50. A description of the application of scientific 
methods to the selection, training and grading of employees, 
as practiced by the author in large industrial plants. 

McDouGALL, William. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. Johfl W. Luce & Co., 

Boston, 1918, pp. J,31, $2.50. 

MUENSTERBERG, HUGO. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE. Houghtofi Mifflin Co., Boston, 1899, 
pp. 286, $2.50. 

MUENSTERBERG, HUGO. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY. HoUghton Mifflin 

Co., New York, 1913, pp. 321, $1.50. 

MUENSTERBERG, HUGO. 

PSYCHOLOGY, GENERAL AND APPLIED. Appleton & Co., NeW 

York, 19U, pp. Jt87, $1.75. 

MUENSTERBERG, HUGO. 

GRUNDSzuGE DER PSYCHOTECHNiK. T. A. Barth, Leipzig, 191Jf, 

pp. 767. 

MUENSTERBERG, HUGO. 

BUSINESS PSYCHOLOGY. La Salle Extension University, Chi- 
cago, 1915, pp. 296, $2.50. 

Phillips, D. E. 

AN ELEMENTARY PSYCHOLOGY. Ginn & Co., Ncw York, 1913, 
$1.20. 

PiLLSBURY, W. B. 

ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHOLOGY. Macmillan Co., New York, 1911, 
pp. 362, $1.25. 

PiLLSBURY, W. B. 

FUNDAMENTALS OF PSYCHOLOGY. MacmUlan Co., Ncw York, 
1916, pj). 562, $2.00. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 435 

PiNTNER, E., AND PaTERSOX, D. B. 

A SCALE OF PERFORMANCE TESTS. D. AppletOfl & Co,, NeW 

York, 1917, pp. 217, $2.00. 

Ross, E. A. 

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. Macmillau Co., New York, 1908, pp. 
372, $1.50. 

Scott, Walter Dill. 

history and manual of personnel work in the u. s. army. 
U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1919, 
2 vols., $1.00 for the set. This work was written by the 
various members of the Committee on Classification of 
Personnel in the Army and is an authoritative account of 
the methods employed by the War Department in handling 
personnel in the world war. 

Scott, Walter Dill. 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PUBLIC SPEAKING. Hinds, Haydcn and 
Eldridge, New York, 1907, pp. 222, $1.25. 

Scott, Walter Dill. 

INCREASING HUMAN EFFICIENCY. Macmillan Co., New York, 
1911, pp. 338, $1.50. 

Scott, Walter Dill. 

INFLUENCING MEN IN BUSINESS. Ronald Prcss, Ncw York, 
1916, pp. 168, $1.50. 

Scripture, E. W. 

THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY. Charlcs Scrihner's Sons, New York, 
1898, pp. 500, $1.25. 

Scripture, E. W. 

THINKING, FEELING AND DOING. G. P. Putnam^s Sons, New 
York, 1907, pp. 266, $1.75. 

Seashore, C. E. 

PSYCHOLOGY IN EVERY-DAY LIFE. D. Applcton & Co., NeW 

York, 19U, pp. 225, $1.75. 



436 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 

SiDis, Boris. 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUGGESTION. D. Appletotl & Co., NcW 

York, 1898, pp. 386, $1.75. 

Simpson, B. E. 

CORRELATION OF MENTAL ABILITIES. ColumMa Ufiiversity 
Contributions to Education, 1912, pp. 122, $1.25. 

Starch, Daniel. 

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. Macmillan Co., New York, 1920, 
pp. Jf73, $2.60. 

Stratton, George Malcom. 

experimental psychology and its bearing upon culture. 
Macmillan Co., Netv York, 1903, pp. 331, $2.00. 

Terman, Lewis M. 

the measurement of intelligence i an explanation of and 
a complete guide for the use of the standard revision 
and extension of the binet-simon intelligence scale. 
Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, 1916, pp. 358, $2.10. 

Terman, Lewis M. 

the stanford revision and extension of the binet-simon 
SCALE FOR MEASURING INTELLIGENCE. Warwick & York, Bal- 
timore, 1917, pp. 179, $2.10. 

Thorndike, Edward Lee. 

THE HUMAN NATURE CLUB. Longmans, Green & Co., New 
York, 1902, pp. 235, $1.25. The readers of this elementary 
work would doubtless desire some of the author's more 
advanced works after the completion of this introductory 
one. 

Thorndike, E. L. 

MENTAL AND SOCIAL MEASUREMENTS. Tcttchers College, Co- 
lumbia University, Netv York, 1913, pp. 271, $1.50. 

Titchener, E. B. 

A beginner's PSYCHOLOGY. Macmillan Co., New York, 1917, 
pp. 362, $1.50, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 437 

WiTMER, LiGHTMER. 

ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Giun d Co., New York, 1902, pp. 
251, $1.50. 

WooDwORTH, Robert Sessions. 

DYNAMIC psychology. ColumMa University Press, New 
York, 1918, pp. 210, $1.50. 

WOOLLEY, H. T., AND FiSCHER, C. R. 

MENTAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS OF WORKING CHILDREN. 

Psychological Review Publications Co., Princeton, N.J. 
{Monograph Supplement, v. 18), 191Jf, pp. 21fl. 

WUNDT, WiLHELM. 

OUTLINES OF PSYCHOLOGY, (x. E. Stcchcrt & Co., Ncw York, 
1902, pp. 3JA $2.00. 

WUNDT, WiLHELM. 

' HUMAN AND ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY. Macmillan Co., Ncw 
York, 189Jf, pp. ^54, $2.60. 

Yerkes, R. M., Bridges, J. W., and Hardwick, R. S. 

A POINT SCALE FOR MEASURING MENTAL ABILITY. Warwick & 

York, Baltimore, 1915, pp. 213, $1.25. 

Yoakum, Cl.\rence S., and Yerkes, Robert M. 

ARMY MENTAL TESTS. Henry Holt & Co., New York, 1920, 
pp. 303, $1.50. A complete account of mental testing in the 
army during the world war, including the forms used, the 
methods, and the practical applications of the results. 



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